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tions allow ; but this builder seems great difficulty in boring through a to have paid little or no attention to rock of a kind like this: but the that particular. To save himself cumbrous apparatus, and the great the trouble of such calculations, or labour necessary to draw up this the danger of calculating wrong, he water to the brink of the well, and has given a superfluous solidity to from thence convey it, as might ochis walls and piers.

casionally be required, to the highThe more this vast building is est apartments, may be easily imaexamined, the symmetry and uni- gined. formity of its exterior structure, and The Italians, even in the fifteenth the artful and commodious distribu. century, were well acquainted with tion of its rooms, passages, and stair- the great variety of uses to which cases within, the more is our admi- water was subservient. Besides its ration excited. The genius that universal use to quench thirst and planned is not more wonderful than support life, to fertilize the soil, to the labour and perseverance that supply the place of animal force, in accomplished it. Great works of impelling all kinds of machinery, to this kind, if not dictated by neces- carry away every kind of personal sity, are extremely liable to fall or domestic impurity, are services through and be abandoned, before all effectually performed by water, they are finished, either by the when properly managed and conchange of views in their author, or ducted ; and one of the earliest obwhat is still more unavoidable, by jects of the architect's attention was his death. He cannot entail his to supply his projected castle with taste, as well as his property, on his water, for all these purposes, in children, and the chances are by some way more convenient and far greater that the son will take more plentiful than by the common down the stone set up by the father, method of wells. than put another on the top of it. There were two obvious means of Alexander not only enjoyed a long doing this : by artificially raising life, but his enthusiasm and ambi- some fountain head above the level tion luckily continued to keep the of these walls and towers, or searchsame channel to the end of it.- ing out one which nature had thus There was a good deal of patriarchal raised already. This being effected, simplicity in his own manners, and he had only to provide a passage, in those of his people, of whom he and the water would spontaneously was the father, as well as the lord. diffuse itself to every corner, and They were numerous, and but little rise to every height not above its occupied. War, the principal busi. original source. ness in that age, he carefully avoid. To raise, by an engine, the water ed, and this circumstance enabled of a well to the desired height, was him to carry on his work with less a task too awkward and laborious interruption. There was nothing to be adopted, except when every to divert his inclination and atten- other expedient should fail. In the tion from the task, or to call away present case, the nearest spring, the hands it required.

whose situation was higher than the There is one remarkable conve- foot of the walls, was more than nience, for which the castle is in- three miles distant. This, indeed, debted more to the accident of situ- was a powerful torrent, bursting ation, than to the wisdom of the from a fissure in a rock, which pourcontriver. The only supply of wa ed out a stream, at all times equally ter, in such cases, is usually drawn abundant, and which produced not from wells, which are sunk in dif- less than a cubic foot of water in a ferent parts of the fortress, to the second. This spring was about a depth, in some cases, of two or hundred feet above the base of the three hundred feet. There was no castle; it would therefore by no

means supply its highest apart. mouth of this well, the truth of this ments; but as it was the only one conjecture was fully ascertained. so far useful - to his purpose, the This fortunate circumstance seems builder resolved to conduct this to have opened new views to the stream to a reservoir within the in- mind of the architect. To lay pipes closure.

of wood or metal along the walls of These particulars are taken from the building would conduct the waa manuscript of Sarchi, preserved ter wherever he thought proper : among the records of the lordship; but this method was no less expenbut this account does not tell us sive than precarious. Wood and whether he designed to conduct this metal were liable to injury and dewater to the destined spot by pipes cay; they would demand incessant under ground, or by an aqueduct care and reparation; and the exabove it. In either case, it is easy posure of this apparatus to view to perceive that this supply would had an artificial and bungling apbe made exceedingly precarious, by pearance. What canal, thought he, the accidents of time and of war. can be more lasting and firm than The enemy would not fail to break than the substance of the wall itself? up the work, and compel the be. If the water flows through the cen. sieged to rely upon wells. It is not tre of a cube of marble, one foot or improbable, that Sarchi might have five feet square, it is perfectly se. relinquished this project, long be- cure from any external injury or fore its completion, even had he not meddling, short of that which will been justified in doing so by a disco destroy the wall, and overturn the very made in sinking a well in an fabric itself. This stone may be angle of the great court. It appears bored, like wood, with an augur, that the workman had not descend- and by the exercise of sufficient ed forty feet below the surface, forethought and judgment, in mohewing out a cylindrical cavity, delling and perforating the stones, about four feet in diameter, when before they are arranged, and suffihe came to water, which rushed in cient exactness in adjusting them, upon him, rose almost instantly to a cylindrical canal or duct, an inch the mouth of the well, and spouted in diameter, may be carved recti. from it with the greatest velocity. lineally and continuously through a It immediately formed a copious dozen contiguous blocks, with as and incessant stream, which, wind- much ease as through a single block. ing down the neighbouring preci. To give due compactness and solipices, soon lost itself in the sea. dity to a wall, by means only of the It was quickly discovered, that, at junction and weight of its parts, rethe time this torrent burst out, the quired mathematical skill and labospring before-mentioned became en- rious exactness, quite as great as to tirely dry. The volume of water carry a stream of water through the issuing from the well appeared quite length of such a wall, so that it equal to that of the spring; the in- should meet with no interruption or ference therefore was obvious, that diversion, and that no moisture there was a communication, by should escape or exhale, but at the some secret passage, between them, mouths provided for it, in the quan. and that, if proper means were pro- tity and at the time required. As vided, the water from the well would the builder thought himself equal to spontaneously rise to a level with the first exploit, he conceived him. the spring head. It would not be self, of course, not unequal to the raised higher, because, if the com- second. munication were still open, the wa. The stretch and application of ter would naturally betake itself to mind required in the perfect executo the lowest outlet. By fixing a tion of such a plan may be easily temporary vertical pipe to the imagined. To convey and distri

bute these canals, in such a manner more than a superficial foot. No that they should not interfere with other purpose is joined with that of or obstruct each other; to blend raising a column of water to a cerindependence of the parts on one tain height, for there is no staircase another, with the unity and simpli- in the tower, and the outside is quite city of the whole ; and so to manage, plain. It is close and solid at the as to afford an inexhaustible supply top, and the water escapes only at of this fluid to every habitable apart. openings in the side which slant ment in this vast assemblage of downwards. walls and towers : flowing, as it This structure remains in its pris. were, from the heart of the stone, tine state. It is a sort of air-built on the slight pressure of a spring, well. The water rushing violently or opening of a valve, was a task through the lateral openings, in an requiring the most unwearied vigi- oblique direction, forming a conside. lance and consummate skill. What rable stream as it collects at the augmented the difficulty, in the pre foot of the tower, and proceeding sent case, was the connection of all from thence towards the sea, conthese ducts with one source, and the stitutes a singular spectacle. By situation of the canal, by which the this erection, the design of the arsmallest error was rendered at once chitect is fully answered, and the fatal and irreparable. The wall highest apartment in the keep is must be finished before the accura- supplied with a perennial fountain. cy of the distribution could be tried; The canals, by which the water and then, though an error might be passes from the well into the walls sensibly felt, its exact situation in and towers, are formed beneath the the wall could never be discovered, pavement at a considerable depth. or when discovered be repaired, The original mouth of the well is without the destruction of the wall blocked up, and the spot would be itself.

distinguished with difficulty from Not satisfied with carrying this any other part of the solid pave. supply a hundred feet above the ment. The ducts within the walls foundations, that is, to a level with are wholly inaccessible to injury, the ancient spring head, the archi- and were in their primitive state at tect conceived, from the velocity of sir A 's accession. But as evethe torrent, and from the existence ry habitable apartment, and every of spags considerably higher than considerable passage, had an aperthis, in other parts of the lordship, ture in the wall, communicating that the law of equilibrium would with the unseen canal within it, the raise the water much higher, if original contrivances, by which the means could be used to seal up the stream would be drawn forth or original outlet. Accordingly, a sort shut up at pleasure, were exposed of column, twenty feet in diameter, to a thousand accidents, and every and sixty feet high, was raised over vestige had long since disappeared. it. To this height it formed a solid In most cases, the orifice had been mass, except a circular perforation blocked up by small pieces of brick in the centre, fourteen inches wide, or stone. In many cases, all obin which the water rose perpendi- struction, if any had ever been emcularly. When it reached this ployed, was removed, and the waheight, it found its way to the outer ter spouted out incessantly, oversides, through eight holes.

flowing floors and rooms, and find. This tower is strongly character- ing its way gradually to the bottom. istic of the genius of the architect, In this respect, this building afforded who built not for the passing day, the extraordinary spectacle of walls, but for centuries. In a diameter of whose veins and pores were appatwenty feet, the only opening or ca- rently filled with water, and which vity is in the centre, and that is little poured forth an inexhaustible foun

tain at every crack or, cranny cumstance, in enclosing it within which chanced to offer it a passage. such solid boundaries. The prison tower was the only one Some observers would be apt to inhabited. Every apartment in this, exclaim, on beholding this structure, as in the rest, was supplied with to what purpose is this immense water. but the only canal in use was heap of stones, and this wonderful that which supplied the lowermost variety and composition of apartroom. The rest were shut up by ments? The avowed and most obstoppers of wood, stone, or metal. vious end is to afford a place of re

We may easily conceive that this fuge and safety to the neighbouring edifice was uninhabitable, as long as inhabitants. But how precarious the water in its walls was not im- and imperfect is such security? The prisoned. The earliest attention, people can have occasion to retire therefore, was paid, by sir A , to this fortress only when the enemy to this circumstance, and suitable has over-run the open country ; but valves and stoppers were adapted the cowardice and weakness that to these apertures, by which the has resigned the field to the invader stream was brought under absolute will always find the entrenchment command. The obvious purpose to untenable. Besides, we must not be served by this water was that of only provide a steep wall to resist the quenching thirst. In order to ob- foe, but ammunition and provision tain it, it was only necessary to to maintain its defenders. How difstretch out the hand, or to walk ficult to collect such a store of either across the room. But this water of these, as would last a few hunserved innumerable other purposes, dred persons a few months. The and passages were made through district, in former times, scarcely the solid of the wall, for water to produced sufficient for the passing run off, after being previously em- day. The most propitious season ployed to purify the person, closets, rarely afforded a surplus to lay up, and apartments.

and bad seasons, which were by no Sir A- extended to its utmost means unfrequent, left them too litlimits all the uses of these canals, tle for their daily sustenance. To and produced an infinite variety of keep the place constantly supplied surprising, as well as beneficial ef was unnecessary and impossible, and fects, by means of them. Many how many difficulties must there mechanical contrivances were set in always have been in the way of supmotion, and put under the command, plying it at any temporary exigence. if I may so speak, of this power, -The same impediments which which, such was the profusion and checked the approach of an enemy velocity of the stream, might even obstructed the easy and prompt conbe applied to the impelling of heavy veyance of provisions : and when machinery. The extent of this force all these requisites were obtained, may easily be calculated, when you the fear or treachery of a single recollect that the produce of this man might render them altogether well was one cubic foot of water in unavailing. a second. It would consequently fill What salutary wonders might a tube, one inch square, and one have been wrought, by the same inhundred and forty-four feet in genuity and labour, differently aplength, in one second, and this was plied! If these stones had been so the rate of its produce and motion disposed, along the surface of the at the height of one hundred feet earth, as to form a compact mass, above the pavement of the court. It twenty feet wide, and five feet high, exercised, indeed, a vast force, and they would have extended near ten the architect, perhaps, was influ- miles, and formed a road which no enced as much by the consideration time, no intemperature of the ele. of this force, as by any other cir- ments, neither winds nor floods, and

VOL. III. NO, XVIII.

neither, human use nor human negthrown way upon the construction ligence would have destroyed, or and defence of Louisburg by the even impaired, for ages to come. French, of Havannah by the SpaThe real opulence and population of niards, and of Gibraltar by the the district, and consequently its English, within the last hundred real strength, would have been years. These walls answer the end greatly and permanently promoted. designed by them, in an eminent Had the same number, so long bu• degree. The art of man could not sied upon this gigantic though use. devise any thing more capable of less edifice, been emploved in con- resisting external force. The hea. structing humbler dwellings, of the viest battery might play for weeks, same materials, the whole popula- without effect, on their sides. tion might have been comfortably Bombs could not lodge a moment on and conveniently lodged. Had they the slanting or convex roofs, and been employed in draining, inclos- the pavement is the solid rock. ing, and manuring the ground, the The hardening influence of the air soil would have produced fifty times extends gradually deeper and deepmore food than it used to clo, and er into this species of stone, and would, of consequence, have main- miners would find it a most ardutained fifty times more people. ous task to penetrate beyond the

These objections are undoubtedly surface. This stone itself does not just; but, when we fully consider extend a hundred feet beyond the the matter, we shall, perhaps, be in- foot of the wall, and all the works clined to acquit the lord of C of an assailant, at a much greater of much blame. The employment diseance, are overlooked and entirely of power and riches, in the manner commanded by those stationed on the they were employed by the present top of it. It is certain, that almost possessor, was morally impossible any other chief would not have emin a Scottish chieftain of the fif- ployed his people better ; he would teenth century. Neither education have spent his revenue at a disnor example had opened his eyes to tance, and reduced them every day his true interest, and that of his to greater poverty, or involved them people; and however eager he in destructive conflicts with their might be to attain that object, he neighbours, or, at best, have left was totally ignorant of the way that them in the idle, unprofitable state led to it. On the contrary, he in which he found them. As it seems to have displayed a genius is, a durable monument has been far superior to that of his contem- produced, which may occasionally poraries. Besides the merit of a be found extremely serviceable to wise and impartial judge in all the the end intended by it, while, at litigations that occurred among his the same time, and in the intervals people, he was exempt from the of peace and tranquility, some adspirit of revenge, and the rage for vantages of a different kind may be war, then so generally prevalent derived from it. among the nobility of all Europe. More than two hundred and fifty He erected this castle for the de- years had elapsed between the comfence of his people froin invasion and pletion of this building and the sucforeign oppression, and he pursued cession of sir A- During that this end by means which formerly, period, this lordship had many sucas well as at present, have been cessive masters, whose characters thought the best, and on which the and habits were extremely various. governments of the most enlighten. Some of them were active in the ed nations, of the present age, have affairs and revolutions of the nation expended immense labour and trea. in general, and the fortunes of the sure, with far less judgment and clan were, of course, affected by efficicy. Reflect a moment on the those of their lords. This impregmoney and lives which have been nable fortress sometimes lessened

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