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There were, however, in Genoa deserted, but was driven out of forty thousand men who were nei- France, in an ignominious manner, ther nobles por senators, but whose by the very monarch who, a few conduct deserved a more honourable years before, had professed the uttitle than any which kings and most frienclship for him, and endeasenates can exclusively bestow.— voured to place him on the British The Austrians were about to carry throne. To the duke of Gesvres, off the cannon, in order to employ who delivered to him a letter from them against the allies of the repub- Louis, announcing the order to leave lic, which excited the utmost indig- the kingdom, the young pretender nation. During this operation an said that he would sooner die than officer happened to strike a Genoese obey. A letter from his father, who did not obey his orders with persuading him to retire, was equalsufficient alacrity; the Genoese in- ly without effect; and he threatenstantly stabbed him to the heart: ed, if force were used, to put an imthis was the signal for a general mediate end to his own life. Shortinsurrection; the people attacked ly after he was taken by surprise at the Austrians with stones, which the opera : a serjeant of the guards were the only weapons which they came softly behind him, seized him then had; but they soon procured by the arms, and threw him down ; other arms, notwithstanding the at- others kept him in this posture tempt of the doge and senate to pre- while his pockets were searched, vent them. Botta was mad with in which two pistols were found rage ; “ Shall the Austrians,” he loaded, primed, and cocked. He cried, “ who drove the French out was then bound like a felon, only of Italy, tremble before a Genoese that, in regard to his rank, the cord mob?" Yet this Genoese mob, un was of silk, hurried into a coach, der the command of Doria, defeated and carried to the prison of Vinthem repeatedly, slew several thou

His attendants and sersands of them, made four thousand vants were lodged in the Bastile, of them prisioners, and at length On searching his house a consideradrove them entirely out of the city. ble number of muskets and pistols This brave people did not long re were found, together with a small tain their liberty; the perfidious barrel of gunpowder. In prison he Louis, who had reaped such advan was constantly watched by a guard. tages from their spirited conduct, This treatment broke his spirit; he and who could not but approve of it witte a submissive letter to Louis, when directed against the Austrians, and was released, on giving his word was mean enough to assist the se that he would immediately leave nate and nobles in re-establishing France, and never come into it again. their aristocratical government. He then took refuge in the canton of

Fribourg ; on which the British minister wrote, in a very haughty style, to the magistrates of that state, complaining, “ that it afforded an

asylum to an odious race, proscribed The treatment which the preten- by the laws of Great Britain." This der received from the French court was answered by L'Avoyer with is one proof, among many, of the proper spirit. “This odious race,” little dependence that can be placed said he, “ is not proscribed by our on the friendship of despotic princes; republic: your letter is highly imand that their kind offices, as well proper; you forget that you are as their enmities, are the result of a writing to a sovereign state ; and I mean selfishness, and vary with their do not conceive myself obliged to political views. During the negoci. give you any further answer.” The ations at Aix la Chapelle, this un- pretender, however, soon set off for fortunate man was not only meanly Italy.



ON THE PROGRESS OF NAUTICAL the needle. The compass is geneSCIENCE.

rally thought to have been first used

by the Chinese, and brought from There have been in Europe two the Indian seas, through Egypt, to great nautical schools, the Medi- Italy ; but when we consider the terranean and the Baltic. In the vast difference in the mode of confirst, a calm sea, the art of ship structing this instrument, there is building was a continual improve- reason to believe that it is equally ment of the oar-raft, a coasting an original invention both in China navigation, the practice of the mari- and Europe. The variation is a ners; and the port-customs, and European observation. the maritime terms and laws, all Davis' Seaman's Secrets, 1594, is wear marks of this original charac- a book which does honour to the ter. In the second, a stormy sea, author. His memory is properly the art of ship-building was a gra- preserved by the denomination of dual evolution of the sail-raft; an the straits which he discovered : open navigation, from the earliest but Edward Wright, who improved times, was preferred; and the our sea charts at that period, the usages, phraseology, the code of patrons of the society for making regulations, are all tinctured by a discoveries, founded in 1561, and corresponding spirit. The common many others, merit also to have and statute law of sea matters handed their names preserved, by associat. down by tradition, and by the Rho- ing them with some of those natural dian code from the ancients, was monuments which our voyagers are gradually modified into that system often at a loss to baptize. Much of of regulations known by the name our national prosperity, and much of “ Il Consulato del Mare,” which of the civilization of the globe, are received the papal sanction in 1075, to be ascribed to those who first nawas re-enacted in most of the sea turalized maritime pursuits among ports of the Mediterranean, but not till 1162 at Marseilles, and was first After the year 1600 all the branchprinted at Barcelona in 1502. This es of nautics came to be generally work has been translated into most studied; nor are the English wriEuropean languages, our own ex ters on the subject at all inferior to cepted. The Durch version of 1704 those of the rival nations, till about is the best.

the year 1750, when Euler's work The rules and orders taught by appeared, which seems to have circumstances and experience to the drawn the attention of the French Baltic sailors were first reduced into mathematicians to the theory of written laws at Wissby, one of the ship-building; and, seconded by the Hanse towns, and were printed in countenance of the court, to have 1505 at Copenhagen, in the Frank- occasioned a remarkable advanceish tongue. The first English trans- ment of naval science in France. lation appeared in 1536.

The French, however, have made The Arabians were the first to ap- much greater progress in the theoply mathematical science to the im- ry than in the practice of the nautiprovement of navigation. The ear cal arts. In this respect the Enliest books on the subject appeared glish, and under this denomination at Seville and Lisbon. The first the people of the United States may English hints on this head are found properly enough be included, have in W. Cunningham's Cosmographic far exceeded all other nations. To cal Glass, 1559, where he recom sail fast, to carry much, to make mends the use of the quadrant. In way near, and, if I may say so, 1581 was published “ The New At- against the wind, to turn and shift tractive, by Norman;" a book postures and directions quickly, eawhich forms an æra in the science. sily, and safely, are the constituents It is a treatise on the variation of of a perfect ship. We cannot supe





pose that, in all these points, we Strange that the poet should not have as yet, by any means, attained have looked at a map before he venthe ultimatum, but, on the contrary, tured to describe the Euxine as a it is highly probable that the ship of river leading into the Danube. future times will as far exceed the Boileau displayed as little knowfinest French frigate now sailing as ledge of astronomy, when he dessuch a frigate does a Mohawk canoe. cribed a philosopher making use of

an astrolabe, in order to determine whether the sun revolves on its axis.

Of all errors the most unaccount. For the Literary Magazine. able is that of the celebrated Salma

sius, who, in a work printed at Ley. den, represented our Saviour as

born at Jerusalem. GEOGRAPHICAL errors A translation of Cæsar's Commore common in books than any mentaries, by Louis XIV, was pubother kind of errors. This is not lished in 1751, on which account this surprising, when we reflect on the monarch is ranked among the learninfinite variety and number of par- ed. The justice of his claim may ticulars of which geography consists. be determined by his asking cardinal On this account, a writer may be Fleury, after hearing the word quemreasonably excused if, on some occa- admodum repeated several times sions, he should place an inland in a motet which was performed betown on the sea-side, or remove a fore him, who this prince Quemadcountry a few hundred miles further modum was? 'from some other country than nature has done. But these errors will be entitled to less excuse, when we reflect on the extreme facility For the Literary Magazine. with which every man of books may make himself acquainted with most points of geographical knowledge,

PRESENT STATE OF HOLLAND. whenever he has occasion for this knowledge. Maps are generally at CIVIL liberty, as distinguished hand, or easily procured, and when from political, is the grand purpose we are not certain, it becomes us to for which civil society was formed, take the trouble to enquire, especi- and government instituted. With ally as that trouble is, in most cases, respect to this, the Dutch had adextremely small.

vantages, before their revolution, These errors are frequently met which left them no room for comwith when least expected. An emi. plaint; and however imperfect their nent French physician, chief of the political constitution might be deemmedical department in the army of ed, they actually enjoyed more freeSt. Domingo, in a treatise on the dom than the inhabitants of most yellow-fever, alludes to the history other countries. of that disease at Philadelphia, in The spirit of moderation is truly 1793, which, he says, originated in admirable with which the governthe effluvia of some coffee thrown ment of the Dutch republic was gecarelessly, and suffered to putrify nerally administered, and the ressur la rivage de la mer : on the sea pect which it commonly paid to the shore.

privileges of the people. Some of Racine, in his tragedy of Mithra- these are such as even Americans dates, has the following passage : might envy: for the house of a Doutez vous que l'Euxin ne me porte en Dutch burger may with much more deux jours

propriety be termed his castle, than Aux lieux ou le Danube y voit finit son that of a subject of our laws can be.

No sheriff's officer, no exciseman,





nor even any inferior officer of jus- tell. Conquest is a very indefinite tice can pass his threshold without term, and implies things that have his permission; nor can he, on any no relation to each other, as it takes account, be taken out of his habita- place in different circumstances, tion, except by the judges them- among different nations, and under selves, who, for this purpose, must different leaders. accompany the constables.

We have no reason to believe The equity of the courts of judi- that the French interfere in the civil cature was unvaried, and the secu- administration of the provinces. rity of private property inviolable. Their power is chiefly exerted to The taxes were heavy: but this procure money ; but this is demandmust be ascribed to the nature of ed and obtained in the lump, and the country, the preservation of the sums are levied on the people, which from inundation required a in a way and by officers appointed very great expence; and these taxes by the native authorities, as formerly. were imposed, not by an arbitrary As to political liberty, if we conmonarch, who demands them to sup- fine that term to those who exply the splendid luxury of his court, pressly chuse their governors by peor who employs them in supporting riodical elections, the Dutch never numerous armies, in order to extend at any time possessed it. If we his tyrannic sway; not by a rapa. make the criterion of political liberty cious minister, who plunders the the inclination or acquiescence of people, in order to fill his own cof- the people, the general conviction fers, to enrich his friends, or to exe as to the validity and sacredness cute his plans of personal revenge ; . of the title of those who actually but by the representatives of the na. govern, the Dutch possessed as much tion, for such were the deputies of of it, and no more, than the Rusthe states; these must consent to sians, Austrians, and Spaniards. the tax in the name of their fellow. All government is founded on opicitizens, and, when they have done nion, and the subjects of the most this, must bear their own share of despotic prince in Europe are not the load which they have imposed less politically free, are not less on the public.

completely governed with their own In general, taxation in the United consent, than any of the democratic Provinces was conducted with great cantons which once existed in Switwisdom. In no country did the in- zerland. habitants pay greater sums to go According to the vulgar notions vernment, but, from the manner in of political liberty, as resulting from which they were collected, the bur. the government of great numbers, den was scarcely perceived; and periodically and expressly chosen by great care was taken, especially in a majority of those who have the extraordinary impositions, to spare male sex, mature age, and some the lower class of citizens as much property, the Batavians are freer as possible. Even from the heavy than they ever were. How far their tax of two per cent. on all property, civil liberty has been affected by the whether real or personal, exacted recent revolutions, it would be well to carry on the present war, all worth while to enquire. That they those are exempted, who can swear labour under heavy inconveniences that they do not possess two thou- and privations is certain ; but the sand five hundred florins (a thou- greater part, if not the whole, of sand dollars), exclusively of house- these are to be ascribed to the war, hold furniture, linen, and clothes. and will therefore cease when the

How far this desirable state of war ceases, however their political things is changed, since the country independence may be influenced by was subdued by the French, it is that event. difficult for us, at this distance, to





For the Literary Magazine. grity, moderation, and sobriety. For

tunately separated by the ocean from the present horrid scenes of war, we are undisturbed in the enjoyment

of the advantages so dearly purchasIT is somewhat suprising that the ed. Our fields are not exposed to merits of the government of the the irruptions of an irritated and liUnited States of America have not centious multitude ; nor are we liabeen more accurately discussed by ble to see our country impoverished, European writers. It was this re- and its inhabitants sacrificed, by public which exhibited the first in- being forced into a concurrence stance, in the present century, of with the wild schemes of selfish amwhat could be effected by a people bition and the lust of power. who were resolved to be free; and The constitution of the American who, by their success, encouraged states deserves the greater attenothers to attempt to shake off the tion, as it is the first that, since the yoke by which they felt themselves improvements in the circumstances oppressed : but they enjoyed advan- of society, which so honourably distages of which the nations of Europe tinguish modern times, was founded were destitute. They had long on the free deliberation of men, who been accustomed to live under à understood the nature of liberty, and popular government, and had been were zealous in her cause; who, educated amid the enjoyment of while they despised the political and freedom, both civil and political ; ecclesiastical prejudices, which are to them, therefore, liberty was not fostered in the countries of Europe, a stranger, known only by distant knew the necessity of obedience to report, with whose features they laws, and of a regard for religion were not sufficiently acquainted to and virtue, both in principle and distinguish her from the impostor practice ; and who were not fetterlicentiousness, that so often assumes ed by that intimate political connecher name, and counterfeits her pre- tion with foreign princes, which is tensions. Their manners were not always dangerous to the indepencorrupted by the contagious exam- dence of republics. An attentive ple of those licentious courts, which view of the history of the American consider religion only as a political revolution, will point out the causes machine to keep the people in sub- why that of France has not been jection, and force on them an uni- attended with more salutary conseform profession of faith, while go- quences. vernment itself may violate every The chief faults in the old confe. obligation of morality. The jea- deration had their source in that lousy and ambition of princes, in- jealousy of power, which generally stead of operating against us, was, prevails among a people who have by a concurrence of circumstances, shaken off what they conceived to directed against the power with be an oppressive yoke, and have which we were at variance, and at successfully asserted their liberties. length openly favoured our efforts. Having long been accustomed to see Under these advantages, we not only authority and oppression united, succeeded in vindicating our indepen- they find it difficult to distinguish dence, but obtained leisure to exert two ideas which they have acquirour abilities in planning a form of go- ed a habit of associating. They vernment, which, if not perfect, confess the necessity of laws to seems at least well calculated to pro- restrain licentiousness, as well as to mote the happiness of a people, regulate the proceedings of governwhose love of liberty is attempered ment: but they are apt to look with with that of order and decency, and aversion on those who are appointaccompanied with the virtues of inte- ed to execute them, as men who

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