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de Set off to th' world, nor in broad rumour lies; 80 « But lives and spreads aloft by those pure eyes, “ And perfect witness of all-judging Jove; “ As he pronounces lastly on each deed, « Of so much fame in heav'n expect thy meed.”
O fountain Arethuse, and thou honour'd food, 85 Smooth-Niding Mincius, crown’d with vocal reeds ! That strain I heard was of a higher mood : But now my oat proceeds, And listens to the herald of the sea That came in Neptune's plea ;
90 He ask'd the waves, and ask'd the felon winds, What hard mishap hath doom'd this gentle swain? And question'd every gust of rugged wings That blows from off each beaked promontory:
And like bright metal on a sullen ground,
Than that which hath no Foil to set it off. 80. —Those pure eyes.] Perhaps from Scripture, “ God is of
PURER eyes than to behold iniquity.” And hence an epithet, fufficiently hackneyed in modern poetry, Com. v. 213. “Wel
come PURE-EYED Faith."
85. In giving Arethusa the distinctive appellation of Fountain, Milton closely and learnedly attends to the antient Greek writers. See more particularly the scholiaft on Theocritus, Idyll. i. 117. And Servius on Virgil, Æn. iii. 694. ECL. X. 4. Homer says, Odyss. xiii. 408.-'Eté TE KPHNH ’Agedéon. Compare Hefychius, and his annotators, V. KOPAKOE, ALDEIOE APEOOYEA And Stephanus Byzant. Berkel. p. 162.
, go. Triton came, in defence of Neptune.
93. And question'd every gust of rugged winds.] We find Winds for wings, in Tonson's very incorrect but elegant octavo edițion of Milton's PoemS ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS, 1705. They make the greater part of his second volume of all Milton's poetry.
94. Each beaked promontory. ] That is, prominent or projecting like the beak of a bird. Harrison in Hollinshed has wefelbeaked. DESCRIPT. ENGL. p. 172. Our author has the “
They knew not of his story;
" ED prow," of Noah's ark, Parad. L. B. xi. 746. Drayton has, ftill more appositely, “ The utmost end of Cornwall's fur"rowing BEAK.' » POLYOLB. S.i. vol. ii. p. 657.
95. Of his story.) So B. and Fletcher, PhilasTER, A. i. S.i. vol. 1. p. 109.
" I ask'd him all his story." 96. And fage Hippotades their answer brings.] Hippotades is no very common or familiar 'name for Æolus the son of Hippotas. It is not in Virgil the Great Storm-painter, and who appears to be so perfectly acquainted with the poetical family of the winds. Perhaps I may be mistaken, but it occurs only in four classic poets cither absolutely or conjunctively. In one of these, however, it occurs repeatedly. In Homer, Odyss. X. 2.
Alainy d is vñoor doixóue9', a dvalar
Αίολος ΙΠΠΟΤΑΔΗΣ. . Again, ibid. v. 36.
Δώρα παρ"Αιολι μεγαλήτορος πΠΟΤΙΔΑΟ. In Apollonius Rhodius, a Greek poet whom I have frequently traced in Milton, Argon. iv. 819.
Imperet HIPPOTADES fic tibi triste nihil.
Excipit HIPPOT Ades, qui dat pro munere ventos,
Curvet ut impulsos utilis aura finus. Again, Metam. L. iv. 661.
Clauserat HIPPOTADES æterno carcere ventos.
HIPPOTADÆQUE domos regis.
Æolon HIPPOTADEN frenantem carcere ventos.
-Tum valido contortam turbine portam Impulit HIPPOTAdes. The name is seldom mentioned even by the mythologists. I must not forget, that it is found in the geographical poem of Dionyfius, with an allusion to the Odyssey, v. 462. Vol. I.
That not a blast was from his dungeon stray'd ;
Next Camus, reverend fire, went footing now,
100. That fatal and perfidious bark,
Built in th'eclipse, and rigg'd with curses dark.) Although doctor Newton mentions the Ille et nefasto, and Mala soluta navis exit alite, of Horace, as two passages similar to this, yet he has not observed how much more poetical and striking is the imagery of Milton, that the ship was built in the eclipse, and rigged with curses. Dr. J. WARTON.
Evidently with a view to the enchantments in MACBÉTH, A.ir. S. i.
--Slips of yew
Root of hemlock digg'd i'th' DARK. The shipwreck was occafioned not by a storm, but the bad cordition of the ship, unfit for so dangerous a navigation. See the end of the last Note on this poem.
103. Next Camus, reverend fire, went footing flow.] Compare Sams. AGON. v. 326.
But see, here comes thy REVEREND SIRE,
Say, REVEREND SIRĖ, we thirst to hear. 105. Figures dim. - ] Alluding to the fabulous traditions of the high antiquity of Cambridge. But how Cam was distinguished by a hairy mantle from other rivers which have herds and flocks on their banks, I know not; unless “ the Budge doctors “ of the Stoic fur," as Milton calls them in Comus, had lent him their academic robes. W.
It is very probable, that the hairy mantle, being joined with the fedge-bonnet, may mean his rushy or reedy banks. See Notes on EL. i. 89. It would be difficult to ascertain the meaning of
Like to that fanguin flow'r inscrib’d with woe. « Ah! Who hath reft (quoth he) my dearest pledge?" Laft came, and last did go, The pilot of the Galilean lake; Two maffy keys he bore of metals twain, (The golden opes, the iron shuts amain) IIO He shook his miter'd locks, and stern bespake: “How well could I have spar'd for thee, young swain, figures dim. Perhaps the poet himself had no very clear or determinate idea: but, in obscure and mysterious expressions, leaves something to be supplied or explained by the reader's imagination.
107. Ah, who hath reft, quoth he, my deareft pledge ?] Mr. Bowle compares
this line with one in the Rime SPIRITUALI of Angelo Grillo, fol. 7. a. It is a part of the Virgin's lamentation on the Passion of Christ.
Deh, disse, ove ne vai mio caro pegno ? “ Alas, quoth she, where goeft thou, my dear pledge?” And he adds, that Raft was here perhaps immediately taken from a pallage in Spenser's DAPHNAIDA, where the subject is the same
And reft from me my sweet companion,
And reft from me my love, my life, my hart. 110. The golden opes.--] Mr. Bowle thinks this an allusion to the Italian proverb, " Con le chiavi d'oro s'apre ogna, “porta,” to which one in Spanish corresponds. Saint Peter's two keys in the Gospel, seem to have fupplied modern poetry with the allegoric machinery of two keys, which are variously used. In Dante's INFERNO, the ghost of a courtier of the emperor Frederick tells Virgil, that he had possessed two keys with which hé locked and unlocked his master's heart. Cant. xiii.
And hence perhaps the two keys, although with a different application, which Nature, in Gray's Ode on the Power of PoeTRY, presents to the infant Shakespeare. See also Dante, ibid. C. xxvii. In Comus, an admired poetical image was perhaps suggested by faint Peter's golden key, v. 13. Where he mentions
That GOLDEN KEY That opes the palace of eternity. See Quint. Novembr. 'V. 101.
Et quid APOSTOLICÆ possit custodia CLAVIS, See also the Key of Şin in PARAD. L. B. ü. 774. 112. King was intended for the Church.
« Enow of such, as for their bellies sake,
Creep, and intrude, and climb into the fold? 115 “Of other care they little reckoning make, « Than how to scramble at the shearers feast, “ And shove away the worthy bidden guest; " Blind mouths ! that scarce themselves know how
" “A sheep-hook, or have learn'd aught else the least « That to the faithful herdman's art belongs ! 121
114. Such, as for their bellies fake,
Creep, and intrude, and climb into the fold.] He here animadverts on the endowments of the church, at the same time insinuating that they were shared by those only who fought the emoluments of the sacred office, to the exclusion of a learned and conscientious clergy. Thus in PARAD. L. B. iv. 193.
So clomb this first grand thief into God's fold :
So fince into his church LEWD HIRELINGS CLIMB. Where Lewd fignifies ignorant. Even after the diffolution of the hierarchy, he held this opinion. In his fixteenth SONNET, written 1652, he supplicates Cromwell, To fave free conscience from the
paw Of HIRELING wolves, whose Gospel is their maw. During the usurpation, he published a pamphlet entitled “ The “ likeliest means to remove Hirelings out of the church," against the revenues transferred from the old ecclesiastic establishment to the presbyterian ministers. See also his book of REFOR
IN ENGLAND, Prose-WORKS, vol. i. 28. Where, among others which might be noticed, is this passage.“ A teach“ing and laborious ministry, the pastor-like and apoftolick imi“ tation of meek and unlordly discipline, the gentle and benevolent *" mediocrity of church-maintenance, without the ignoble H UCKSTERAGE. of
PAYING TYTHES.” More will be faid of this matter hereafter.
120. The sheep-hook.-] In the tract on Reformation he says, “ Let him advise how he can reject the paftorly rod and Fo SHEEP-HOOK of Christ.” PROSE-WORKs, vol. i. 25.
Wickliff's pamphlets are full of this paftoral allusion.
121. That to the faithful berdman's art belongs.] Peck proposes to read Shepherd, because a herdman does not keep sheep. Pref. to Baptistes. Mem. Milt. p. 273. edit. 1740.