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ZECHARIAU, a canonical book of the Old Testa- ZEMINDAR, in its original mcaning, signifies ment. See SCRIPTURE.

a great landholder of Bengal : but is more strictly ZECHARIAH, the son of Jehoiadah, a prophet of applicable to those who have their title constituted the blood royal, who was stoned to death by order or confirmed by a patent or cliarter from governof his ungraieful cousin, king Joash, in the court ment, by which they hold their lands or zemindaries of the temple, for reproving him for his idolatry. upon certain conditions. It appears from history, 2 Chron.

that, in times prior to the irruption of the Mahu. Zecharial, the son of Barachiah, a prophet in metans, the rajals who held their residence at the reign of Uzziah, whom he encouraged in well Delhy, and possessed the sovereignty of Hindostan, doing, but opposed when he attempted to encroach deputed officers to collect their revenues. The word on the priest's office. 2. Chron. xxvi. 5.

It is not

zemindar is Persian, and that language can have ascertained which of these two last is the Zecharias no currency in the countries of India, until it was mentioned as the last of the martyrs, in Matt. xxiii. introduced by the people of Persia. When the 36, and Luke xi. 50, 51.

emperor Shebba-ul-Dien Chory conquered the ZECIIIN. See SEQUIN,

empire of Hindostan at the end of the twelfth cenZED, n. S. The name of the letter z.

tury, he left sultan Cutub-ul-Dien to be his viceroy Thou whoreson zed, thou unnecessary letter. at Delhy, and administer the government of Hin

Shakspeare. dostan. From that time the customs and practices ZEDEKIAH, from lleb. mpgy and ', i. e. the of the Mahometans began gradually to be estajustice of the Lord, ihe son of Josiah, and the last blished in India : their armies were sent into the king of Judah before the captivity, so named by countries of the reduced rajahs, under the comNebuchadnezzar, who made him king, upon carry- mand of omrahs, in order to preserve the conquest; ing his nephew Jeconiah captive. But rebelling and lands were allotted to them to defray the eseleven years afterwards, the king of Babylon put pense. out his eyes, killed his sons, and sent bim in chains ZENAS, a lawyer, who was an early Christian to Babylon, where he died. See JUDAI.

convert and companion of St. Paul. Tit. iii. 13. ZODEKIAI, two false prophets of Israel, under ZEND, or ZENDAVESTa, a book ascribed to ZoAhab. 1 Kings xxiii.

roaster, and containing his pretended revelations; ZEDOARY, in botany and materia medica. See which the ancient magicians and modern Persians, KÆMIrena and MATERIA Medica.

called also Gaurs, observe and reverence in the same ZEINE. The zeine of John Gorham is ob. manner as the Christians do the Bible, and the Mahotained from maize or Indian corn, by infusing it metans do the Koran, making it the sole rule both in water, filtering and treating with alcohol the of their faith and manners. The word, it is said, matter insoluble in the former liquid, and evapo- originally signifies any instrument used for kindling rating the alcoholic solution. We thus obtain a

fire, and is applied to this book to denote its apti. yellow substance having the appearance of wax; it tude for kindling the fame of religion in the hearts is soft, ductile, tough, elastic, insipid, nearly void of those who read it. See GENTOOS, MYTHOLOGY, of smell, and denser than water. It affords no and PHILOLOGY. The Zend contains a reformed ammonia on decomposition by heat; though it ap system of magianism; teaching that there is a suproaches in its nature to gluten.

preme Being, eternal, self-existent, and independZELD, or Cellt, a city of Germany, in Ilan- ent, who created both light and darkness, out of over, at the confluence of the Fuhse and Aller. It which he made all other things; that these are in a is surrounded with a mouud and moat, but has state of conflict, which will continue till the end of suburbs on the outside; and the palace belonging to the world; and then there shall be a general resurthe royal family is surrounded by a separate wall rection and judgment; and that just retribution and ditch. It has several charitable institutions, shall be rendered unto men according to their an orphan house, a lunatic hospital, a pour-house; works; that the angel of darkness with his folalso a school of surgery, and a society of agricul- lowers shall be consigned to a place of everlasting

It is, however, best known by its court of darkness and punishment, and the angel of light appeal for the Hanoverian territory at large. The with his disciples introduced into a state of evertewn is tolerably built, and has some trade; and lasting light and happiness; after which light and the inbabitants, who are chiefly Lutherans, are in darkness shall no more interfere with each other. number about 8200. Zell was formerly the capital The Zend also enjoys the constant maintenance of of a duchy belonging to a distinct branch of the sacred fires and fire temples for religious worship; house of Brunswick : on the extinction of this the distinction of clean and unclean beasts; the branclı, in 1705, their possessions devolved to the payment of tithes to priests, which are to be of one elector. The ducal palace was the residence of the family or tribe; a multitude of washings and pusiunfortunate Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark, fications, resembling those of the Jewish law; and from 1772 till her death in 1775; and a monu- a variety of rules and exhortations for the exercise ment of Saxon marble is erected to her memory in of benevolence and charity. In this book there the garden. Twenty-one miles N.N. E. of Hanover,

are many passages evidently taken out of the and sixty-five south of Hamburg.

Scriptures of the Old Testament, particularly out ZELOTTI (John Baptist), an eminent painter, of the Psalms of David. The author represents horn at l'elona, in 1532, and educated under Titian. Adam and Eve as the first parents of all mankind, He died in 1592.

gives in substance the same account of the creation ZEMARALM, a city of the Benjamites, near and deluge with Moses, differing indeed with reBethel, and a mountain so named at the foot of gard to the former, by converting the six days of which Abijah defeated Jeroboam I., and 500,000 the Mosaic account into six times, comprehending Israelites were killed. 2 Chron. xiii. 7.

in the whole 365 days; and speaks also of AbraZEMARITES, the descendants of Canaan, hy bam, Joseph, Moses, and Solomon. Moreover, his tenth son. They peopled Sinyra in Phænicia, Dr. Baumgarten asserts, that this work contains near Orthosia.

doctrines, opinions, and facts, actually borrowed


from the Jews, Christians, and Mahometans; with such men. Crates, the Cynic philosopher, whence, and from other circumstances, he con- happening at that instant to be passing by, the cludes that both the history and writings of this bookseller pointed to him, and said, “ Follow that prophet were probably invented in the later ages, man.' Zeno attended upon the instructions of when the fire worshippers, under the Mahometan Crates, and was so well pleased with his doctrine government, thought fit to vindicate their religion that he became one of his disciples. But, though from the suspicion of idolatry. At whatever pe- he admired the general principles of the Cynia riod the Zend may have been written, we are school, he could not easily reconcile himself to assured by Dr. Hyde that it is in the pure old Per- their peculiar manners. Besides, his inquisitive sian language, and in the character called Peplavi. turn of mind would not allow him to adopt that Some parts of it contain the original text, and indifference to every scientific enquiry which was others Zoroaster's second thoughts subjoined, for one of the characteristic distinctions of the sect. explaining more fully his doctrine. These were He therefore attended upon other masters, who occasioned by the opposition of adversaries, and professed to instruct their disciples in the nature unforeseen circumstances which occurred during and causes of things. When Crates, displeased at the fabrication of the imposture. About 300 years his following other philosophers, attempted to drag ago, when the old Persian language had become him by force out of the school of Stilpo, Zeno said antiquated and little understood, one of the des- to him, You may seize my body, but Stilpo has tours or high-priests among the Persees composed laid hold of my mind.' After continuing to the Sadda, which is a compendium, in the vulgar attend upon the lectures of Stilpo several years, he or modern Persic tongue, of those parts of the passed over to other schools, particularly to those Zend that relate to religion, or a kind of code of of Xenocrates and Diodorus Cronus. By the canons and precepts, drawn from the theological latter he was instructed in dialectics. He was so writings of Zoroaster, serving as an authoritative much delighted with this branch of study, that he rule of faith and practice of his followers. The presented to his master a large pecuniary gratuity, Sadda is written in a low kind of Persic verse, and, in return for his free communication of some of as Dr. Hyde informs us, it is bonorum et malorum his ingenious subtleties. At last, after attending farrago, having made many good and pious things, almost every other master, he offered himself as å and others very superstitious and trifling. See Per- disciple of Polemo. This philosopher appears to SEES and ZOROASTER.

have been aware that Zeno's intention, in thus reZENDICISM. See SARACENS.

moving from one school to another, was to collect ZENETI. See ALGERINES and ALGIERS. materials from various quarters for a new system ZENGH. See Segna.

of his own; for, when he came into Polemo's ZENITH, n. s. Arabic. The point over head school, he said to him, ' I am no stranger, Zeno, opposite to the nadir.

to your Phænician arts, I perceive that your deFond men ! if we believe that men do live

sign is to creep slily into my garden, and steal Under the zenith of both frozen poles,

away my fruit.'' Polemo was not mistaken in bis Though none come thence advertisement to give, opinion. Having made himself master of the Why bear we not the like faith of our souls? Davies. tenets of others, Zeno determined to become the

These seasons are designed by the motions of the founder of a new sect. The place which he made sun; when that approaches nearest our senith, or vero choice of for his school was a public portico, tical point, we call it summer.

Browne. adorned with the pictures of Polygnotus, and ZENITH. See Nadir.

other eminent painters. It was the most famous ZENITH Sector. See Astronomy, Index. portico in Athens, and called, by way of eminence,

ZENO, the founder of the sect of the Stoics, Eroa, the porch. It was from this circumstance was born about 300 years B. C. at Citium in Cy- that the followers of Zeno were called Stoics. See prus. This place having been originally peopled Stoics. In his person Zeno was tall and slender ; by a colony of Phænicians, Zeno is sometimes his aspect was severe, and his brow contracted. called a Phænician. His father was by profession His constitution was feeble, but he preserved his a merchant, but, discovering in his son a strong health by great abstemiousness. The supplies of propensity to learning, he early devoted him to his table consisted of figs, bread, and honey; notphilosophy. In his mercantile capacity he had withstanding which, he was frequently honored frequent occasion to visit Athens, where he pur- with the company of great men. In public comchased for his son several of the writings of the pany, to avoid every appearance of an assuming most eminent Socratic philosophers. These he temper, he commonly took the lowest place. Inread with great avidity; and, when he was about deed so great was his modesty, that he seldom thirty years of age, he determined to take a voyage chose to mingle with a crowd, or wished for the to a city which was so celebrated both as a mart company of more than two or three friends at of trade and of science. If it be true, as some once. He paid more attention to neatness and dewriters relate, that he brought with him a valuable corum in external appearance than the Cynic phicargo of Phænician purple, which was lost bylosophers. In his dress indeed he was plain, and shipwreck upon the coast of Piræus, this circum- in all his expenses frugal; but this is not to be imstance will account for the facility with which he puted to avarice, but a contempt of external magat first attached himself to a sect whose leading nificence. He showed as much respect to the poor principle was the contempt of riches. Upon his as to the rich; and conversed freely with persons first arrival in Athens, going accidentally into the of the meanest occupations. He had only one sershop of a bookseller, he took up a volume of the vant, or, according to Seneca, none. Zeno lived Commentaries of Xenophon; and after reading a to the extreme age of ninety-eight; and at last, in tew passages, was so much delighted with the consequence of an accident, voluntarily put an end work, and formed so high an idea of the author, to his life. As he was walking out of his school he that he asked the bookseller where he might meet fell down, and in the fall broke one of his fingers ;

upon which he was soaffected with a consciousness i. Fibrous zeolile, of which there are two kinds ; of infirmity, that, striking the earth, he said, 'Why the acicular or needle zeolite, and common fibrous am I thus importuned ? I obey thy summons; zeolite. and immediately went home and strangled himself. (u.) Acicular, or needle zeolite, the mesotype He died in the first year of the 129th Olympiad. of llawy. Colors grayish, yellowish, or reddishThe Athenians, at the request of Antigonus, white. Massive, in distinct concretions, and cryserected a monument to his memory in the Cera- tallised. Primitive form, a prism of 91° 25'. The Inicum.

following are secondary figures :-An acicular recZEN', a celebrated Epicurean plailosopher, born tangular four-sided prism, very flatly acuminated at Sidon, who had Cicero and Pomponius Atticus with four planes, set on the lateral planes; somefor his disciples, and who wrote a book against the times two of the acuminating planes disappear, mathematics, which, as well as that of Possulo- when there is formed an acute bevelment, or the nius's refutation of it, is lost.

prism is sometimes truncated on the edges. LaZeno Elcatis, an eminent Grecian philosopher, teral planes longitudinally streaked. Shining, was born at Elea about 504 years B. C. He was inclining to pearly. Cleavage two-fold. Fraca zealous friend of civil liberiy, and is celebrated ture small-grained, uneven. Fragments splintery. for his courageous and successful opposition to ty- Translucent. Refracts double. As hard as aparants ; but the inconsistency of the stories related tite. Brittle. Specific gravity 2:0 to 2:3. by different writers concerning him in a great mea- intumesces before the blowpipe, and forms a jelly sure destroys their credit. lle chose to reside in with acids. It becomes elastic by heating, and his small native city of Elea rather than at Athens, retains this property some time after it has cooled. because it afforded freer scope to his independent The free extremity of the crystal with the acumiand generous spirit, which could not easily submit nation, shows positive, the attached end, negative to the restraints of authority. It is related that he electricity. Its constituents are silica 50-24, aluvindicated the warmth with which he resented mina 29.3, lime 9:46, water 10.- Vauquelin. It reproach, by saying, “ If I were indifferent to cen- occurs in secondary trap-rocks, as in basalt, green sure, I should also be indifferent to praise.' The stone, and amygdaloid. It is found near the invention of the dialectic art has been improperly village of Old Kilpatrick, Dumbartonshire ; in ascribed to Zeno : but there can be no doubt that Ayrshire avd Perthshire, always in trap rocks; in this philosopher, and other metaphysical disputants Iceland and in the Faroe Islands. in the eleatic sect, employed much ingenuity and (b.) Common fibrous zeolite. Color white. subtlety in exhibiting examples of most of the Massive, in distinct concretions, and in capillary logical arts, which were afterwards reduced to rule crystals. Glimmering, pearly. Fragments splintery. by Aristotle and others. According to Aristotle, Faintly translucent. Hardness as before. . Rather he taught, that nothing can be produced either brittle. Specific gravity 2.16 to 2-2. Chemical from that which is similar or dissimilar; that there characters and situations as above. Its constituenis is only one being, God; who is eternal, homo- are, silica 49, alumina 27, soda 17, water 9-5.geneous and spherical, neither finite nor infinite, Smithson. neither quiescent nor moveable; that there are ii. Meuly zeolite.-Color white, of various shades. many worlds; that there is in nature no vacuum; Massive, imitative, in a crust, or in delicate fibrous that all bodies are composed of four elements, concretions. Feebly glimmering. Fracture coarse heat and moisture, cold and dryness; and that the earthy. Opaque. The mass is soft, but the mibody of man is from the earth, and his soul an nute parts as hard as the preceding. Sectile. equal mixture of these four elements. lle argued Most easily frangible. Does not adhere to the with great subtlety against the possibility of mo- tongue.

Feels meagre.

Sonetimes so light as tion. If Seneca's account of this philosopher nearly to float on water. It intumesces, and deserres credit, he reached the highest point of gelatinizes as the preceding. Its constituents are, scepticism, and denied the real existence of exter- silica 60, alumina 15.6, lime 8, oxide of iron 1.8, nal objects. The truth is, that, after all that has loss by exposure to heat 11:6.—Hisinger. It ocbeen advanced by different writers, it is impossible curs like the others. It is found near Tantallon to determine whether Zeno understood the term Castle, in East Lothian, and in the islands of one, metaphysically, logically, or physically; or Skye, Mull, and Canna. whether he admitted or denied a nature properly (7.) Prismatoidal zeolite, or stilbite. Of this there divine.

are two sub-species; the foliated and radiated. ZENORIA, queen of Palmyra. See Palmyra. i. Foliated ccolite, the stilbite of Haiiy. Color ZENOBIT INSULÆ, islands in the Adriatic. white, of various shades. Massive, disseminated,

ZENODOTUS, a native of Troezene; who imitative, in distinct granular concretions, and wrote a history of I'mbria. Diod.

crystalliserl. Primitive form, a prism of 99° 22'. ZEOLITE, in mineralogy, the name of a very Secondary forms are, a low, oblique, four-sided extensive mineral gemus, containing the following prism, variously truncated; a low equiangular sirspecies :--1. Dodecahedral zeolite or leucite; 2. sided prism; and an eight-sided prism, from trunHexabedral zeolite or analcime; 3. Rhomboidal cation of all the edges of the four-sided prism. zeolite, chabasite, or chabasie; t. Pyramidal 200- Lateral planes transversely streaked. Shining, lite, or cross-stone ; 5. Diprismatic zeolite, or lau- pearly. Cleava e single. Fracture conchoidal. monite; 6. Prismatic zeolite, or mesotype, divided Translucent. Refracts single. As hard as palinto threesub-species,-fibrous zeolite, natrolite, and

careous spar.

Britule. Specific gravity 2 to 2:2 mealy zeolite; 7. Prismatoidal zeolite, or stilnite, It intumesces and phosphoresces before the blowcomprehending foliated zeolite, and radiated 20. pipe, but does not form a jelly with acids. Its lite; 8. Axifrangible zeolite, or apophyllite. The constituents are, silica 52.6, alumina 17-5, lime 9. following may be more distinctly specified. water 18:5 – lauquelin. It occurs principally in (6.) Prismatic zeolite or miesotype.

secondary amygdaloid, either in drusy cavities or

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London Published by Thomas lega,73,Choapside September 1.1829 .

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