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to lead them to Thebes. On the road he was bitten ZAKKOUN, a plant that grows at Raha, the by a serpent, and died. His companions buried ancient Jericho, and affords a sweet oil famous for him in the above island, and gave it his name healing wounds. The zakkoun resembles a plum

ZADOK, the son of Ahitub, high priest of Israel, tree; it has thorns four inches long, with leaves appointed by Saul, and continued conjunctly with like those of the olive-tree, but narrower, and Abiathar during all the reign of David, to whom greener, and prickly at the end; its fruit is a kind he was a steady friend, in all his distresses. His of acorn, without a calyx, under the bark of which colleague, Abiathar, having forfeited Solomon's fa- is a pulp, and then a nut, the kernel of which vor, by joining in the conspiracy of Adonijah, Za. gives an oil that the Arabs sell at a very high price. dok was appointed sole high priest. He was suc- See JERICHO. ceeded by his son Ahimaaz.

ZALEUCUS, a famous legislator of the LocriZADOK, another Jewish high priest, whose daugh- ans, and the disciple of Pythagoras, flourished 500 ter Jerusha was married to king Uzziah.

years B.C. He made a law, by which he punished ZADOK, or SADOC, a Jewish sceptical philoso- adulterers with the loss of both their eyes; and pher, who flourished about A. A. C. 260., and his son, offending, was not absolved from this pufounded the sect of the Sadducees.

nishment; yet, to show the father as well as the

just lawgiver, he put out his own right, and his ZAF'FiR. vem, zapr

son's left eye. This example of justice and seveCobalt being sublimed, the flowers are of a blue co- rity made so strong an impression on the minds of lour ; these German mineralists called zaffir. Woodward, his subjects, that no instance was found of the

The artificers in glass tinge their glass blue with that commission of that vice during the reign of that ledark mineral zaphra.

Boyle. gislator. It is added that Zaleucus forbad any ZAFFIR, ZAFFRE, in metallurgy, is the oxyd of wine being given to the sick on pain of death, uncobalt employed for painting pottery ware and por- less it was prescribed by the physicians; and that celain of a blue color. See CHEMISTRY, COBALT, he was so jealous of his laws, that he ordered, that METALLURGY, and MINERALOGY. The method of whoever was desirous of changing them, should be preparing it is as follows :-The cobalt taken out obliged, when he made the proposal, to have a of the mine is broken with hammers into pieces cord about his neck, that he might be immediately about the size of a hen's egg; and the stony invo- strangled, if those alterations were esteemed no lucrum, with such other heterogeneous matters as better than the laws already established. Diodoare distinguishable by the eye, are separated as rus Siculus attributes the same thing to Charondas, much as possible. The mineral is then pounded legislator of the Sybarites. Zaleucus also enacted in stamping mills, and sifted through brass wire some humorous sumptuary laws. See SUMPTUARY. sieves. The lighter parts are washed off by water, ZAMA, in ancient geography, a town of Numidia, and it is afterwards put into a large flat-bottomed it was one of the royal residences of the kings of arched furnace, resembling a baking oven, where Numidia, hence called Zama Regia. It stood in a the flame of the wood reverberates upon the ore; plain; was stronger by art than nature; richly which is occasionally stirred and turned with long supplied with every necessary; and abounding in handled iron hooks or rakes; and the process is men, and every weapon of war. This is the famous continued till it ceases to emit any fumes. The Zama, remarkable for the decisive battle fought oven or furnace is terminated by a long horizontal between the two greatest commanders in the world, gallery, which serves for a chimney, in which the Hannibal the Carthaginian and Scipio Africanus. arsenic, naturally mixed with the ore, sublimes. If Of this engagement, the most important perhaps the ore contains a little bismuth, as this last metal that ever was fought, Mr. Hooke gives us the is very fusible, it is collected at the bottom of the following account:- Scipio drew up his army after furnace. The cobalt remains in the state of a dark the Roman manner, except that he placed the cogray oxyd, called zaffre: 100lbs. of the cobalt ore horts of the Principes directly behind those of the lose twenty or thirty per cent, during this opera- Hastati, so as to leave sufficient space for the enetion, which is continued four or nine hours, ac- my's elephants to pass through from front lo rear. cording to the quality of the ore. The roasted ore C. Lælius was posted on the left wing with the being taken out from the furnace, such parts as Italian horse, and Masinissa with his Numidians are concreted into lumps are pounded and sisted on the right. The intervals of the first line Scipio afresh. Zaffre, in commerce, is never pure, being filled up with his Velites, or light-armed troops, mixed with two or three parts of powdered Aints. ordering them, upon a signal given, to begin the A proper quantity of the best sort of these, after battle ; and in case they were repulsed, or broke being ignited in a furnace, are thrown into water by the elephants, to run back through the lanes beto render them friable, and more easily reduced to fore mentioned, and continue on their flight till powder; which, being sifted, is mixed with the they were got behind the Triarii Those that were zaffre, according to the before-mentioned dose; wounded, or in danger of being overtaken, were to and the mixture is put into casks, after being moist- turn off to the right and left through the spaces beened with water. "This oxyd, fused with three tween the lines, and escape to the rear. The ariny parts of sand and one of pot-ash, forms a blue thus drawn up, Scipio went from rank to rank, glass; which, when pounded, sifted, and afterwards urging his soldiers to consider the consequences of a ground in mills, included in large casks, forms defeat, and the rewards of victory; on the one hand, smalt. The blue of zaffre is the most solid and certain death or slavery (for they had no town in fixed of all the colors that can be employed in vi- Africa strong enough to protect them); on the trification. It suffers no change from the most vio- other, not only a lasting superiority over Carthage, lent fire. It is successfully employed to give but the empire of the rest of the world. Hannibal shades of blue to enamels, and to the crystal glasses ranged all his elephants, to the uumber of above made in imitation of some opaque and transparent eighty, in one front. Behind these he placed his precious stones, as the lapis lazuli, turquois, &c. mercenaries, consisting of 12,000 men, Ligurians, Gauls, Baleares, and Mauritanians. The new fell of the Carthaginians above 20,000, and as many levies of Carthaginians and other Africans, together were taken prisoners. The loss on the side of the with 4000 Macedonians, under a general named So- Romans amounted to about 2000 men. Hannibal pater, composed the second line. And in the rear escaped with a few horse to Adrumetum, having of all, at the distance of about a furlong, he posted performed every thing in the engagement which his Italian troops, in whom he chiefly confided. could be expected from a great general. His army The Carthaginian horse formed his right wing, the (says Polybius) could not have been more skila Numidians his left. lle ordered their several fully drawn up. For, as the order of the Roman leaders to exhort their troops not to be discouraged battalions makes it extremely difficult to break by their own weakness, but to place the hope of them, the Carthaginian wisely placed his elephants victory in him and his Italian army; and particu- in the front, that they might put the enemy in conlarly directed the captains of the Carthaginians to fusion before the armies should engage. In his represent to them what would be the fate of their first line be placed the mercenaries; men bold and wives and children if the event of this battle should active, but not well disciplined, that by their imnot prove successful. The general himself, walk- peluosity he might give a check to the ardor of the ing through the ranks of his Italian troops, called Romans. The Africans and Carthaginiaus, whose upon them to be mindful of the seventeen cam- courage he doubted, he posted in the middle bepaigns in which they had been fellow-soldiers with tween the mercenaries and his Italian soldiers, that him; and of that constant series of victories by they might be forced to fight, or at least the Rowhich they had extinguished in the Romans all mans, by slaughtering them, might fatigue themhope of ever being conquerors. lle urged them to selves, and blunt their weapons. Last of all he remember, above all, the battles of Trebia, Thrasy- drew up the troops he had disciplined himself, and menus, and ('annæ; with any of which the ap- in whom he chiefly confided, at a good distance proaching battle was in no wise to be compared, from the second line, that they might not be broken either with respect to the bravery or the number of by the route of the Africans and mercenaries, and the enemy. The Romans were yet unfoiled, and kept them in reserve for a vigorous attack upon a in the height of their strength, when you first met tired and weakened enemy.' them in the field : nevertheless you vanquished ZAMIA, in botany, a genus of plants in the them. The soldiers pow before us are either the class of cryptogamia, and order of filices; ranking children of the vanquished, or the reinains of those according to the natural method in the first order, whom you have often put to fight in Italy. Main- palmæ. tain therefore your general's glory and your own, ZAMINY, in the language of Bengal, security. and establish to yourselves the name of invincible, ZAMORA, a province in the north-west of by which you are become famous throughout the Spain, formed of a part of the great province of world. When the Numidians of the two armies Leon, and lying to the south and north of the had skirmished a while, llannibal ordered the Douro, on the frontiers of Portugal. Its area is managers of the elephants to drive them upon the 1650 square miles; its population, far more thinly enemy. Some of the beasts, frightened at the scattered, is only between 70,000 and 80,000. lis noise of the trumpets, immediately ran back surface is in general billy, and ill adapted to tilamongst the Numidians of the Carthaginian left lage. It is built near the north bank of ihe Douro, wing, and put them into confusion; which lasi- and to the east of an angular district, formed by a nissa taking advantage of, entirely routed them. projection of the Portuguese territory. The height Great destruction was made of the l'elites by the it stands on commands the river, and gives it, from rest of the elephants, ill these also being terrified, a distance, a good appearance; but the houses are some of them ran through the void spaces of the old fashioned, the streets narrow, and the appearRoman army which Scipio had left, others, falling ance of the interior in general gloomy. It is the in among the cavalry of the enemy's right wing, residence of a bishop, contains a number of churches gave Lælius the same opportunity against the Car- and chapels, and has about 9000 inhabitants. In thaginian horse. After this, the infantry of the the eleventh century it was demolished by a Moor. foremost lines joined battle. Hannibal's mercena- ish force, but rebuilt by the Spavish government ries had the advantage at first; but the Roman and fortified. The walls are still kept up. The llastati sustained the attack, and at length gained environs are adapted to pasturage. Thirty-three ground. The mercenaries, thinking themselves be- miles north of Salamanca. trayed, fell furiously upon the Africans; so that ZAMORANO (Roderick), a Spanish navigator, ihese were obliged to fight for some time both who published A Compendium of Navigation, in against their own mercenaries and the enemy. 1585, which contributed much to the improvement When the two Carthaginian lines had ceased their of the art. He was the first who published sea mutual rage, they joined their strength; and, though charts. See NAVIGATIOX. now but a mere throng of men, broke the llastati; ZAMOSKI (John), the son of Stanislaus Zamobut the Principes advancing restored the battle; ski, castellan of Chelo in Red Russia, was a man and most of the Africans and mercenaries were cut of great talents and virtue. lle studied at Paris, off. Then followed a sharp engagement, in which and afterwards at Padua, of which last university victory was long and eagerly disputed. The Ro- he was chosen rector. At Padua he published two mans, though superior in number, were once upon tracts De Senatu Romano, and De Senatore. On the point of losing the day; but Masinissa and his return to Poland, kiug Stepben Battori gave Lælius came very seasonably to their assistance. him his niece in marriage, made him grand chanThese generals, being returned from the pursuit of cellor, and general of the army. He delivered the cavalry, fell suddenly upon the rear of Hanvin Poland from the Russian yoke. On the death of bal's men, most of whom were cut off in their Stephen, the nobles offered him the crown; but he ranks; and, of those that fed, very few escaped the refused, and advised them to elect Sigismur: horse, the country all round being a plain. There prince of Sweden. Ile died in 1605.

ping thus saved himself, he may be zealous in the The northernmost of these islands is called by the ition of souls.

Id. natives Eaheinomauwe, and the southernmost Tavai, EALAND, a province of the Netherlands, com- or Tovy Poenaminoo. Upon referring to the map ing the ancient county of Zealand, and Dutch- of this country, it will be seen that Eaheinomauwe, ders, and bounded on the west by the sea, on or the the northern island, running from the North porth by Goree and Overflakee, and on the east Cape, which is in lat. 34° 20' S. to Cape Palliser, south by Brabant and Flanders. The chief in 41° 36' S., contains 436 miles in length; and of this province consists of islands at the mouth taking the medium breadth, which varies from five le Scheldt, viz. Schouwen, Duiveland, Tholen, miles at Sandy Bay to 180 at the East Cape, at cheren, North and South Beveland, and Wol- about sixty miles, this extent will include 26,160 lyk. The continental part is merely a strip square miles, or 16,742,400 square acres ; while

along the south bank of the Hond or West Tavai Poenammoo, the southern island, extending idt. The area of the whole is little more than from 41° 30' 10 47° 25' S., stretches 360 miles in square miles, but the population is about length, and estimating its medium breadth at 100 000. Different parts of this province have miles, contains not less than 36,000 square miles, at times exposed to heavy calamities, from the or 23,040,000 square acres. These islands, therevreaking over the dykes in storms at high tides, fore, taken together, will give an area of 62,160 cularly in 1302, 1309, 1522, 1532, and 1548. square miles, or 39,782,400 square acres. Such nese catastrophes whole towns and districts is the calculation made of the dimensions of these been overflowed and abandoned.

islands by Mr. Nicolas, who visited them in the le soil of Zealand is a rich black mould, excel years 1814 and 1815, for the purpose of establishfor pasturage, and the culture of inadder, flax, ing missionaries. The general face of the country, cole seed, which require a very heavy soil. as far as they had an opportunity of exploring it, t is raised chiefly in South Beveland. The is undulating : and the bills rise with a varied asdamp, not from fog, but from exhalations from cent, from inconsiderable eminences to lofty mounesh water in the ditches and water courses. tains. Mr. Nicolas mentions, that, in their excuraffects even the health and longevity of the sions into the interior of the northern island, they S.

found that the soil varied in its quality, but geneALAND, the largest of the Danish islands, is rally appeared extremely fertile. The hills were ed between the Cattegat and the Baltic, and composed, for the greater part, of a stiff clay; and arated from Sweden by the Sound, and from the valleys consisted of a black vegetable mould, n by the arm of the sea called the Great Belt. producing fern of the most luxuriant growth; tends from 55° 2 to 56° 8' N. lat.; has an while the swamps, occasionally met with, were of of 2600 square miles, with 310,000 inhabit- trilling extent, and might be drained with little

and contains the Danish capital Copenhagen. trouble or expense. Every where a fine rich versurface resembles that of the adjacent Danish dure met the eye, and gave a favorable impression is, in being entirely without mountains; but of the genial influence of the climate. id of being, like several of them, a dead flat, Several missionary stations have been establishariegated by small hills and fields, intersected ed here, for the double purpose of civilising the inals, which, in summer, when the air is clear ignorant natives, and instructing them in the truths he ground covered with vegetation, would re- of the Christian religion; and the missionaries cona native of Lombardy of his native country. tinue struggling against the serious obstacles opare, in particular, several tracks along the posed to their progress, from the ferocious habits d, the Isefiord, and the Cattegat, also the and superstitions of the natives. It was in the year ons of Soroe in the interior.

1814 that the first missionary settlers were estabe soil is rich. It abounds in corn, particu- lished among the New Zealanders, on the Bay of barley; also in good pasturage, and exports Islands, by the Rev. Samuel Marsden. Many difzrain and cattle. The horses are small, but ficulties were encountered; but the settlers still od. Wood is also plentiful, except in the continued their efforts. The settlements were e of the island. Fish abounds in the numer- again visited in 1819 by Mr. Marsden, when a ays and creeks with which the island is in- tract of land, consisting of 13,000 acres, was pur1'in every direction. Here are also concen- chased from one of the chiefs, and the missionaries most of the manufactures and trade of were settled on it. He also undertook a journey iark. Zealand is not included in any bi- across the island, on which he discovered a large ic like the rest of Denmark, but forms an river, making its way, with its tributary streams, iastical superintendency. In a political sense, into the sea, on the opposite shore. This river he overned by a grand bailiff, and is subdivided named Gambia. Several New Zealanders, who he bailiwics of Copenhagen, Fredericksborg, were brought to New Holland, and had there an ck, Soroe, and Præstoe.

opportunity of witnessing the arts and improveI LAND, New, two islands in the South Paci- ments of civilised life, have been of great service to ean, first discovered by Tasman. In the year the missions. he traversed the eastern coast from lat. 34° to ZEBEDEE, the father of St. James and St. John. nd entered the strait called Cook's Strait. It ZEBRA, in zoology. See Equus. ipposed, from the period of its first discovery ZEBU, in zoology, a name given by M. de Buf

time of the enterprising captain Cook, that fon to the bos indicus of Linné. See Bos. ait entered by Tasman, separated an island ZECHARIAH, the son of Barachiah, and grandsome vast southern continent; but the Bri- son of Iddo, the eleventh of the minor prophets. vigator, who sailed round both islands in the He returned from Babylon with Zerrubbabel and 1769 and 1770, has completely reinoved this began to prophecy when very young, in the second

The two islands that go by the name of year of Darius Hystaspes, A.M. 3484, two months Cealand are situated between 34° 22' and 47° after Haggai. These two greatly encouraged the lit., and between 1660 and 180° E. long. Jews in building the second temple.

ZECHARIAH, a canonical book of the Old Testa- ZEMINDAR, in its original incasing, so ment. See SCRIPTURE.

a great landholder of Bengal : but is more sa Zechariah, the son of Jehoiadah, a prophet of applicable to those who have their title coast) the blood royal, who was stoned to death by order or confirmed by a patent or charter from of his ungrateful cousin, king Joash, in the court ment, by which they hold their lands or zemu of the temple, for reproving him for his idolatry. upon certain conditions. It appears from his 2 Chron.

that, in times prior to the irruption of the 1 Zechariah, the son of Barachiah, a prophet in metans, the rajahs who held their residend the reign of Uzziah, whom he encouraged in well Delhy, and possessed the sovereignty of Honda doing, but opposed when he attempted to encroach deputed officers to collect their revenues. They on the priest's office. 2. Chron. xxvi. 5. It is not zemindar is Persian, and that language cal ascertained which of these two last is the Zecharias no currency in the countries of India, unta mentioned as the last of the martyrs, in Matt. xxiii. introduced by the people of Persia. Wha 36, and Luke xi. 50, 51.

emperor Shebba-ul-Dien Chory conquerd ZECHIN. See SEQUIN,

empire of Hindostan at the end of the twell ZED, n. s. The name of the letter 2.

tury, he left sultan Cutub-ul-Dien to be his va Thou whoreson ced, thou unnecessary letter. at Delhy, and administer the government of

Shakspeare. dostan. From that time the customs and pre ZEDEKIAH, from Heb. np 78 and 17', i. e. the of the Mahometans began gradually to be justice of the Lord, the son of Josiah, and the last blished in India : their armies were sent int king of Judah before the captivity, so named by countries of the reduced rajahs, under the Nebuchadnezzar, who made him king, upon carry- mand of omrahs, in order to preserve the congr ing his nephew Jeconiah captive. But rebelling and lands were allotted to them to defray ta eleven years afterwards, the king of Babylon put pense. out his eyes, killed his sons, and sent him in chains ZENAS, a lawyer, who was an early Con to Babylon, where he died. See Judah.

convert and companion of St. Paul. Tit. I. ZEDEKIAH, two false prophets of Israel, under ZEND, or ZENDAVESTA, a book ascribed. Ahab. 1 Kings xxiji.

roaster, and containing his pretended rertian ZEDOARY, in botany and materia medica. See which the ancient magicians and modern Pen KÆMPFERIA and Materia Medica.

called also Gaurs, observe and reverence in the ZEINE. The zeine of John Gorham is ob- manner as the Christians do the Bible, and the N tained from maize or Indian corn, by infusing it metans do the Koran, making it the sole role in water, filtering and treating with alcohol the of their faith and manners. The word, it matter insoluble in the former liquid, and evapo- originally signifies any instrument used for kun rating the alcoholic solution. We thus obtain a fire, and is applied to this book to depote its i yellow substance having the appearance of wax; it tude for kindling the flame of religion in the bar is soft, ductile, tough, elastic, insipid, nearly void of those who read it. See GENTOOS, MYTHO: of smell, and denser than water. It affords no and PHILOLOGY. The Zend contains a refor ammonia on decomposition by heat; though it ape system of magianism; teaching that there is a proaches in its nature to gluten.

preme Being, eternal, self-existent, and indes ZELD, or CELLE, a city of Germany, in Han- ent, who created both light and darkness, o over, at the confluence of the Fuhse and Aller. It which he made all other things; that these are is surrounded with a mound and moat, but has state of conflict, which will continue till the e suburbs on the outside ; and the palace belonging to the world ; and then there shall be a general: the royal family is surrounded by a separate wall rection and judgment; and that just retib and ditch. It has several charitable institutions, shall be rendered unto men according to an orphan house, a lunatic hospital, a poor-house; works; that the angel of darkness with bai also a school of surgery, and a suciety of agricul- lowers shall be consigned to a place of eve ture. It is, however, best known by its court of darkness and punishment, and the angel of appeal for the Hanoverian territory at large. The with his disciples introduced into a state of town is tolerably built, and has some trade; and lasting light and happiness; after which ligbt the inhabitants, who are chiefly Lutherans, are in darkness shall no more interfere with each number about 8200. Zell was formerly the capital The Zend also enjoys the constant maintenan of a duchy belonging to a distinct branch of the sacred fires and fire temples for religious wor house of Brunswick : on the extinction of this the distinction of clean and unclean beasts branch, in 1705, their possessions devolved to the payment of tithes to priests, which are to be a elector. The ducal palace was the residence of the family or tribe; a multitude of washings are unfortunate Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark, fications, resembling those of the Jewish law from 1772 till her death in 1775; and a monu- a variety of rules and exhortations for the ex ment of Saxon marble is erected to her memory in of benevolence and charity. In this book the garden. Twenty-one miles N.N. E. of Hanover, are many passages evidently taken out a and sixty-five south of Hamburg.

Scriptures of the Old Testament, particulari ZELOTTI (John Baptist), an eminent painter, of the Psalms of David. The author repr born at Verona, in 1532, and educated under Titian. Adam and Eve as the first parents of all ma He died in 1592.

gives in substance the same account of the c ZEMARAIM, a city of the Benjamites, near and deluge with Moses, differing indeed wi Bethel, and a mountain so named at the foot of gard to the former, by converting the sui di which Abijah defeated Jeroboam I., and 500,000 the Mosaic account into six times, comprehe Israelites were killed. 2 Chron. xiii. 7.

in the whole 365 days; and speaks also of ZEMARITES, the descendants of Canaan, by ham, Joseph, Moses, and Solomon. Non his tenth son. They peopled Sinyra in Phenicia, Dr. Baumgarten asserts, that this work cu near Orthosia.

doctrines, opinions, and facts, actually bor

m the Jews, Christians, and Mahometans; with such men. Crates, the Cynic philosopher, lence, and from other circumstances, he con- happening at that instant to be passing by, the ides that both the history and writings of this bookseller pointed to him, and said, . Follow that ophet were probably invented in the later ages, man. Zeno attended upon the instructions of en the fire worshippers, under the Mahometan Crates, and was so well pleased with his doctrine vernment, thought fit to vindicate their religion that he became one of his disciples. But, though m the suspicion of idolatry. At whatever pe- he admired the general principles of the Cynic d the Zend may have been written, we are school, he could not easily reconcile himself to ured by Dr. Hyde that it is in the pure old Per- their peculiar manners. Besides, his inquisitive n language, and in the character called Peplavi. turn of mind would not allow him to adopt that me parts of it contain the original text, and indifference to every scientific enquiry which was ers Zoroaster's second thoughts subjoined, for one of the characteristic distinctions of the sect. laining more fully his doctrine. These were He therefore attended upon other masters, who asioned by the opposition of adversaries, and professed to instruct their disciples in the nature oreseen circumstances which occurred during and causes of things. When Crates, displeased at fabrication of the imposture. About 300 years his following other philosophers, attempted to drag ,, when the old Persian language had become him by force out of the school of Stilpo, Zeno said iquated and little understood, one of the des- to him, “ You may seize my body, but Stilpo has is or high-priests among the Persees composed laid hold of my mind.' After continuing to Sadda, which is a compendium, in the vulgar attend upon the lectures of Stilpo several years, he modern Persic tongue, of those parts of the passed over to other schools, particularly to those id that relate to religion, or a kind of code of of Xenocrates and Diodorus Cronus. By the ons and precepts, drawn from the theological latter he was instructed in dialectics. He was so tings of Zoroaster, serving as an authoritative much delighted with this branch of study, that he

of faith and practice of his followers. The presented to his master a large pecuniary gratuity, da is written in a low kind of Persic verse, and, in return for his free communication of some of Dr. Hyde informs us, it is bonorum et malorum his ingenious subtleties. At last, after attending ago, having made many good and pious things, almost every other master, he offered himself as a others very superstitious and trifling. See Per disciple of Polemo. This philosopher appears to i and ZOROASTER.

have been aware that Zeno's intention, in thus reENDICISM. See SARACENS

moving from one school to another, was to collect ENETI. See ALGERINES and ALGIERS. materials from various quarters for a new system ENGH. See SEGNA.

of his own; for, when he came into Polemo's ENITH, n. s. Arabic. The point over head school, he said to him, I am no stranger, Zeno, osite to the nadir.

to your Phænician arts, I perceive that your deond men ! if we believe that men do live

sign is to creep slily into my garden, and steal ler the zenith of both frozen poles,

away my fruit.'' Polemo was not mistaken in his 'hough none come thence advertisement to give, opinion. Having made himself master of the y bear we not the like faith of our souls? Davies. tenets of others, Zeno determined to become the These seasons are designed by the motions of the founder of a new sect. The place which he made ; when that approaches nearest our senith, or ver- choice of for his school was a public portico, | point, we call it summer.


adorned with the pictures of Polygnotus, and SENITH. See Nadir.

other eminent painters. It was the most famous ENITI SECTOR. See AstroXOMY, Index. portico in Athens, and called, by way of eminence, ENO, the founder of the sect of the Stoics, Eroa, the porch. It was from this circumstance born about 300 years B. C. at Citium in Cy- that the followers of Zeno were called Stoics. See 5. This place having been originally peopled Stoics. In his person Zeno was tall and slender; a colony of Phænicians, Zeno is sometimes his aspect was severe, and his brow contracted. ed a Phænician. His father was by profession His constitution was feeble, but he preserved his Terchant, but, discovering in his son a strong health by great abstemiousness. The supplies of pensity to, learning, he early devoted him to his table consisted of figs, bread, and honey; notosophy. In his mercantile capacity he had withstanding which, he was frequently honored ueot occasion to visit Athens, where he pur- with the company of great men. In public comsed for his son several of the writings of the pany, to avoid every appearance of an assuming t eminent Socratic philosophers. These he temper, he commonly took the lowest place. In| with great avidity; and, when he was about deed so great was his modesty, that he seldom ly years of age, he determined to take a voyage chose to mingle with a crowd, or wished for the city which was so celebrated both as a mart company of more than two or three friends at rade and of science. If it be true, as some once. He paid more attention to neatness and deers relate, that he brought with him a valuable corum in external appearance than the Cynic phio of Phænician purple, which was lost bylosophers. In his dress indeed he was plain, and wreck upon the coast of Piræus, this circum- in all his expenses frugal; but this is not to be imce will account for the facility with which he puted to avarice, but a contempt of external magirst attached himself to a sect whose leading nificence. He showed as much respect to the poor ciple was the contempt of riches. Upon his as to the rich; and conversed freely with persons arrival in Athens, going accidentally into the of the meanest occupations. He had only one ser

of a bookseller, he took up a volume of the vant, or, according to Seneca, none. Zeno lived imentaries of Xenophon; and after reading a to the extreme age of ninety-eight; and at last, in passages, was so much delighted with the consequence of an accident, voluntarily put an end k, and formed so high an idea of the author, to his life. As he was walking out of his school he he asked the bookseller where he might meet fell down, and in the fall broke one of his fingers;

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