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Clarion

writhing or force: distortion ; violence ; force: to These we should judge to be most miserable, teis wrestle is to struggle against being twisted from a a wretcheder sort there are, on whom whereas ca standing posture; contend ; taking with : the noun hath bestowed ripe capacity, their evil disposition substantive corresponding.

riously goeth about therewith to apprehend God Adown he kest it with so puissant wrest,

being not God. That back again it did aloft rebound,

The butcher takes away the call, And gave against his mother earth a groneful sound. And binds the wretch, and beats it when it staves Spenser.

Sabah So far to extend their speeches is to wrest them

Excellent wretch ! against their meaning.

Hooker.

I love not to see wretchedness o'ercharged, To wring this sentence, to wrest thereby out of men's

wont of men's And duty in his service perishing.

A hands the knowledge of God's doctrine, is without all

When soon away the wasp doth go: reason.

Ascham.

Poor wretch was never frighted so ; If ever he goes alone again, I'll never wrestle for He thought his wings were much too slow, prize more.

Shakspeare.
O'erjoyed they so were parted.

Dregin Wrest once the law to your authority;

Title of honour, worth and virtue's right, To do a great right, do a little wrong.

Id.

Should not be given to a wretch so vile. Daca James knew not how to wrestle with desperate con

For any man to put off his present repentance, tingencies, and so abhorred to be entangled in such.

contemplation of a possibility that his latter repera Clarendon.

may serve the turn, is the most wretchless presen When the young wrestlers at their sport grew warm,

tion, and hath no promise of mercy annexed to it. Old Milo wept, to see his naked arm. Denham.

Hasnu To what wretched state reserved,

From these two wars, so wretchedly entered into, Better end here unborn! Why is life given,

duke's ruin took its date. To be thus wrested from us?

Milton.

Affected noise is the most wretched thing So earnest with thy God, can no new care,

That to contempt can empty scribblers bring. No sense of danger, interrupt thy prayer ?

Resorts The sacred wrestler, till a blessing given,

Why dost thou drive me Quits not his hold, but halting conquers heaven.

To range all o'er a waste and barren place, Waller.

To find a friend? The wretched have no friends. To play or wrestle well, it should be used with those

Dries that do it better.

Temple.

She joys to touch the captive in her net, Two wrestlers help to pull each other down. Druden. And drags the little wretch in triumph home. O prince, I blush to think what I have said ;

When they are gone, a company of starved barney But fate has wrested the confession from me. Addison. wretches shall take their places.

L'Estrana Another, by a fall in wrestling, started the end of the When such little shuffling arts come once! clavicle from the sternon.

Wiseman. ripped up, and laid open, how poorly and conditio None in the leap spring with so strong a bound, must that man sneak who finds himself gula di Or firmer in the wrestling press the ground. Pope. baffled too!

WRESTLING, a kind of combat or engagement If persons of so circumspect a piety have been": between two persons unarmed, body to body, to overtaken, what security can there be for our uneti prove their strength and dexterity, and try which oscitancy.?

Government of the Toeste can throw his opponent to the ground. Wrestling

: Illustrious wretch! repine not, nor reply; is an exercise of very great antiquity and fame.

View not what heaven ordains with reason's eye :

For bright the object is, the distance is too high. Pro It was in use in the heroic age. It continued a long time in the highest repute, and had con

WREXHAM, a market town in Wrexia siderable rewards and honors assigned to it at the

ned to it at the hundred, Denbighshire, ten miles south of Chemi Olympic games. Lycurgus ordered the Spartan and 188 north-west of London ; it consists maids to wrestle in public quite naked, to break off townships, Wrexham-Abbots and Wrexham-kia their too much delicacy and niceness, to make them

se to make them. It is a very fertile and pleasant situation, adjoint appear more robust, and to familiarise the people. the vale royal of Cheshire. The church is a &c., to such nudities.

gant structure, equal in point of beauty to site ? WRETCH. n. s.

Saxon pnecca. A our cathedrals; it was collegiate before the WRETCH'ED, adj. miserable mortal; a of

of Henry VII., when the present edifice su WRETCH'EDLY, ado. worthless creature;

.“

ere

erected on the site of the old one, which was ** WRETCH'EDNESS, n. s. used in pity and con

stroyed by fire. Here are two large met WRETCH LESS, adj. tempt: the adjective,

houses, in one of which the service is performa WRETCH'LESSNESS, n. s.) adverb, and noun sub

in Welsh one part of the day, and in English 3 stantive following correspond: wretchless was

other. It has also a neat and convenient to originally written for reckless, i.e. careless: heed- and a well endowed free-school. Wrexhan! less : the noun substantive corresponds.

great mart for flannel. In the vicinity are seven The devil drives them into desperation, or into

manufactories of warlike instruments, particule wretchlessness of unclean living. Common Prayer. a large cannon foundry. Near Wrexham are o

Base-minded wretches! are your thoughts so deeply some remains of the famous dyke thrown up! bemired in the trade of ordinary worldlings, as, for Offa, king of Mercia, to prevent the incursicas: respect of gain some paultry wool may yield you, to the Welsh. Markets on Thursday and Mondir let so much time pass without knowing perfectly her WRIGʻGLE, v. n. & v. a.) Sax. priyan; be estate ?

Sidney.

WRIG'GLETAIL, n. s. An adventure worthy to be remembered for the un

I wriggelen. Top used examples therein, as well of true natural goodness

to and fro with short motions ; quaver awkwaren as of wretched ungratefulness.

twist insinuste by shifts: a wriggletail is one 17

Id.
He 'gan enquire

wriggles. What hard mishap him brought to such distress,

If sheep or thy lamb fall a wriggling with tail. And made that caitif, thrall the thrall of wretchedness. Go by-and-by search it, whiles help may prevale

Spenser.

lids

certain mark were set on the goods, by which they WREN, n. s. Sax. prenna. A small bird. might be known again, it was held to be no wreck.

The poor uren, It is now held that not only if any live thing es. The most diminutive of birds, will fight, cape, but if proof can be made of the property of Her young ones in her nest against the owl. Shaksp. any of the goods or lading which come to shore, All ages have conceived that the uren is the least of they shall not be forfeited as wreck. To constitute birds ; yet the discoveries of America have shewed us a legal wreck, the goods must come to land. If

Browne. they contidue at sea, the law distinguishes them by Wren, in ornithology. See MoTACILLA. the barbarous and uncouth appellations of jetsam, WREN (Sir Christopher), was the son of Chrisor jetsom, flotsam or flotson, and ligan or lagan. topher Wren, dean of Windsor, and was born in These are also the king's, if no owner appears to 1632. He studied at Wadham College in Oxford ; claim them; but, if any owner appears, he is en- where he took the degree of A. M. in 1653, and titled to recover the possession. Wrecks, in their was chosen fellow of All Souls College. In 1657 legal acceptation, are at present not very frequent; he was made professor of astronomy at Gresham for if any goods come to land, it rarely happens, College, London; which he resigned in 1660, on since the improvement of commerce, navigation, his being chosen to the Savilian professorship of and correspondence, that the owner is not able to astronomy in Oxford; he was in 1658 created assert his property within the year and day limited LL. D., and in 1663 was elected F. R. S. He was by law. And in order to preserve this property one of the commissioners for the reparation of St. entire for him, and if possible to preveni wreck's Paul's; and in 1665 travelled into France, to exat all, our laws have made many very humane amine the most beautiful edifices there, when he regulations. For by stat. 27 Edw. III. c. 13, if made many curious observations. At his return to any ship be lost on the shore, and the goods come England, he drew a noble plan for rebuilding the to land (which cannot, says the statute, be called city of London after the fire, which he presented wreck), they shall be presently delivered to the to parliament; and upon the decease of 'Sir John merchants, paying only a reasonable reward to those Denham, in 1668, was made surveyor-general of that saved and preserved them, which is entitled the king's works; and from that time had the disalvage. Also by the common law, if any person rection of a great number of public edifices, by (other than the sheriff) take any goods so cast on which he acquired the bighest reputation. He built shore, which are not legal wreck, the owners might the magnificent theatre at Oxford, St. Paul's cathehare a commission to enquire and find them out, dral, the churches of St. Stephen Walbrook, and and compel them to make restitution. And by 12 St. Mary-le-Bow, the Monument, the modern part Ann. stat. 2, c. 18, confirmed by 4 Geo. I. c. 12, of the palace of Hampton Court, Chelsea College, to assist the distressed, and prevent the scandalous one of the wings of Greenwich Hospital, and illegal practices on some of our sea-coasts, it is many other beautiful edifices. He was president of enacted that all head officers, and others of towns the Royal Society, one of the commissioners of near the sea, shall, upon application made to them, Chelsea College, and twice M. P., first for Plysummon as many hands as are necessary, and send mouth in Devonshire, and then for Melcomb Regis. them to the relief of any ship in distress, on for. He died in 1723, and was interred in the rault feiture of £100; and, in case of assistance given, under St. Paul's. This great man also distinsalvage shall be paid by the owners, to be assessed guished himself by many curious inventions and by three neighbouring justices. All persons that discoveries in natural philosophy. He contrived secrete any goods shall forfeit their treble value; an instrument for measuring the quantity of rain and if they wilfully do any act whereby the ship is that falls on any space of land for a year; he inlost or destroyed, by making holes in her, stealing vented many ways of making astronomical obserher pumps, or otherwise, they are guilty of felony vations more accurate and easy; and was the first without benefit of clergy. Lastly, by stat. 26 author of the anatomical experiment of injecting Geo. II. c. 19, plundering any vessel, either in dis- liquors into the veins of animals, &c. He transtress or wrecked, and whether any living creature lated into Latin Mr. Qughtred's Horologiographica be on board or not (for, whether wreck or otherwise, Geometrica; and wrote a Survey of the Cathedral it is clearly not the property of the populace), such Church of Salisbury, and other pieces. After his plundering or preventing the escape of any person death his posthumous works and draughts were that endeavours to save his life, or wounding him published by his son. with intent to destroy him, or putting out false WRENCH, v. a. & n. s. Sax. prinzan : Belg. lights in order to bring any vessel into danger, are wringen. To pull or twist by violence; wrest; to all declared to be capital felonies; in like manner force; sprain : a violent pull; twist or sprain. as the destroying of trees, steeples, or other stated

Wrench his sword from him.

Shakspeare. sea marks, is punished by stat. 8 Eliz. c. 13, with a forfeiture of £100, or outlawry. Moreover, by

He resolved to make bis profit of this business of Dy

B

Britain, as a quarrel for war; and that of Naples as a stat. Geo. II., pilfering any goods cast ashore is wrench and mean for peace.. declared to be petty larceny; and many other salu

Sing the Parthian, when transfixed he lies, tary regulations are made, for the more effectually Wrenching the Roman javelin from his thighs. preserving ships of any nation in distress. By the

Dryden. civil law, to destroy persons shipwrecked, or pre- Some small part of the foot being injured by a vent their saving the ship, is capital. And to steal wrench, the whole leg thereby loses its strength. even a plank, from a vessel in distress or wrecked,

Locke. makes the party liable to answer for the whole ship Struggling to get loose, I broke the strings, and and cargo.' The laws also of the Wisigoths, and wrenched out the pegs that fastened my arm to the

he most early Neapolitan constitutions, punished ground. with the utmost severity all those who neglected to WREST, v. a. & 1. s.) Saxon præsran. To assist any ship in distress, or plundered any goods WRES'TLE, v.n. Stwist by violence ; cast on shore.

WRESTLER, n. s. extort or distort by

Bacon.

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fendant to appear, and are granted before the suit curum, from the words of the writ, which d is commenced, in order to begin the same; and the sheriff to cause the defendant to app judicial writs issue out of the court where the ori- court, without any option given him, pravide ginal is returned after the suit is begun. See PRO- plaintiff gives the sheriff security effectue CESS. The original writ is the foundation of the prosecute his claim. The writ is in use suit. See Suit. When a person hath received an nothing is specifically demanded, but only a injury, he is to make application or suit to the faction in general; to obtain which, and zi crown, for that particular specific remedy which be complete redress, the intervention of some is determined to pursue. As for money due on ture is necessary. Such are writs of trespass bond, an action of debt; for goods detained the case, wherein ao debt or other specific th without force, an action of detinue or trover; or, sued for in certain, but only damages to be as if taken with force, an action of trespass vi et armis; by a jury. For this end the defendant isi or to try the title of lands, a writ of entry or diately called upon to appear in court, pid action of trespass in ejectment; or for any conse- the plaintiff gives good security of prosecutii quential injury received, a special action on the claim. Both species of writs are tested, o case. To this end he is to sue out, or purchase by nessed, in the king's own name; 'witness paying the stated fees, an original or original writ, at Westminster,' or wherever the chancery > from the court of chancery, which is the officina held. The security here spoken of, to be in justitiæ, the shop or mint of justice, wherein all the plaintiff for prosecuting his claim, is cx the king's writs are framed. It is a mandatory to both writs, though it gives denomination o letter from the king in parchment, sealed with his the latter. The whole of it is at present beck great seal, and directed to the sheriff of the county mere matter of form; and John Doe and Ri wherein the injury is committed, or supposed so Roe are always returned as the standing pl to be, requiring him to command the wrong-doer, for this purpose. The ancient use of them or party accused, either to do justice to the com- answer for the plaintiff, who in case he brou plainant, or else to appear in court, and answer the action without cause, or failed in the prova accusation against him. Whatever the sheriff does of it when brought, was liable to an ametak in pursuance of this writ, he must return or certify from the crown for raising a false accusation to the court of common pleas, together with the so the form of the judgment still is. In writ itself; which is the foundation of the jurisdic- manner, as by the Gothic constitutions nop tion of that court, being the king's warrant for the was permitted to lay a complaint against sa judges to proceed to the determination of the nisi subscriptura aut specificatione trium tal cause. For it was a maxim introduced by the quod actiovem vellet persequi: and as, by the Normans that there should be no proceedings in of Sancho I. king of Portugal, damages were ! common pleas before the king's justices without his against a plaintiff who prosecuted a gTOEL original writ; because they held it unfit that those action. The day on which the defendant is ori justices, being only the substitutes of the crown, to appear in court, and on which the shenf should take cognizance of any thing but what was thus bring in the writ, and report how far he has oh expressly referred to their judgment. However, in it, is called the return of the writ; it being small actions below the value of 40s., which are returned by him to the king's justices at brought in the court-baron or county-court, no royal minster. And it is always made returnable a writ is necessary; but the foundation of such suits distance of at least fifteen days from the da continues to be (as in the times of the Saxons), not test, that the defendant may have time to con by original writ, but by plaint; that is, by a private to Westminster, even from the most remote memorial tendered in open court to the judge, of the kingdom; and upon some day in obe 3 wherein the party injured sets forth his cause of four terms, in which the court sits for the de action; and the judge is bound of common right of business. to administer justice therein, without any special WRITE. v. a. & v. n. Pret. writ or mandate from the king. Now indeed even the

WRIT, n. s.

part. pass. written, royal writs are held to be demandable of common

WRIT'ER.

or wrote. Sax. pri right, on paying the usual fees; for any delay in a

apritan; Isl. and Swed. rita; Goth. rita, the granting them, or setting an unusual or exorbitant

To express by means of letters: hence enti

to price upon them, would be a breach of magna in

impress; produce as an author: to perform charta; c. 29, nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus,

act of writing ; become an author; tell in der aut differemus justitiam vel rectum. Original

send letters ; compose: writ is, any thing w writs are either optional or peremptory; or, in

a process of law, legal instrument: 2 write the language of our law, they are either a præcipe, who writ or a si te fecerit securum. The præcipe is in the alternative, commanding the defendant to do the David wrote a letter.

2 & thing required, or show the reason wherefore he He wrote for all the Jews concerning their feed hath not done it. The use of this writ is where something certain is demanded by the plaintiff,

Divine Eliza, sacred empress, which is in the power of the defendant himself to Live she for ever, and her royal places perform; as, to restore the possession of land, to Be filled with praises of divinest wits, pay a certain liquidated debt, to perform a specific That her eternize with their heavenly writi. Spes covenant, to render an account, and the like; in all the church, as a witness, preacheth his mer which cases the writ is drawn up in the form of a vealed truth, by reading publickly the sacred script præcipe or command, to do thus, or show cause to that a second kind of preaching is the reading a the contrary : giving the defendant his choice to writ. Tedress the injury or stand the suit. The other Bagdat rises out of the ruins of the old city of species of original writs is called a si te fecerit se- bylon, so much spoken of in holy writ.

Hearts, tongues, figures, scribes, bards, poets, can- WRITHE, v. a. & v. n. 1 Saxon prišan. To not

WRI'THLE, v. a. distort; deform with ink, speak, cast, write, sing, number

distortion ; twist with violence; wrest: be twisted s love to Antony. Shaksp. Antony and Cleopatra.

or convolved with agony: writhle is an obsolete The king is tied to London

verb active of the same signification, call a present court of parliament :

Her writhled skin, as rough as maple rind, tus pursue him, ere the writs go forth. Id. Hen. VI.

So scabby was, that 'twould have loathed all womanIn at his windows throw

kind.

Spenser. ritings, all tending to the great opinion

The reason which he yieldeth, sheweth the least part at Rome holds of his name. Id. Julius Cæsar.

of his meaning to be that whereunto his words are I have seen her rise from her bed, take forth paper,

writhed.

Hooker. i it, and write upon 't.

Id. Macbeth.

It cannot be tbis weak and writhed shrimp All three were ruined by justice and sentence, as Should strike such terror in his enemies. inquents; and all three famous writers. Bacon.

Shakspeare. Henry VI. Let it not your wonder move,

Then Satan first knew pain, is your laughter, that I love ;

And writhed him to and fro convolved. Milton. ough I now write fifty years,

Her mouth she urithed, her forehead taught to frown, ave had, and have, my peers.

Ben Jonson.

Her eyes to sparkle fires to love unknown. Dryden. Their doctrine and their story written left,

Let each be broken on the rack; by die.

Milton.

Then, with what life remains, impaled, and left Chaste moral writing we may learn from hence,

To writhe at leisure round the bloody stake. Addison. glect of which no wit can recompence; fountain which from Helicon proceeds,

WRITING, the art or act of signifying and conut sacred stream, should never water weeds. veying our ideas to others, by letters or characters

Waller. visible to the eye. See ENGLISH LANGUAGE and acred worit our reason does exceed.

Id. LANGUAGE. Vritten language is a description of the audible

The most ancient remains of writing, which have is by signs visible.

Holder. been trans

been transmitted to us, are upon hard substances, 'he time, the place, the manner how to meet,

such as stones and metals, which were used by the re all in punctual order plainly writ. Dryden.

ancients for edicts and matters of public notoriety; ain was so fully convinced that every one had a the decalogue was written on two tables of stone; t to destroy such a criminal, that he cries out,

but this practice was not peculiar to the Jews, for y one that findeth me shall slay me; so plain was

it was used by most of the eastern nations, as well

it was use rit in the hearts of all mankind.

Locke. lis story, filled with so many surprising incidents,

as by the Greeks and Romans. The laws penal, s so close an analogy with what is delivered in

civil, and ceremonial, among the Greeks, were en► writ, that it is capable of pleasing the most deli.

graven on tables of brass which were called cyrbes. | reader, without giving offence to the most scru

Wood was also used for writing on ir different pus.

Addison's Spectator. countries. In the Sloanian library (No. 4852) are six "here is not a more melancholy object in the learned specimens of Kusic writing, on boards about two feet ld, than a man who has written himself down." in length, amd six inches in depth. The Chinese,

Addison. before the invention of paper, wrote or engraved Teaceable times are the best to live in, though not with an iron tool upon thin boards or on bamboo. proper to furnish materials for a writer. Id.

Pliny says, that table books of wood were in use Told up your head, hold up your hand :

before the time of Homer. These table books uld it were not my lot to show ye

were called by the Romans pugillares. The wood This cruel writ, wherein you stand

was cut into thin slices, and finely planed and icted by the name of Chloe.

Prior.

polished. The writing was at first upon the bare chose to write the thing I durst not speak

wood, with an iron instrument, called a style. In her I loved.

Id. or every writ of entry, whereupon a common reco

later times these tables were commonly coated is to be suffered, the queen's fine is to be rated

with wax, and written upon with that instrument. the writ original, if the lands comprised therein

The matter written upon the tables which were eld.

Ayliffe. thus waxed over was easily effaced, and by smooth

ing the wax, new matter might be substituted hey can write up to the dignity and character of

in the place of what had been written before. ruthors.

Felton on the Classicks. icrease of years makes men more talkative, but

The Greeks and Romans continued the use of writative ;' to that degree, that I dow write no waxed table books long after the use of papyrus, rs but of plain how d'ye's. Pope to Swift. leaves, and skins, became common, because they 'ould a writer know how to behave himself with were so convenient for correcting extemporary ion to posterity, let him consider in old books compositions. Table books of ivory are still used 1 he finds that he is glad to know, and what omis. for memorandums, but they are commonly written he most laments.

Swift. upon with black lead pencils. The practice of RITER, among the Scottish lawyers, is a title writing on table books covered with wax was not

generally given to all men of business and entirely laid aside till the commencement of the its before the inferior courts, and all over the fourteenth century. The bark of trees was also itry, as well as to solicitors at law, and all, in used for writing by the ancients, and is so still in ral, who are called attorneys in England. several parts of Asia. The same thing may be 'RITERS TO THE SIGNET, or CLERKS TO THE said of the leaves of trees. The use of Parcu(ET, a very numerous and respectable society MENT, VELLUM, PAPYRUS, and Paper, for writing entlemen of the law in Scotland, who are is well known. See these articles. It is obvious ly employed in all civil and criminal trials that when men wrote, or rather engraved on hard re the courts of session and justiciary. See substances, instruments of metal were necessary, • They are generally gentlemen of landed pro- such as the chisel and the stylus; but the latter

was chiefly used for writing upon boards, waxed fendant to appear, and are granted before the suit curum, from the words of the writ, which directs is commenced, in order to begin the same; and the sheriff to cause the defendant to appear in judicial writs issue out of the court where the ori- court, without any option given him, prrvided the sinal is returned after the suit is berun. See PRO- plaintiff gives the sheriff security effectually to ( Ess. The original writ is the foundation of the prosecute bis claim. The writ is in use where suit. See SuIT. When a person hath received an nothing is specifically demanded, but only a salir injury, he is to make application or suit to the faction in general; to obtain which, and minister crown, for that particular specific remedy which he complete redress, the intervention of some judicais determined to pursue. . As for money due on ture is necessary. Such are writs of trespass, or in bond, an action of debt; for goods detained the case, wherein no debt or other specific thing is without force, an action of detinue or trover; or, sued for in certain, but only damages to be assessed if taken with force, an action of trespass vi et armis; by a jury. For this end the defendant is imineor to try the title of lands, a writ of entry or diately called upon to appear in court, provides action of trespass in ejectment; or for any conse- the plaintiff gives good security of prosecuting his quential injury received, a special action on the claim. Both species of writs are tested, or witcase. To this end he is to sue out, or purchase by nessed, in the king's own name; 'witness ourself paying the stated fees, an original or original writ, at Westminster,' or wberever the chancery may be from the court of chancery, which is the officina held. The security bere spoken of, to be given by justitiæ, the shop or mint of justice, wherein all the plaintiff for prosecuting his claim, is common the king's writs are framed. It is a mandatory to both writs, though it gives denomination only to letter from the king in parchment, sealed with his the latter. The whole of it is at present become a great seal, and directed to the sheriff of the county mere matter of form; and John Doe and Richard wherein the injury is committed, or supposed so Roe are always returned as the standing pledges to be, requiring him to command the wrong-doer, for this purpose. The ancient use of them was to or party accused, either to do justice to the com- answer for the plaintiff, who in case he brought an plainant, or else to appear in court, and answer the action without cause, or failed in the prosecution accusation against him. Whatever the sheriff does of it when brought, was liable to an amercement in pursuance of this writ, he must return or certify from the crown for raising a false accusation; and to the court of common pleas, together with the so the form of the judgment still is. In like writ itself; which is the foundation of the jurisdic- manner, as by the Gothic constitutions no person tion of that court, being the king's warrant for the was permitted to lay a complaint against another judges to proceed to the determination of the nisi subscriptura aut speciticatione trium testium, cause. For it was a maxim introduced by the quod actionem vellet persequi: and as, by the laws Normans that there should be no proceedings in of Sancho I. king of Portugal, damages were given common pleas before the king's justices without his against a plaintiff who prosecuted a groundless original writ; because they held it unfit that those action. The day on which the defendant is ordered justices, being only the substitutes of the crown, to appear in court, and on which the sheriff is to should take cognizance of anything but what was thus bring in the writ, and report how far he has obeyed expressly referred to their judgment. However, in it, is called the return of the writ; it being then small actions below the value of 10s., which are returned by him to the king's justices at Westbrought in the court-baron or county-court, no royal minster. And it is always made returnable at the writ is necessary; but the foundation of such suits distance of at least fifteen days from the date or continues to be (as in the times of the Saxons), not test, that the defendant may have time to come up by original writ, but by plaint; that is, by a private to Westminster, even from the most remote parts memorial tendered in open court to the judge, of the kingdom; and upon some day in one of the wherein the party injured sets forth his cause of four terms, in which the court sits for the despatch action; and the judge is bound of common right of business. to administer justice therein, without any special WRITE, v.a.& vin.). Pret. writ or wroie; mandate from the king. Now indeed even the WRU, n. s.

part. pass.writen, writ, royal writs are held to be demandable of common Ru'ER.

or wrote. Sax. pritan, right, on paying the usual fees; for any delay in apnitan: Isl. and Swed. rita; Goth. rita, vrita. the granting them, or setting an unusual or exorbitant

To express by means of letters: hence engrave; price upon them, would be a breach of magna

impress; produce as an author: to perform the charta; c. 29, nulli vendemus, nulli negabiinus,

Si act of writing ; become an author; tell in leuters; aut ditleremus justitiam vel rectum. Original

send letters ; compose: writ is, any thing written; writs are either optional or peremptory; or, in

a process of law ; legal instrument: a writer, he the language of our law, they are either a præcipe, who writes. or a si te fecerit securum. The præcipe is in the alternative, cominanding the defendant to do the David wrote a letter.

2 Sum. xi. thing required, or show the reason wherefore he He wrote for all the Jews concerning their freedom. hath not done it. The use of this writ is where

| Esdras. something certain is demanded by the plaintiff,

Divine Eliza, sacred empress, which is in the power of the defendant himself to Live slie for ever, and her royal places perform ; as, to restore the possession of land, to Be nlled with praises of divinest wits, pay a certain liquidated debt, to perform a specilie That her eternize with their heavenly urits. Sper.set. covenant, to render an account, and the like ; in all The church, as a witness, preacheth his mert re which cases the writ is drawn up in the form of a vealed truth, by reading publichly the sacred scripture; præcipe or command, 10 do thus, or show cause to that a second hind of preaching is the reading of holy the contrary : giving the defendant his choice to writ.

Hooker. redress the injury or stand the suit. The other Bagdat rises out of the ruins of the old city of Baspecies of original writs is called a si te fecerit se- bylon, so much spoken of in holy writ. Knolles.

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