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of the sensible effects above-mentioned, in which the wines, they no longer sparkle, they lose their o greatest number of fermentable particles ferment. quancy of tasie, become mild, and even almost i After this first effort of fermentation, these effects sipid. sensibly diminish, and ought to be stopped, for rea- Such are the qualities that wine acquires sons hereafter to be mentioned. The fermentative time, when its first fermentation has not contico motion of the liquors then ceases. The heterogeneous sufficiently long. These qualities are given m parts that were suspended in the wines by this motion, posely to certain kinds of wine to indulge taste and render it muddy, are separated and form a se- caprice; but such wines are supposed to be u diment called the lees; after which the wine becomes for daily use. Wines for daily use ought to la clear: but though the operation is then considered undergone so completely the sensible fermentato as finished, and the fermentation apparently ceases, that the succeeding fermentation shall be insert it does not really cease; and it ought to be con- ble, or at least exceedingly little perceived. Wa tinued in some degree, if we would have good wine. in which the first fermentation has been too fara
In this new wine a part of the liquor probably vanced, is liable to worse inconveniences than a remains, that has not fermented, and which after- in which the first fermentation has been too quiei wards ferments, but so very slowly, that none of the suppressed; for every fermentable liquor is bu sensible effects produced in the first fermentation its nature in a continual intestine motion, more | are here perceived. The fermentation, therefore, less strong, according to circumstances, from d still continues in the wine, during a longer or shorter first instant of the spirituous fermentation till el time, although in an imperceptible manner; and completely purified : hence, from the time of a this is the second period of the spirituous fermen- completion of the spirituous fermentation, arete tation, which may be called the imperceptible fer- before, the wine begins to undergo the acid of mentation. We may easily perceive thai the effect tous fermentation. This acid fermentation is fe? of this imperceptible fermentation is the gradual slow and insensible, when the wine is incloded a increase of the quantity of alcohol. It has also an- very close vessels, and in a cool place: but. other effect no less advantageous, namely, the sepa- dually advances, so that in a certain time tena ration of the acid salt called tartar from the wine. instead of being improved, becomes at his ott This matter is therefore a second sediment, that is This evil cannot be remedied; because the ins formed in the wine, and adheres to the sides of the tation may advance, but cannot be reverted. containing vessels. As the taste of tartar is harsh Wine-merchants, therefore, when their wishes and disagreeable, it is evident that the wine, which come sour, can only conceal or absorb this 2011 by means of the insensible fermentation has acquired by certain substances, as by alkalies and abroad more alcohol, and has disengaged itself of the earths. But these substances give to wine a ta greater part of its tartar, ought to be much better greenish color, and a taste which, though poter and more agreeable; and, for this reason chiefly, is somewhat disagreeable. Besides, calcareci old wine is universally preferable to new wine. earths accelerate considerably the total destruct
But insensible fermentation can only ripen and and putrefaction of the wine. Oxides of lead, but meliorate the wine, if the sensible fermentation ing the property of forming with the acid of moal have regularly proceeded, and been stopped in due a salt of an agreeable saccharine taste, which drze time. We know certainly, that if a sufficient time not alter the color of the wine, and which bestir has not been allowed for the first period of the fer- has the advantage of stopping fermentation and mentation, the unfermented matter that remains, trefaction, might be very well employed to rest being in too large a quantity, will then ferment in the acidity of wine, if lead and all its preparatie the bottles or close vessels in which the wine is were not pernicious to health, as they exas.! put, and will occasion effects so much more sen- most terrible colics, and even death, when taal sible, as the first fermentation shall have been internally. We cannot believe that any wide-De sooner interrupted : hence these wines are always chant, knowing the evil consequences of turbid, emit bubbles, and sometimes break the should, for the sake of gain, employ it for the bottles, from the large quantity of air disengaged pose mentioned; but, if there be any such persa during the fermentation.
they must be considered as the poisoners and me We have an instance of these effects in the wine derers of the public. At Alicant, where very 3 of Champagne, and in others of the same kind. wines are made, it is the practice to mix a-The sensible fermentation of these wines is inter- lime with the grapes before they are pressed. I rupted or rather suppressed, that they may have however, can only neutralise the acid already this sparkling quality. It is well known that these isting in the grape. wines make the corks fly out of the bottles ; that If wine contain litharge, or any other onko they sparkle and froth when they are poured into lead, it may be discovered by evaporating 0 glasses; and lastly, that they have a taste much pints of it to dryness, and melting the residuos more lively and more piquant than wines that do a crucible, at the bottom of which a small butten ! not sparkle; but this sparkling quality, and all lead may be found after the fusion : but an easter the effects depending on it, are only caused by a and more expeditious proof is by pouring into considerable quantity of carbonic acid gas, which wine some liquid sulphuret. If the precipe is disengaged during the confined fermentation that occasioned by this addition to the sulphure the wine has undergone in close vessels. This air white, or only colored by the wine, we may be not having an opportunity of escaping, and of be- that no lead is contained in it; but if the prec! ing dissipated as fast as it is disengaged, and being tate be dark colored, brown, or blackish, we interposed betwixt all the parts of the wine, com- conclude that it contains lead or iron. bines in some measure with them, and adheres in "The only substances that cannot absorb the same manner as it does to certain mineral stroy, but cover and render supportable the s waters, in which it produces nearly the same effects. ness of wine, without any inconvenience, are su When this air is entirely disengaged from these "honey, and other saccharine alimentary blah
but they can succeed only when the wine is very
Proportion of spirit per little acid, and when an exceedingly small quantity
cent. by measure. only of these substances is sufficient to produce the
. 17:11 desired effect; otherwise the wine would have a
Ditto . . .
Ditto . sweetish, tart, and not agreeable taste.
. 14:08 From what is here said concerning the acescency
Ditto . . .
15.10 of wine, we may conclude hat, when this accident
26. Malmsey Madeira . happens, it cannot by any good method be reme
. 16.40 died, and that nothing remains to be done with
1552 28. Sheraaz
. sour wine but to sell it to vinegar-makers, as all
29. Syracuse honest wine-merchants do.
. 15.28 As the must of the grape contains a greater pro
14.22 31. Burgundy
. portion of tartar than our currant and gooseberry
16.60 juices do, Dr. Ure has been accustomed, for many
. 15.22 years, to recommend in his lectures the addition of a
Ditto . small portion of that salt to our must, to make it
. 11.95 ferment into a more genuine wine. Dr. M'Culloch
14.57 32. Hock
14:37 has lately prescribed the same addition in his popular treatise on the art of making wine.
13.00 The following is Mr. Brande's valuable table of Ditto (old in cask)
Average 12.08 the quantity of spirit in different kinds of wine :
33. Nice ,
14.63 I'roportion of spirit per cent. by measure. 34. Barsac . . . .
35. Tent 1. Lissa . .
13.30 . . . . 26:47
. . .
36. Champagne (still) . Ditto . . . . . . 24:35
12.80 25.41 2. Raisin wine
12:56 26.40 . Ditto
11.30 . .
37. Red Hermitage .
12:32 3. Marsala . .
13.94 26. 3
38. Vin de Grave . Ditto .
Average 13.37 4. Madeira .
39. Frontignac . .
. . . . ..
. . Ditto
12:39 . . . .
40. Cote Rotie
. 23.93 Ditto (Sircial)
41. Gooseberry wine.
11.84 Ditto .
42. Orange wine, a verage of six samples 22.27
made by a London manufacturer 11.26 5. Currant wine.
9.88 6. Sherry
44. Elder wine .
. . Ditto
45. Cyder, highest average .
. . .
. Ditto .
5.21 Ditto, lowest ditto 18.79
7.26 Ditto . .
46. Perry, average of four samples 18-25
47. Mead Average 19.17
. . .
. 7. Teneriffe
. 8. Colares
6.20 19.75 9. Lachryma Christi.
5.56 • 19.70
Ditto (Dorchester) 10. Constantia, white, .
Average 11. Ditto, red,
49. Brown stout :
. 12. Lisbon
50. London porter (average)
4.20 18.94 13. Malaga (1666)
51. London small beer (ditto) . , 1.28 14. Bucellas
· 15. Red Madeira
. . Ditto . .
54. Gin .
55. Scotch Whisky 20:35
54.32 16. Cape Muschat
56. Irish ditto i 17. Cape Madeira
22.94 WING, n. s., v. (., & Sax. gehping; Danish Ditto.
20:50 WING'Ed, adj. [v. n. (and Swed. winge. The Ditto . .
18:11 WING'SHELLS, n. s. limb of a bird by which Average 20:51 WING'y adj.
it flies ; flight; motive to 18. Grape wine. .
· 18:11 fight; the flank or side of a building or army; 19. Calcavella .
• 19.20 any side-piece: to wing is to furnish with wings; to Ditto
18:10 take flight; transport by flight : winged, furnished
erage 18-65 with wings ; swift : wing-shell, a shell that covers 20. Vidonia
19-25 the wings of some insects : wingy, having or resemb21. Alba Flora .
17.26 ling wings. 22. Malaga
. . 17.26
Wing, cartnave, and bushel, peck, ready at hand. 23. White Hermitage · · · · 17:43
Tusser. 24. Rousillon
19.00 As Venus' bird, the white swift lovely dove, Ditto
, 17.26 Doth on her wings her utmost swiftness prove, Average 18:13 Finding the gripe of falcon fierce not fur. Sidney.
The footmen were Germans, to whom were joined as punish; be dim: the act of winking; hint que wings certain companies of Italians. Knolles. the noun substantive and adverb correspond. Ignorance is the curse of God,
Her wink each bold attempt forbids. Side Knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.
They be better content with one that will ett
Shakspeare. their faults, than with him that will reprove them. I have pursued her as love hath pursued me, on the wing of all occasions.
Let's see thine eyes; wink now, now open them: Fearful commenting
In my opinion yet thou seest not well. Shakoper Is leaden servitor to dull delay;
Since I received command to do this business Delay leads impotent and snail-paced beggary :
I have not slept one wink. Then fiery expedition be my wing,
I, for winking at your discords too, Jove's mercury, and herald for a king.
Have lost a brace of kinsmen. Hie, good Sir Michael, bear this sealed brief
The king gave him great gifts, and winked at d With winged haste to the lord marshal.
great spoil of Bosworth-field, which came alone A spleenless wind so stretcht
wholly to this man's hands. Her wings to waft us, and so urged our keel. Chapm.
If one beboldeth the light, he vieweth it rinking The speed of gods
as those do that are purblind; but, if any thing thar Time counts not, though with swiftest minutes winged. black, be looketh upon it with a broad and full ent.
Milton. The winged lion's not so fierce in fight,
The Scripture represents wicked men as without u As Lib'ri's hand presents him to our sight. Waller derstanding : not that they are destitute of the nata
And straight, with in-born vigour, on the wing faculty: they are not blind, but they wink. Till Like mountain larks, to the new morning sing. Dryd. The sullen tyrant slept not all the night,
Warmed with more particles of heavenly flame, But lonely walking by a winking light, He winged his upper flight, and soared to fame; Sobbed, wept, and groan'd, and beat his within The rest remained below, a crowd without a name.
Id. Obstinacy cannot be winked at, but must be soloud The left wing put to flight, The chiefs o'erborn, he rushes on the right. Id. When you shoot and shut one eye,
The plough proper for stiff clays is long, large, and You cannot think he would deny broad, with a deep head, and a square earth-board, To lend the other friendly aid, the coulter long, and very little bending, with a very Or wink, as coward and afraid. large wing.
Mortimer. A set of nodders, winkers, and whisperers whes : The long-shelled goat chaffer is above an inch long, siness is to strangle all other offspring of wit in and the wing-shells of themselves an inch, and half an birth. inch broad. So deep as to come down below the belly on The stock-jobber thus from 'Change-alley goes dou both sides.
Grew. And tips you the freeman a wink; They spring together out, and swiftly bear
Let me have but your vote to serve for the town, The Aying youth through clouds of yielding air ; And here is a guinea to drink. With wingy speed out-strip the eastern wind,
WINNIPIC LAKE, a lake of North Amea. And leave the breezes of the morn behind. Addison.
Upper Canada, north-west of Lake Superior. Ils Struck with the horror of the sight,
between 50° 30' and 54° 32' N. lat., and between si She turns her head, and wings her flight. Prior.
50' and 99° 30' W. long. It is 217 miles lonc, The prince of augurs, Helitherses rose; Prescient he viewed th' aerial tracts, and drew
cluding Baskescoggan, or Play-Green Lake, 1 A sure presage from ev'ry wing that flew. Pope. northern arın; and is 100 miles broad from the la Who knows but he, whose hand the lightning forms,
nadian House on the east side to Sable River on Who heaves old ocean, and who wings the storms,
west side. It receives the waters of a number : Pours fierce ambition into Cæsar's mind,
small lakes, and exhibits a number of small :58 Or turns young Ammon loose to scourge mankind ?
The lands on its banks are said.by Carver and others Id.
travellers to be very fertile, producing vast qe Wing, in zoology, is that part of a bird, insect,
tities of wild rice and the sugar-tree in the &c., whereby it is enabled to fly. See BEE, BIRD,
plenty. The climate is considerably more tene! ENTOMOLOGY, and ORNITHOLOGY.
ate here than it is upon the Atlantic coast, it! Wings, in military affairs, are the two flanks or
farther southward. extremnes of an army, ranged in form
WINNIPIC River, a river of North Ameri
of battle; being the right and left sides thereof.
in Upper Canada, which runs north-west into the WINGATE (Edmond), an eminent mathematic lake of the same name. It is an outlet 106 cian, born in Bedfordshire in 1593. and educated waters of a vast chain of lakes, the chief of C at Queen's College, Oxford ; whence he removed
are La Pluie and Lake of the Woods, and a to Gray's Inn. He was appointed English teacher
large body of water, interspersed with numero to king Charles I.'s queen, yet he took the cove
WIN’NOW, v. a. & v.n. Sax, pindpian: Beke nant, and was elected into the parliament called by Cromwell. He published 1. The Use of the Rule
wannen; Latin evanno. To ventilate ; to separate ! of Proportion, commonly called Gunter's Scale.
means of the wind : to part the grain from the chat 2. Natural and Artificial Arithmetic, 8vo. 3.
Were our royal faith martyrs in love, w
We shall be winnowed with so rough a wind, Tables of Logarithms. 4. Ludus Mathematicus. Th
That even our corn shall seem as light as chall, 5. The Exact Surveyor; and several tracts. He And good from bad find no partition. Shakira died in 1656.
Now on the polar winds, then with quick fan WINGED FEATHER Grass. See StyPA. Winnows the buxom air. WINK, v. n. &n. s.) Sax. pincean: Teutonic Winnow well this thought, and you shall had WINK'ER, n. 8. Swincken : Swedish wincka. "Tis light as chaff that flies before the wind. Direct
WINK'INGLY, adv. ) To shut the eyes ; hint or WINSCHOMB (John), a famous English di direct by the eye; connive; tolerate; forbear to thier, the most eminent in Englard under la
VIII. He had 100 looms constantly employed; the northern hemisphere begins when the sun is iis and let out a troop of his men to the battle of the tropic of Capricorn, and in the southern hemi. Flodden.
sphere when in the tropic of Cancer ; so that all WINSLOW (James Benignus), M. P., a very places in the same hemisphere have their winter at celebrated Danish anatomist, a nephew of the the same time. famous Steno, born in 1669. He studied under Winter Berry. See PRINOS. Du Verney at Paris, became a convert to the Ca Winter Bloom, a species of azalea. tholic faith, and was baptised by Bossuet, bishop WINTER Cherry. See Physalis. of Meaux. He became a member of the faculty WINTER Citron is a species of citrus. of physicians, and of the Royal Academy of Paris, WINTER Cress, a species of erysimum. and demonstrator in the king's gardens. He wrote, WINTER GREEN. See Pyrola. 1. A Course of Anatomy, in 4to. 2. A Disserta- WINTER GREEN CHICKWEED. See TRIENTALIS. tion on the Uncertainty of the Signs of Death, 2 Winter Green, ivy-flowering, is ? species of vols. 12mo. 3. A Treatise on the diseases of the kalmia. Bones; and other works of value. He died in WINTERA, in botany, a genus of plants of the 1760.
class of polyandria, and order of pentagynia ; and WINSTANLEY (William) was originally a in the natural system arranged under the twelfth barber. He wrote, 1. The Lives of the Poets. 2. order, holoraceæ. The calyx is three-lobed; there Select Lives of England's Worthies. 3. Histori- are six or twelve petals, there is no style; the cal Rarities. He died in 1690.
fruit is a berry, which is club-shaped as well as the WINSTON (Thomas), M.D., born in 1575, germen. There are two species, viz. :-1. W. and educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge. In 1602 aromatica, is one of the largest forest trees upon he went abroad, and graduated at Padua. On his Terra del Fuego; it often rises to the height of return he settled in London, and was chosen pro- fifty feet. Its outward bark is on the trunk gray fessor of physic in Gresham College, where he and very little wrinkled, on the branches quite died in 1655. He published his Anatomical Lec- smooth and green. The branches do not spread tures in 1650.
horizontally, but are bent upwards and form an WINTER, n. s., v. 11., &v.a. Sax. pinten; elegant head of an oval shape. The peduncles, or WIN'TERBEATEN, adj. Danish, Teuton., foot-stalks for the flowers, come out of the axilla WIN'TERLY, adv.
and Belg. winter. foliorum, near the extremity of the branches; they Wix'TRY, adj.
The cold season are flat, of a pale color, twice or three times of the year: to pass the winter ; feed or manage in shorter than the leaves; now and then they supthe winter : winterbeaten is harassed by the sea- port only one flower, but are oftener near the top son : winterly and wintry, like, or suitable to, win- divided into three short branches, each with one ter.
flower. The bracteæ are oblong, pointed, concave, The fowls shall summer upon them, and all the entire, thick, whitish, and situated one at the basis boasts of the earth shall winter upon them. Isaiah. of each peduncle. There is no calyx; but in its
Though he were already stept into the winter of his place the flower is surrounded with a spathaceous age, he found himself warm in those desires, which gem of a thick leathery substance, green, but redwere in his son far more excusable.
Sidney dish on the side which has faced the sun; before He compareth his careful case to the sad season of the this gem bursts, it is of a round form, and its size is year, to the frosty ground, to the frozen trees, and to th
that of a small pea. It bursts commonly, so that one his own winterbeaten flock.
side is higher ihan the other, and the segments are The barren winter with his pipping cold. Shakspeare.
pointed. The corolla consists always of seven If 't be summer news,
petals. 2. W. Granadensis is a native of Granada. Smile to 't before ; if winterly, thou need'st
WINTRINGHAM (Sir Clifton), Bart., M. D., But keep that countenance still.
Id. and F. R.S., an eminent physician, the son of Dr. The cattle generally sold for slaughter within, or ex- Clifton Wintringham, physician at York, who gave portation abroad, had never been handled or wintered at him a liberal education, and died in 1748. In hand-meat.
Temple. 1749 he was appointed physician to the duke of The two beneath the distant poles complain
Cumberland, and afterwards to the king, who of endless winter and perpetual rain. . Dryden.
knighted bim. He published, 1. An ExperiHe saw the Trojan fleet dispersed, distressed, By stormy winds, and wintry beaven oppressed. Id.
mental Enquiry into some parts of the Animal Young lean cattle may by their growth pay for their
Structure, 1740. 2. Ap Enquiry into the Exility wintering, and so be ready to fat next summer. Mort.
of the vessels of the Human Body, 1743. 3. De He that makes no reflections on what he reads, only Morquibusdam, 2 vols. 1782 and 1791. 4. An loads his mind with a rhapsody of tales, fit in winte. Accurate edition of Dr. Mead's Monita et Præcepta nights for the entertainment of others. Locke. Medica; cum multis notis. He died at London,
Winter is that season of the year wherein the days 10th January, 1794. are shortest.
Watts. WINWOOD (Sir Ralph) was born in 1565, at The storms of wintry Time shall quickly pass, Aynhoe in Northampton, and educated at MagdaAnd one unbounded Spring encircle all. Thomson. len College, Oxford He became secretary to Sir
Winter, one of the four seasons or quarters of Henry Neville, minister at Paris, in 1589. In the year. See SEASON, &c. Winter commences 1607 king James knighted him, and sent bim on the day when the sun's distance from the zenith ambassador to Holland, and in 1614 made him of the place is greatest, and ends on the day when secretary of state and a privy counsellor. He its distance is at a mean between the greatest and died in 1617; and his Memoirs of State Affairs ieast. Under the equator, the winter as well as were published soon after in 1 vol. folio. other seasons return twice every year; but all other WIPE, v. a. & n. s.) Sax. pipaa; Belg. wip places have only one winter in the year; which in WI'PER, n. s. To cleanse by rubbing;
strike gently off; clear away; efface (taking out); only weighing one ounce, as Dr. Halley informs touch : the act of wiping; a blow; stroke; trick; us, is usually drawn into a wire two yards of wbic!. an instrument or agent of wiping.
weigh no more than forty-nine grains, and one The next bordering Jords commonly encroach one single grain of gold covers the ninety-eight yards; upon another, as one is stronger, or lie still in wait to so that the 10,000th part of a grain is above oneuipe them out of their lands.
eighth of an inch long. Such a handkerchief,
WIRKSKORTII, a market town and parish va I'm sure it was your wife's, did I to-day
the hundred of the same name, Derbyshire, twelve See Cassio wipe his beard with.
miles N. N. IV. of Derby, and 139 north-west by Let me vipe off this honourable dew,
north of London. That silvery doth progress on thy cheeks. Id.
WIRLEY (William), rouge-croix poursuivant The maids and their inakes,
of arms, published The True Use of Arms showed At dancing and wakes,
by History, and plainly proved by Example, 4to. Had their napkins and posies,
lle died in 1618. And the wipers for their noses.
Ben Jonson Calumniate stoutly; for, though we wipe away with
with WIRTEMBERG, a state of South West Gernever so much care the dirt thrown at us, there will be many, which, since 1806, has borne the title of lest some sulliage behind.
Decay of Piety. kingdom. It forms part of the old circle of Suabi, She a gentle tear let fall
having Bavaria on the east, and the long narrow From either eye, and wiped them with her hair. Milton. territory of Baden on the west. It extends from
Take one in whom decrepid old age has blotted out long. 8° 7' to 10° 30' E., lat. 45° 36' to 49° 45' N the memory of his past knowledge, and clearly wiped out Its oblong form, extending from north to south, is the ideas his mind was formerly stored with. Locke. similar to that of the principality of Wales; and
A young man, having suffered many tortures, escaped its area, about 8000 square miles, is not much with life, and told his fellow Christians, that the pain greater; but its soil is far more fertile, and its of them had been rendered tolerable by the presence of
population is at present(1822) not under 1,400,000. an angel, who stood by him and wiped off the tears and
Its territorial division is into the four circles of sweat.
the Jaxt, the Neckar, the Black Forest, and the To statesmen would you give a wipe
Danube. These are farther divided into twelve You print it in Italick type : When letters are in vulgar shapes,
small counties, each of which is subdivided into 'Tis ten to one the wit escapes.
Seift. bailiwics. The foundation of this state was the WIPE, a town and river of Prussia, in Samland. old duchy of Wirtemberg, augmented, since 1801, WIRE, 1. s. ) French virer, to draw
by various towns of the empire acquired, and
abbeys, priories, and other ecclesiastical possesWIRE DRAW,2.a. round.-Skinner. Metal
sions secularised in the present age. The towns of WIRE DRAWER, n. s. ) drawn into slender threads : to spin into wire; draw out into length
Wirtemberg are thinly scattered; the principal
are Stutgard, the capital, containing 22,000 inliterally or metaphorically
habitants; Ulm 15,600 ; Tubingen 5700; Hall Thou shalt be whipt with wire, and stewed in brine, 5500: Ludwigsburg 5500; Biberach 4400; hirchSmarting in lingering pickle.
heim 4100 ; Schorndorf 3500; Calw 3400; Creilller veil and mantle pluckt they off by force, And bound her tender arms in twisted uire. Fairfax.
sheim 3100. And the cherubick host, in thousand quires,
The great natural features of this country are Touch their immortal harps of golden wires. Milton, masses or ranges of mountains; one called th
Those who have need of unmixed silver, as gilders Black Forest extending along the western frontier, and wiredrauers, must, beside an equal weight of silver in a line nearly parallel to the course of the Rhine; mixed with other metals, give an overplus to reward the other, less known out of Germany, called the the rehner's skill.
Locke. Alp, or All, an insulated range of rocky hills, I have been wrongfully accused, and my sense wire- destitute of wood, and, in some measure, of ver(rawn into blasphemy.
Drydenl. cure, which begins near the small town of Rotweil, Wire, a piece of metal drawn successively and traverses the kingdom in a north-east direction. through a number of iron plate holes into a thread, On these lofty tracts the climate is cold and bleak, of a fineness answerable to the last hole it passed but the rest of the country is covered with emithrough. See Gold WIRE, and WIRE-DRAWING. nences or bills of moderate clevation, intersected
WIRE, one of the small Orkney Islands, sepa- by pleasant valleys, which enjoy a climate fully as rated from Rousay by a strait one mile broad. mild and steady as similar parallels of latitude in
WIRE DRAWING. Wires are frequently drawn the north of France, viz. Champagne, Picardy, and so fine as to be wrought along with other threads Normandy. The two principal rivers are the of silk, wool, fax, &c. The metals most com- Danube and Neckar. The other rivers are the monly drawn into wire are gold, silver, copper, and Enz, the Mulir, the Kocker, the Jaxt, and the Tauiron. Gold wire is made of cylindrical ingots of ber; the lake of Constance borders an angle of the silver covered over with gold, and thus drawn southern extremity of the kingdom. successively through a vast number of holes, each On the whole this is one of the most fertile tracts smaller and smaller, till at last it is brought 10 a in Germany. In the level districts of the north, fineness exceeding that of a hair. Before it bc corn of all kinds succeeds extremely well; but the reduced to this excessive fineness, it is drawn rugged surface of the Black forest is fit only for the through above 140 different holes; and is every pasture of cattle; that of the Alb for sheep. Potime rubbed over with wax, both to facilitate its tatoes, hemp, and fax, are cultivated in various passage, and to prevent the cold from being rub. parts, particularly in the grounds of medium elevabed off'. That admirable ductility which is one of tion. Fruits of various kinds abound throughout the distinguishing characters of gold is no where the country; and complete woods of apple and more conspicuous than in gilt wire. A cylinder of pear trees are to be seen in different places. The forty-eighi ounces of siler, with a coat of gold climate hus suficient warmth for the cultivation of