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mercury during the time of the horizontal flow, but also their carriages. llence, agreeably to this plan the air contained in the other cisteru must, from its the windage of a nine-pounder will be 166 of an communication by the pipe, suffer a like expansion, inch, consequently a sufficient thickness for a ladle; and the columns will subside equally.'

and those of a higher calibre become still thicker That this reasoning is also fallacious may be in proportion. thus shown: That the air, even after its dila WINDFLOWER. See ANEMONE. tation' in its passage through the cistern, is still WINDGALLS. Sec VETERINARY ART. considerably denser than the surrounding air (other WIND-Gun. See AIR-GUN. wise the blast would cease) is beyond dispute; WINDHAM (William), a modern statesman of whence then the fall of the mercury? it should eminence, was the son of colonel Windham of rather rise; this explanation is evidently inadequate. Felbrigge in Norfolk. He was born in London in That the difference of size in the induction and 1750, and educated at Eton, whence he was reexit-pipes will effect the result is admitted: indeed moved to Glasgow, and subsequently to University it is evident; and I am inclined to think that, if in College, Oxford. He came into parliament in the above case, the blast had been equally swift 1782 as member for Norwich, being then also seand less confined, the result would have been cretary to the earl of Northington, lord-lieutenant mure striking, and therefore that the influence of of Ireland. He sided with the opposition until the the strongest wind ever known would not be quite celebrated secession from the whig party in 1793, insiguificant.' The professor continues, "Such is when he followed Mr. Burke and was appointed unquestionably the true explication of the fact,' and secretary at war. This office he retained until the confirms it by an experiment.

resignation of Mr. Pitt in 1801, and much distinThe reas on given in the latter case is undoubt- guished himself by his opposition to the treaty of edly just, but not so in the former; for to produce Amiens. On Mr. Addington's being driven from a rarefaction of the air in the cylinder it is neces- the helm a new administration was again formed sary that more air should pass out through the exter- by Mr. Pitt, which terminating at his death, in 1806, nal aperture than is injected at the other, an inci- lord Grenville, in conjunction with Mr. Fox, made dent which we cannot look for.

up the administration so well known by the desigThe learned professor proposes a new theory of nation of All the Talents. In this short-lived cathe variations of the barometer, the principle of binet Mr. Windham held the post of secretary of which is, That as a horizontal current of air must, war and colonies, in which capacity he carried his from the form of the earth, continually deflect from bill for limited service in the regular army. His its rectilineal course, such a deflection being of the death took place May 17th, 1810, in consequence same nature as a centrifugal force, must diminish of a contusion of the hip, produced by a fall while the weight or pressure of the fluid. This may be exerting himself to save from the flames the library sufficient to account for the fall of the barometer in of his friend Mr. North. The eloquence of Mr. high winds, but it necessarily ascribes the rise of Windham was forcible, pointed, and peculiar, and it to a cause merely negative, viz. the absence of he was a sound scholar. wind, yet the rise of the barometer in a north-east WINDHATCH, in mining, a term used to exwind is often very considerable. On the other press the place at which the ore is taken out of the hand, if we consider the north wind as blowing mines. downwards (which we may perhaps do as coming A WINDLASS is a machine used for raising huge from a colder region) the fact accords with Mr. weights, as guns, stones, anchors, &c. It is very Hawksbee's theory.

simple, consisting only of an axis or roller supWINDAGE of a gun, mortar, or howitzer, in ported horizontally at the two ends by two pieces military affairs, the difference between the diameter of wood and a pulley; the two pieces of wood of the bore and the diameter of the shot or shell. meet at top, being placed diagonally so as to prop In England the diameter of the shot is supposed to each other; the axis or roller goes through the two be divided into twenty equal parts, and the dia- pieces and turns in them. The pulley is fastened meter of the bore into twenty-one of those parts. at top where the pieces join. Lastly, there are The French divide the shot into twenty-six, and two staves or handspikes which go through the he bore into twenty-seven. The Prussians divide roller, whereby it is turned, and the rope which he shot into twenty-four, and the bore into twenty- comes over the pulley is wound off and on the ive. The Dutch nearly the same as the English. same. Iu a small ship the windlass is placed upon The general windage or shells in England is one the deck, just abaft the foremast. ourth of an inch, let them be large or small, which A WINDMILL is a kind of mill, the internal

contrary to all reason. It is evident that the parts of which are much the same with those of a ss windage a shot or shell has, the farther and water-mill; from wbich, however, it differs in being muer it will go ; and, having less room to bounce moved by the impulse of the wind upon its sails om side to side, the gun will not be spoiled so or vanes, which are to be considered as a wheel in pon.

axis. It is true that some artillery officers say that the Window (vindue, Danish : some imagine it to indage of a gun should be equal to the thickness have been originally wind-door), in architecture. f the ladle; because, when it has been loaded for This word has various derivations. Perhaps the while, the shot will not come out without being most direct is the Danish one first cited; but there osened thereby, in order to unload it; and when can be little doubt that the original meaning of the is cannot be done it must be fired away, and so word was, like the Welsh term wynt dor, a passage st: but, in our humble opinion, the most advan. for the wind. In fact it is still provincially denoreous windage would be in dividing the shot minated windor in Lancashire, as it is (though with to twenty-four equal parts, and the bore into no such retrospective intention) among the citizens enty-five, on account of the convenient scale it of Cockaigne.' Windows are an essential part of 'ords, not only to construct guns thereby but every building, since light is one of the principal VOL XXII.

2T

necessaries of existence. At the same time they together with the ventilators, contribute greaty may be so introduced as to contribute to orna- to preserve the health of the crew. mental as well as useful purposes; and the archi- WIND-SHOCK (wind and shock), a name giren tect who thoroughly understands his profession will by farmers to a disteinper to which fruit trees, and take especial care that they do so contribute. Nothing sometimes timber trees, are subject. It is a som can be more tasteless and ugly than the hole in the of bruise and shiver throughout the whole substan wall' which is commonly denominated a window. of the tree; but, the bark being often not affects Grace may be displayed not only in their number, by it, it is not seen on the outside, while the insita size, and disposition, but in their shape and orna- is twisted round and greatly injured. It is by som ments. The proportions of windows should of supposed to be occasioned by high winds; bet course vary according to the usages of different others attribute it to lightning. Those trees a countries, and these usages are influenced by most usually affected by it whose boughs grow me divers causes, such as climate, degrees of tempera- out on one side than on the other. The best way a ture, length of days, clearness of sky, &c., &c. In preventing this in valuable trees is to take care a countries where, as in our own, the sun has seldom the plantation that they are sheltered well, and to any very fierce sway, even in summer, and where cut them frequently in a regular manner vi the winter is long and dreary, the windows should young. be large and numerous, in order to convey to the WINDSOR, New, a borough and market let. interior of the house as much as possible of the in Berkshire, situated on the Thames, tweatslight and heat that nature affords. On the other miles west by south of London; containing *** hand, in hot climates, they may be fewer and of houses and 4288 inhabitants; viz. 1964 malesa less extent. Thus, then, it is impossible to lay 2324 females. This town has belonged to te down precise rules for the construction of these crown ever since the conquest, and has of late sa portions of architecture; but nevertheless there are much improved; it consists of six principal part, rules springing out of the principles of solidity, and several inferior ones. The former 2 convenience, agreement of parts, and the pleasure paved and lighted. The parish church, wie is which arises from an harmonious combination recently been rebuilt, is a neat, handsome, la See PROPORTION.

structure. In the High Street stands the le In the most ancient eras, the windows of habi- hall, or Town House, a neat structure, superi tations were very small and narrow; and the same by columns and arches of Portland stone. 02 remark obtains with regard to the castles and other north side is a statue of queen Anne, and on be edifices constructed during the middle ages. In south side that of prince George of Denmark; 5. the painting on the Greek vase which represents inside is adorned with the portraits of many me Jupiter about to scale the window of Alcmena, the personages. opening is exceedingly small. According to Seneca Windsor contains many handsome buildings those of the baths of Scipio were so little that they but its chief pride is its castle, which for more than merited not the name, and might rather be denomi- 700 years has been a favorite residence of the nated crevices. As the Romans improved, however, tish kings. It was first erected by William t in the elegant arts, this particular was not over- Conqueror, soon after the conquest, received looked, and both their town and country houses tions from many succeeding monarchs, and ez were decorated with numerous and ample windows. Edward III. was almost entirely rebuilt: de It was not customary, though, to have them overlook- the mischief and plunder of the civil war it because ing the street; and they were in the majority of in- in some degree dilapidated; but it was restored i stances confined to the interior court of the house. its ancient state and splendor by Charles II. ! The windows of the temple of Jerusalem were noble edifice is situated on a high hill, haragi larger withinside than without; and appear to beautiful command of the Thames. On the case have served the double purpose of admitting light vity is a terrace, faced with a rampart of freest and giving vent to the fumes of the incense which being 1870 feet long; at the end of this va'da was so plentifully burned. The ancient temples gate leading into the parks, which are several ! had not generally windows ; some exceptions, how- in circumference, and surrounded by a brick ral ever, exist to this observation. Before the use of The castle is divided into two courts or wards, E glass became common, which was not till towards a large round tower or keep between there, u the end of the twelfth century, the windows in this whole occupying about twelve acres of land, 11 country seem generally to have been composed of having many batteries and towers for its det paper; which, properly prepared with oil, forms The upper court consists of a spacious ça no contemptible defence against the intrusions of bounded on the west by the round tower, @ 7 the weather.

morth by the royal apartments, St. George: 2 WINDPIPE. See ANATOMY, Index.

and the royal chapel; and on the east and so WIND-SAIL (wind and sail), a sort of wide tube by the chambers appropriated for the officers or funnel of canvas, employed to convey a stream state. In the centre of this square is an equest of fresh air downward into the lower apartments statue of king Charles II, in the habit of a KS of a ship. This machine is usually extended by Cæsar ; underneath is a curious engine to su large hoops situated in different parts of its height. water for the castle. The keep or tower 15 4 It is let down perpendicularly through the hatches, lodging of the constable or governor, built es being expanded at the lower end like the base of a form of an amphitheatre, ascended to by a dist cone, and having its upper side open on the side stone steps. Here is the guard room or misin? which is placed to windward, so as to receive the for arms, curiously arranged. Over the chur full current of wind; which, entering the cavity, carved in lime wood the star and garter, etc! fills the tube, and rushes downwards into the lower passed with daggers and pistols. The lower regions of the ship. There are generally three or is larger than the upper, and is divided in four of these in our capital ships of war, which, parts by St. George's Chapel, which stands EU middle, and is reckoned one of the finest Gothic heen lately erected, but it is only opened during structures of the kind in being; on the north side the vacations at Eton College. Here are extensive of this court are the houses and apartments of the barracks for horse and foot soldiers. On the south dean and canons, and other officers; and on the side of this town is Windsor Great Park, well west side are the houses of the poor knights of stocked with deer, fourteen miles in circumference; Windsor. These poor knights, eighteen in number, the entrance is by a road called the Long Walk, have a premium of £18 per annum, and annually a nearly three miles in length, through a double gown of scarlet cloth, with a mantle of blue or plantation of trees on each side, leading to the purple cloth, on the sleeve of which is embroidered Ranger's Lodge; on the north and east side of the the cross of St. George. The royal apartments are castle is the Little Park, about four miles in circumon the north side of the court, called the star build- ference : Queen Elizabeth's Walk herein is much ing, from having the star and garter in gold on the frequented. At the entrance of this park is the outside. The entrance is from the upper ward, Queen's Lodge, of recent erection. This building through a handsome vestibule, which has under- stands on an easy ascent opposite the upper court, gone a total alteration from designs by Mr. Wyatt- on the south side, and commands a beautiful prosville. Almost every room in this division of the pect over the surrounding country. The gardens castle is ornamented with paintings executed by are elegant, and have been much enlarged by the masters of the greatest celebrity. Many of them, addition of the gardens and house of the duke of however, are not originals; and others are of infe- St. Alban's, purchased by his late majesty. In rior merit. The principal rooms of this splendid this park his present majesty has erected a most suite of apartments are the queen's guard chamber, beautiful Cottage Ornée, as a place of occasional the queen's presence chamber, the queen's audience retirement. Windsor Forest, being a circuit of chamber. The ball room, the queen's drawing fifty-six miles, was originally formed for the exerroom, the queen's bed chamber, the room of beau- cise of the chase by our ancient sovereigns; and ties, the queen's dressing room, queen Elizabeth's was also a favorite amusement of his late majesty. or the picture gallery, the king's bed-chamber, the Market on Saturday. king's drawing-room, the king's public dining-room, WINDSOR, OLD, a parish lying to the east of the king's audience-chamber, the king's presence- New Windsor, and adjoining thereto. This was chamber, and the king's guard room. A grant of anciently the residence of the Saxon kings, that £500,000 was made by parliament in 1824 for re- part called New Windsor having chiefly risen since pairing and embellishing this magnificent castle, the time of William I. Here are several elegant which is now nearly fioished.

houses situated on the banks of the Thames. Near St. George's hall is set apart entirely to the the church is a mineral spring, called St. Peter's honor of the most illustrious order of the garter. Well. The length of this supurb chamber is 108 feet. The WINDSOR, a county on the east side of Vermont, chapel of St. George was originally a chapel dedi- bounded north by Orange county, east by Conneccated to Edward the Confessor, wherein Henry ticut River, south by Windham county, and west by I. placed eight secular priests, pensioners. It was Rutland and Addison counties. Chief towns Wind. rebuilt by Edward III., and established as a col- sor and Woodstock. legiate church, having a dean, twelve canons, thir- WINDSOR, a post town of Windsor county, Verteen minor canons, four clerks, six choristers, and mont, on the west bank of the Connecticut, eighteen twenty-six poor alms knights. This structure owes miles south of Dartmouth College, sixty-one south its present form to Edward IV., and its completion of Montpelier, and 112 north-west of Boston. It to Henry VII. Here lie interred, under the choir, is a very pleasant, handsome, and flourishing town, the bodies of Heory VIII. and Jane Seymour, one of the largest in the state, and has considerable Charles I. and a daughter of queen Anne; adjoin- trade. It contains a court house, a state prison, ing the east end is a neat building erected by and an academy for young ladies, two handsome Henry VII. as a burial place for himself and suc houses of public worship, one for Congregationcessors; a most sumptuous monument was after- alists, and one for Baptists. An Episcopal church wards erected here by Cardinal Wolsey, but he is about to be erected. The state prison usually dying at Leicester was there privately buried. contains upwards of 100 prisoners. The academy This chapel lay neglected until the reign of his is a respectable institution, and has from seventy late majesty, by whom it was compleiely repaired, to 100 pupils. The building is of brick, two in 1790; and adorned with rich carvings in wood, stories high. and a new altar-piece, organ, and gallery. The WIND-TAUGHT(wind and taught, for tight), in ceremonies of the installation of the knights of the sea-language, denotes the same as stiff in the wind. garter are performed in this chapel with great state Too much rigging, high masts, or any thing catching and solemnity. In the tower is a neat free-school or holding wind aloft, is said to hold a ship windfor ihirty-six boys and twenty-four girls; and an taught; by which they mean that she stoops too hospital for sick soldiers.

much in her sailing in a stiff gale of wind. Again, Windsor was made a free borough by Edward when a ship rides in a main stress of wind and I., and sent members to parliament in the thirteenth weather, they strike down her topmasts, and bring year of the same reign (which it has continued to her yards down, which else would hold too much do except from 14th of Edward III. until 25th wind, or be too much distended and wind taught. of Henry VI.), who are chosen by the inhabitants WINDWARD, in the sea language, denotes any of the borough paying scot and lot, the number of thing towards that point whence the wind blows, voters being about 400. The corporation consists in respect of a ship: thus windward tide is the of a mayor, two bailiffs, twenty-eight burgesses, tide which runs against the wind. ibirteen of whom are called fellows or benchers of WINDWARD ISLANDS, in opposition to Leeward. the Guildhall; of these, ten, besides the mayor and These islands, in the West Indies, extend from Marbailiffs, are styled alderinen. A neat theatre has tinico to Tobago.

WINDWARD PASSAGE, a name given to a course perfectly together, and its taste and smell becom from the south-east angle of the island of Jamaica, more and more developed. Those who iropon in the West Indies, and extending from 160 leagues wine in large quantities should attend to the line to the north side of Crooked Island, in the Baba- lowing directions about the treatment of it after 1 mas. Ships have often sailed through this channel, arrives. On landing, the less they are exposed the from the north part of it to the island of Cuba, or better; for they are affected by the seasons, en the gulf of Mexico, notwithstanding the common more or less by climate. March and April are the opinion, on account of the current which is against proper times for shipping wines from France, and it, that they keep the Bahama shore on board, and they will be landed in England and Ireland in the that they meet with the wind in summer for the same degree of temperature. The great art i most part of the channel easterly, which, with a keeping wines is to prevent their fretting, which counter current on shore, pushes them easily done by keeping them in the same degree of meer through it.

In spring and fall the wines in Bourdeaux are sobe WINE, n. s. 1 Sax. pin; Belg. vinn ; Gothic ject to changes that may be destructive if not on

Win'y, adj. J and Swed. win. The fermented vented by necessary rackings : these changes en juice of the grape : winy, partaking of the quali- solely the effect of the seasons. If wines are chile ties of wine.

and of course turn foul, from being shipped at The increase of the vineyards for the wine cellars. landed in cold weather, they will soon recover by

Chronicles. putting them in a warm vault, well covered Fri e not amongst wine-bibbers, amongst riotous eaters. saw-dust. As soon as they are in the Fault tas

Proverbs.

ought to be covered up. But if shipped and His troops on my strong youth like torrents rusht : landed in summer, if the smallest degree of the As in a wine-press Judah's daughter crusht. Sandys.

ys. mentation be found on them, it will be requiste The wine of life is drawn, and the meer lees Is left this vault to brag of.

Shakspeare.

dip the bung cloths in brandy, and leave the line Where the wine-press is hard wrought, it yields a

loose for some days, to give it time to cool ; and if a harsh wine that tastes of the grape-stone. Bacon

a fortnight or three weeks the fermentation de 16 Set cucumbers among muskmelons, and see whether cease, and the wine become bright, it will be paper the melons will not be more winy, and better tasted. to rack it (matching the hogsheads well with bra

Id. stone), and force it with the whites of eightees E With large wine-offerings pour'd, and sacred feast. it then become fine, bung it tight, and let it redz 29

Milton. until it is bottled. If wines new landed are vara! The firstlings of the flock are doomed to die;

soon for the bottle, it will be necessary to force to Rich fragrant wines the cheering bowl supply. Pope. immediately, and let them remain bunged close irt

Wine is an agreeable spirituous liquor, pro- least a month, to recover from the forcing, or if tw duced by fermentation from those vegetable sub- months the better; for wines bottled in bigt code stances that contain saccharine matter. A very come much sooner into drinking than if botte great number of vegetable substances may be made when flat, which all wines are after forcing. to afford wine, as grapes, currants, mulberries, Wine must never be bottled the least foul, sic elder, cherries, apples, pulse, beans, pease, turnips, produces a tendency to fret; and, if bottled in 0 radishes, and even grass itself. Hence under the state, will never come in order, but may possitory class of wines, or vinous liquors, come not only be lost: for this there is no remedy but reperta wines, alsolutely so called, but also ale, cyder, &c.' rackings; and care must be taken (after fitsiti But the term wine is more particularly appropriated the hogsheads well and drawing them) to ben ! to the liquor drawn from the fruit of the vine. good piece of match in them. This chos *

When the grapes are ripe, and the saccharine wine, and there is no danger of hurting the end principle is developed, they are then pressed, and for it recovers it in a little time; but, if it did, the juice which flows out is received in vessels of absolutely necessary; for, if wine is suffered a proper capacity, in which the fermentation ap- continue on the fret, it will wear itself to nothing pears, and proceeds in the following manner :- At It sometimes happens that wines scuddy and se the end of several days, and frequently after a few born will not fall with one or even two forumo hours, according to the heat of the atmosphere, the It will then be proper to give them five or si nature of the grapes, the quantity of the liquid, lons of good strong wine, and force them wib and the temperature of the place in which the whites of a dozen eggs, with a tea spoonful of a operation is performed, a movement is produced produced from sawing marble, or a small spect in the liquor, which continually increases; the of fine salt. Bottled wine in winter should ta volume of the Auid increases; it becomes turbid well covered with saw.dust, and, if the Faults and oily; carbonic acid is disengaged, which fills cold and damp, strew it deep on the floor; ** all the unoccupied part of the vessel; and the tem- dust is thrown upon the hogsheads, and their site perature rises to 725°. At the end of several days are bedded some inches thick, it will keep the ihese tumultuous motions subside, the mass falls, from the fret. The same treatment is to be ngare the liquor becomes clearer, and is found to be less with white wines, except that they require to * saccharine, more odorant, and of a red color, from higher matched, particularly Muscat wines, the re-action of the ardent spirit upon the coloring as Frontignac, Beziers, &c., which, being an matter of the pellicle of the grape. The wine is sweetened with honey, are very subject to fret; usually taken out of the fermenting vessels at the these only frequent rackings, with a great de period when all the phenomena of fermentation brimstone, can cool. Hermitage, from not bez have subsided. When the mass is settled, the color sufficiently dried, and possessing more richi of the liquor is weil developed ; when it has become than claret, is also very liable to come on the clear, and its heat has disappeared, it is put into and will require much the same treatment as casks, where, by a second insensible fermentation, Muscat wines. Attention should be had to be the wine is clarified, its principles combine more in fine weather, when the wind is northa; bu

avoid cold or frosty weather. The months of April is so rarefied that it frequently overflows the vesand October are favorable. The best time to bottle sel containing it, if this be nearly full. An intesport wine is four years after the vintage, and to tine motion is excited among its parts, accompanied keep them two years in bottle before you begin to with a small hissing noise and evident ebullition. use them. When wines are racked, and the lees The bubbles rise to the surface, and at the same immediately passed through flannel bags into close time is disengaged a quantity of carbonic acid of necked jars, and directly bottled, there will be very such purity, and so subtle and dangerous, that it is little lost by rackings, as the wine when fine may capable of killing instantly men and animals exserve for filling up. When wines are destined for posed to it in a place where the air is not renewed. warm climates, it may be roper to rinse the hogs. The skins, stones, and other grosser matters of the heads with brandy; and in bottling many rinse the grapes, are buoyed up by the particles of disenbottles and corks with it. Wines that have remained gaged air that adhere to their surface, are variously a certain time (three or four months) in a vault, agitated, and are raised in form of a scum, or soft and made less or more lee, ought never to be sent and spongy crust, that covers the whole liquor. into the country without first racking them, other- During the fermentation, this crust is frequently wise they may be liable to fret, and if bottled in raised, and broken by the air disengaged from the that state, may risk being lost. Wines which may liquor which forces its way through it; afterward be ordered for immediate drinking will be forced on the crust subsides, and becomes entire as before. the shipping, and in a few weeks after they are These effects continue while the fermentation is landed will be fit for the bottle. The forcings brisk, and at last gradually cease: then the crust, being proper for claret are the whites of a dozen eggs, no longer supported, falls in pieces to the bottom of beaten up with a tea-spoonful of fine salt, and well the liquor. At this time, if we would have a strong worked with a forcing-rod. No bad egg must be and generous wine, all sensible fermentation must used. This is for one hogshead. The forcing for be stopped. This is done by putting the wine into white wine is isinglass dissolved in wine. One close vessels, and carrying these into a cellar or ounce is sufficient for two hogsheads. No salt is other cool place. to be used in forcing the white wines.

After this first operation, an interval of repose Let us now direct our attention to the chemical takes place, as is indicated by the cessation of the character of wines. All those nutritive, vegetable, sensible effects of the spirituous fermentation; and and animal matters which contain sugar ready thus enables us to preserve a liquor no less agreeformed, are susceptible of the spirituous fermenta- able in its taste, than useful for its reviving and tion. Thus wine may be made of all the juices of nutritive qualities when drunk moderately. If we plants, the sap of trees, the infusions and decoc- examine the wine produced by this first fermentations of farinaceous vegetables, the milk of frugi- tion, we shall find that it differs entirely and essenverous animals; and lastly, it may be made of all tially from the juice of grapes before fermentation. ripe succulent fruits: but all these substances are Its sweet and saccharine taste is changed into one not equally proper to be changed into a good and that is very different, though still agreeable, and generous wine.

somewhat spirituous and piquant. It has not As the production of alcohol is the result of the the laxative quality of must, but affects the head, spirituous fermentation, that wine may be con- and occasions, as is well known, drunkenness. sidered as essentially the best, which contains most Lastly, if it be distilled, it yields, instead of the inalcohol. But, of all substances susceptible of the spi. sipid water obtained from must by distillation with rituous fermentation, none is capable of being con- the heat of boiling water, a volatile, spirituous, and verted into so good wine, as the juice of the grapes inflammable liquor called spirit of wine or alcohol. of France, or of other countries that are nearly in This spirit is consequently a new being, produced the same latitude, or in the same temperature. The by the kind of fermentation called the vinous or grapes of hotter countries, and even those of the spirituous. See Alcohol. southern provinces of France, do indeed furnish When any liquor undergoes the spirituous ferwines that have a more agreeable, that is, more of mentation, all its parts seem not to ferment at the a saccharine laste ; but these wines, though they same time, otherwise the fermentation would are sufficiently strong, are not so spirituous as those probably be very quickly completed, and the apof the provinces near the middle of France: at pearances would be much more striking: hence, in least from these latter wines the best vinegar and a liquor much disposed to fermentation, this motion brandy are made. As an example, therefore, of is more quick and simultaneous than in another spirituous fermentation in general, we shall describe liquor less disposed. Experience has shown that the method of making wine from the juice of the a wine, the fermentation of which is very slow and grapes of France. This juice, when newly expres- tedious, is never good or very spirituous; and theresed, and before it has begun to ferment, is called fore, when the weather is too cold, the fermentation must, and in common language sweet wine. It is is usually accelerated by heating the place in which turbid, but has an agreeable andvery saccharine taste. the wine is made. A proposal has been made, by It is very laxative; and, when drunk too freely, or a person very intelligent in economical affairs, to by persons disposed to diarrhæas, it is apt to occa- apply a greater than the usual heat to accelerate the sion these disorders. Its consistence is somewhat fermentation of the wine, in those years in which less fluid than that of water, and it becomes almost grapes have not been sufficiently ripened, and when of a pitchy thickness when dried.

the juice is not sufficiently disposed to fermentation. When the must is pressed from the grapes, and A too hasty and violent fermentation is perhaps put into a proper vessel and place, with a tempera- also hurtful, from the dissipation and loss of some ture between fifty-five and sixty degrees, very sen- of the spirit; but of this we are not certain. Howsible effects are produced in it, in a shorter or ever, we may distinguish, in the ordinary method of longer time, according to the nature of the liquor, making wines of grapes, two periods in the fermenand the exposure of the place. It then swells, and tation, the first of which lasts during the appearance

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