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The same rule may be observed for any number A river went out of Eden to water the garden. of hours required, by multiplying the number of
Gen. ii. 10. hours by the pinion given, and dividing the pro- He set the rods he had pulled before the flocks in the duct by the number of the great-wheel teeth; the gutters in the watering troughs. Gen. xxx. 38. quotient will give the turns for the chain on the fusee.
As the hart panteth after the water-brook, so panteth WatchES, REPEATING, are such as by pulling a ? Tic. are such as by pulling my soul after thee, O God.
"Travel by land or by water. Common Prayer. string, &c., repeat the hour, quarter, or minute, at
Forth flowed fresh any time of the day or night. This repetition was A gushing river of black gory blood. the invention of Mr. Barlow, and first put in prac. Thåt drowned all the land whereon he stood : tice by him in larger movements or clocks, about The stream thereof would drive a watermill. Spenser. the year 1676. The contrivance immediately set Now 'gan the golden Phæbus for to steep the other artists to work, who soon contrived divers His fiery face in billows of the west, ways of effecting the same. But its application to And his faint steeds watered in ocean deep, pocket watches was not known before king James Whilst from their journal labours they did rest. ld. II.'s reign; when the ingenious inventor above- His horsemen kept them in so strait, that no man mentioned, having directed Mr. Thompson to could, without great danger, go to water his horse. make a repeating watch, was soliciting a patent
Knolles. for the same. The talk of a patent engaged Mr.
The watery kingdom is no bar Quare to resume the thoughts of a like contrivance. To stop the foreign spirits ; but they come, which he had had in view some years before : he
cho As o'er a brook, to see fair Portia. 'Shakspeare.
Mine eyes, now effected it; and, being pressed to endeavour to prevent Mr. Barlow's patent, a watch of each
Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine,
Began to water. kind was produced before the king and council; There be land-rats and water-rats.
Id. upon trial of which the preference was given to
If thou couldst, doctor, cast Mr. Quare's. The difference between them was, The water of my land, find her disease, that Barlow's was made to repeat by pushing in And purge it to a sound and pristine health, two pieces on each side of the watch box; one of I would applaud thee. which repeated the hour and the other the quarter ;
'Tis a good form, whereas Quare's was made to repeat by a pin that And rich : here is a water, look ye ! stuck out near the pendant, which being thrust in I have seen in the Indies far greater waterfalls than
e of Nilus. (as now it is done by thrusting in the pendant those of
Raleigh. 10. repeated both the hour and quarter with the Waterfowl joy most in that air which is likest water.
Bacon. same thrust.
A man's nature runs to herbs or weeds; therefore WATCHFIELD a hamlet of England, in Berk- let him seasonably water the one, and destroy the other. shire, dear Great Farringdon.
Id. WATEEHOO, an island in the South Pacific Cardinal Wolsey's teeth watering at the bishoprick Ocean, six miles long and four broad, discovered by of Winchester, sent one unto bishop Fox, who had adcaptain Cook in 1777. It is a beautiful spot, with vanced him, for to move him to resign the bishoprick. the surface varied by hills and plains, and covered
Camden. with verdure. The language spoken was equally well The nymphs of floods are made very beautiful; understood by Omai, and by two New Zealanders. upon their heads are garlands of water-cresses. What its peculiarities may be, when compared with
Peacham. the other dialects, captain Cook was not able to
in This ill weed, rather cut off by the ground than point out. Long. 158° 15' W., lat. 20° 1'S.
plucked up by the root, twice or thrice grew forth WATELET (Claud Henry), a celebrated poet
again; but yet, maugre the warmers and waterers, hath been ever parched up.
Carew. and lexicographer, born at Paris, in 1718. He was By water they found the sea, westward from Peru, a member of the French Academy, and of several always very calm.
Abbot. foreign societies. He was also receiver general of Engines invented for mines and waterworks often fail the finances ; yet he died poor, in 1786. He wrote in the performance.
Wilkins, a poem on the Art of Painting ; several Comedies;
Those few escaped and other pieces of merit ; and left A Dictionary Famine and anguish will at last consume, of Painting, Sculpture, and Engraving, which was Wandering that watery desart. published after his death.
These reasons made his mouth to water WATER, n. s., v.a., & v. n.
Hudibras. With amorous longings to be at her.
Sax. pæter; WA'TERCOLORS, n. s.
The pike is bold, and lies near the top of the water,
waeter ; WA'TERCRESSES,
watching the motion of any frog, or water-rat, or
Valton, Goth. wats, watz. Let them lie dry twelve months to kill the walerWATERFALL, A compound aë- weeds, as water-lilies and bull-rushes.
riform fluid. See Chaste moral writing we may learn from hence, WA'TERGRUEL,
below. The sea; Neglect of which no wit can recompense ; WATERINESS,
Surine; vein or The fountain which from Helicon proceeds, WATERISH, adj.
lustre of a dia. That sacred stream, should never water weeds. WA'TERMAN, n. s. mond : to water
is to irrigate : Painters make colours into a soft consistence with WATERMILL,
supplywith drink water or oil; those they call watercolours, and these WA'TERRAT,
Boyle. or moisture : dic they term oil colours. WATERWORK, n. s.
versify, as with
Could tears water the lovely plant, so as to make it WA'TERY, adj.
grow again after once 'tis cut down, your friends would
wars, " Shea he so far from accusing your passion, that they would moisture ; get or take in water : the compounds encourage it, and share it.
Temple. do not seem to need particular explanation: water- Where the principles are only phlegm, what can be ish and watery mean resembling water; thin; li- expected from the waterish matter, but an insipid manquid; boggy
hood, and a stupid old infancy?
Teutonic wasser ; mouse.
Betwixt us and you wide oceans flow,
relieves the eye of the traveller for miles; and the And watery desarts.
Id cases of the same desert regions, where, on the Men and beasts
slightest supply of water, all is life and fertility: or, Were born above the tops of trees that grew
in still more surprising and magnificent contrast, On the utmost margin of the watermark.
Id. Rain carried away apples, together with a dunghill
the margin and depths of the ocean, abounding in that lay in the water-course.
living creatures of every size, and plants of all de
L'Estrange. For breakfast milk, milk-pottage, watergruel, and
scriptions. fummery, are very fit to make for children. Locke.
Water, as an aliment of man, has naturally enThe different ranging the superficial parts of velvet gaged much of his attention. Considered in its and watered silk, does the like.
Id. various forms and preparations, no single article of You may water the lower land when you will. food is so important to him. For this he first ex
Mortimer. plored the depths of the earth; in all ages, and Other mortar, used in making water-courses, cis- under all forms of religion, for this he has looked terns, and fishponds, is very hard and durable. Moxon. to heaven. Tribes of men, in early ages, as we No heterogeneous mixture use, as some
read in Scripture, have been ready to go to war for With watery turnips have debased their wines. Philips.
particular wells; and the Bedouin Arabs frequently A pendulous sliminess answers a pituitous state, or shed each other's blood to obtain possession of an acerbity, which resembles the tartar of our humours; or waterishness, which is like the serosity of our blood.
them to this day. In the recent expedition of Floyer.
major Dubarn into central Africa, the party arrived Not Lacedæmon charms me more
soon after noon, with the thermometer at 110° in Than high Albana's airy walls,
the shade, at the well of Burr Kashifery. The Resounding with her waterfalls.
Addison. well was guarded (says our traveller); and we were Mountains, that run from one extremity of Italy to told that until the shickh mina appeared not a the other, give rise to an incredible variety of rivers drop was to be drawn. Towards evening the that water it.
Id. shickh appeared on the hills to the north-west alWhen the big lip, and watery eye,
tended by his troop. He seemed vastly glad to Tell me the rising storm is nigh;
see us; said the well was ours—that our water'Tis then thou art yon angry main,
skins should be filled, and our camels should be Deformed by winds, and dashed by rain. Prior. The waterman forlorn, along the shore,
watered before any body, and for nothing; and Pensive reclines upon his useless oar.
then, said be, sultan George the Great must be The forerunners of an apoplexy are dulness, night. obliged to Mina Tahr, the woody chief of Gunda. mares, weakness, wateriness, and turgidity of the eves. ænd that will give more pleasure to Tahr's heart
Arbuthnot. than payment; and who knows, said he, but when Less should I dawb it o'er with transitory praise,
sultan George hears this he may send me a sword.' And watercolours of these days :
Thus, regarded as the common food of the vegetaThese days ! where e'en the extravagance of poetry ble and animal kingdoms, water becomes connected Is at a loss for figures to express
with agriculture, and various mechanical arts to Men's follies, whimsies, and inconstancy. Swift. obtain and preserve it, or to diffuse its living Go to bed, after you have made water.
streams. Penetrating the atmosphere, and circuWATER. In this paper we propose to draw into lating above our heads, it is associated with the a focus a few popular and familiar views that may whole doctrine of aerial and atmospherical phennbe taken of this interesting subject, referring to the mena. It assists largely in painting the beautiful articles Air, CHEMISTRY, &c., for the more full scenery of the sky, and in the whole economy of elucidation of the scientific laws and principles in- the clouds, while held in solution as vapor; now volved. Our chief object is to lead the general answering the purpose of a screen to the earth from reader to the portal of its chemical characteristics. the too powerful and scorching rays of the sun, and No substance in nature may more properly be now yielding in fertilising showers, and in the called the common want' of all the vegetables, gentle dew from heaven,' its most essential nouall the animals, all the races of mankind, than rishment. Need we add that water, as a universal water-and none is more widely diffued. Its inti- solvent, is also, in its elastic and fluid state, a unimate connexion with life, throughout all the variety versal cleanser; tbus readily mixing with and asof living forms, will appear at once from the consi- sisting all other bodies of this character; or that it deration that no animal or vegetable exists, for any has become in almost every language, therefore, a two successive instants of time, in precisely the symbol of purity; and in that of the conscience same state; it is constantly undergoing, we mean, and the Bible of that purity of heart without which some internal motion or change arising from its no man shall see God? In other views of it, as in peculiar organisation. Its most solid parts are the wide spread seas, it is the handmaid of comformed and sustained by decomposition from cir- merce, the high road of nations; in the larger rivers culating fluids—and the basis of all the fluids thus the foundation of the opulence of cities; spreading circulating through every vessel and tube of orga. or uniting mankind in a great scheme of provinised existence is water. On the other hand, how dence; conveying from shore to shore, and interabundantly does it minister to life externally! It changing from town to town, the productions of has often been called the natural food of plants. all the earth. While in the earth alone, deprived of moisture, Snow and ice are but forms of water--most inall decay and perish: in water alone many of them portant and beneficial forms. Thty assist in agriwill live and flourish to perfection. Witness the culture, as commissioned to clothe the ground, and bulbous roots thus sustained, with which the ladies protect and feed its productions in their tenderest contrive to ornament our drawing-rooms; or the state. The temperature of both in northern winters more homely experiment of growing mustard and is not below the freezing point of 32°, while (in cress on wetted baize. Witness, on a larger scale, northern parts of the Russian empire for instance) those arid parts of the earth where nothing living the surrounding air is sometimes 60° or 70° below
that point. In their congealed state they shield We have mentioned the expansion and contracboth plants and aniinals, therefore, from the more tion of water as it freezes or thaws. According to piercing cold of the atmosphere, and even the de- the calculations of the Florentine academicians, a licate horse will prefer lying in the common fields spherule, or little globe of water, only one inch in of a snowy night to the shelter of a common shed. diameter, expands in freezing with a force superior The water they again yield in a fluid state is the to the resistance of thirteen tons and a half weight. first nourishment of the plants in early spring; Major Williams attempted to prevent this expanwhile both the expansion and contraction of the sion; but during the operation the iron plug which water in this wonderful process tends to pulverise stopped the orifice of the bomb-shell containing the soil, and to separate its parts from each other; the freezing water, and which was more than two to act, therefore, as the most effective plough that pounds weight, was projected several hundred feet is ever put into the ground; rendering the whole with great velocity; and in another experiment the penetrable to the air, the dews, the warmth of the shell burst. The law in question is eminently imsun, and to the other nutritive agencies of vegetation. portant, and nature has made it unalterable. This
To regard our subject popularly for a few mj- property of water is taken advantage of in splitting nutes longer, we meet with ice, common water, slate. At Colly Western the slates are dug from and steam, the three principal forms of water, ac- the quarries in large blocks. These are placed in cording to the different degrees of heat with which an opposite direction to what they had in the it is combined. Deprived of its usual quantity of quarry, and the rain is allowed to fall upon them; caloric it assumes a solid form at 32° Fahrenheit; when it penetrates their fissures, and the first sharp and near the poles may be formed, by the chisel of frost freezes the water, which, expanding with its the statuary, similarly to stone or the hardest rocks. usual force, splits the slate into thin layers. A mimic palace, it is well known, was built at St. Let us now look again, and a little more closely, Petersburgh, during the severe winter of 1740, at water as a fluid. In this state it is comparafrom the ice of the river Neva. It was fifty-two tively transparent, and distilled water is as much feet long by sixteeen wide, consisting of blocks so as any body in nature-colorless, tasteless, and from two to three feet thick, disposed and ornamented without smell. It is also without change, in prowith great care and taste, various parts being finely portion as it is free from admixtures; it seems colored by water of different tints sprinkled upon liable to no spontaneous changes; and might be them. Ten cannon were made of and mounted kept unaltered for ages in close vessels upon which with ice at this time, and a leaden bullet was fired it had no action. Distilled water, evaporated in a from one of them, in the presence of the whole pure vessel, leaves no residuum. Russian court, through a board two inches thick. But water found within or upon the surface of This fact may be familiar to our readers; but an- the earth contains various earths, mineral, vegetaother, singularly contrary to what is observed of ble, and animal matters. Rain and snow water other fluids, is worthy our particular remark here. are comparatively purer; but these also contain Water heated above or cooled below 391° of Fah- tinctures of what floats in the air, or would mix renheit becomes of less specific gravity than in its with the watery vapors. Much stress was once natural state; that is, a less weight occupies a laid by chemists upon the difficulty of procuring much greater space; a fact too astonishing ever, distilled water, and the necessity of repeating the says an able observer, to have been discovered or process many times; but it was shown by Lavoiimagined à priori. The wisdom and goodness of sier that rain water once distilled, rejecting the first the great Artificer of the world will manifest itself and last products, is as pure as it can be procured in this arrangement, if we consider what would by any number of distillations. have been the consequences had water been subject The Thames water has been long known for beto the general law, and, like other fluids, become coming soon putrid at sea, and quickly undergoing specifically heavier by the loss of its caloric. In various spontaneous changes which belong to any winter, when the atmosphere became reduced to thing but water. Upon what has been made known 32°, the water on the surface of all lakes would respecting it of late we shall not dwell; but may have sunk as it froze; another sheet of water would remark, in abatement of some claims upon the subhave frozen immediately and sunk also; the ulti- ject, that many impurities mingle with all water mate consequence of which would have been that do not alter, in any permanent or important the destruction of all their finny tribes; the beds way, its qualities. The great question is, what of our rivers would have become repositories of mingles with water chemically, and so does alter immense masses of ice, which no subsequent sum. its qualities, and what mechanically only, and may, mer could have thawed; and the world, in short, therefore, be readily removed by filtration? By a have been converted into a frozen chaos. How happy arrangement of providence most of the adadmirable the wisdom, how skilful the contrivance, ventitious matters that are found in water are rather that, by subjecting water to a law contrary to what suspended than dissolved in it, or are united to it is observed by other fluids, the water as it freezes only mechanically and not chemically. Other adbecomes specifically lighter, and, swimming upon mixtures, however, are of a different description, the surface, performs an important service by pre- and require accurate chemical tests and analysation serving a vast body of heat in the covered fluid to detect them. from the effects of the surrounding cold, ready to We have mentioned the other most important receive its accustomed quantity again on the first form of water, considered popularly, steam. Comchange of the atmosphere! Indeed, had the tran- bined with a smaller quantity of caloric than i sition of water from its solid into its liquid state its fluid state, let us remember, it becomes ice; not been accompanied by this great change in its combined with a larger or plus quantum it berelation to heat, every thaw would have occasioned comes vapor or steam; that is at the heat of 212" a frightful inundation, and a single night's frost Fahrenheit. would have solidified our rivers and lakes.
On this property of water depends that greatest
of the modern inventions of science, the steam 6. Volatile alkali? This is detected in a simiengine. At present we can only offer a familiar iar manner. Only the vegetable infusion now beelucidation or two of the amazing increase of vo- comes green. lume, and rapid condensation of steam in this The different temperature at which water boils, way. Take a Florence flask with water in the as compared with all spirituous liquids, is the bottom, boil it over a spirit lamp; and afterwards foundation of the art of DISTILLATION, which see. invert about two inches and a half of the neck in In the largest application of the principles of that a vessel of cold water. The water will rise with a art in this country, i, e. to the distillation of gin, gush upwards into the flask, filling the vacuum; malt-wash is boiled from 190° to 195° Fahrenheit, (and therefore nearly the flask), made by the steam (water not boiling until it arrives at 212°, as we having been condensed.
have seen); when the spirit separates from the However long we boil water in an open vessel, water, and comes over in the form of steam, which it may be observed, we cannot make it in the is condensed in passing through the long pipes of smallest degree hotter than its boiling point: then the worm surrounded with cold water. As an the vapor absorbs the heat, and carries it off as fast evening amusement we may attempt the French as it is generated. Yet by continued heat, united manufacture of brandy, without fear of a visit from with additional compression, both the expansi- the officers of excise: in fact distil it from port bility and temperature of steam may be greatly wine, over the spirit lamp: boiled in the retort, increased : and some constructors of steam-engines the steam will gradually come over and be conhave availed themselves of this property, to aug- densed in the reservoir. 2. Ether may in a simiment the power and diminish the expense of them. lar manner be boiled in water, but just warm. It These are what are called high pressure engines. boils at 98° in the air : in vacuo at 20° Fabren
But a singular difference has been lately noticed heit. 3. Spirit-bombs show the expansive force by M. Gay Lussac, with regard to the vessel in of the steam of spirit, which like that of water is which water is boiled. He has ascertained that ungovernable at a certain point. Hence the exwater boiling in a glass vessel has a temperature plosion of steam-engines. of 214.2°, and in a tin vessel contiguous to it of Another familiar elucidation of the qualities of only 212o. A few particles of pounded glass, water may close this part of our subject. Viewthrown into the former vessel, reduced the ther. ing it generally in connexion with a yielding memometer plunged in it to 212.6°, and iron filings to dium, we may imagine its particles have no actual 212°. When the flame is withdrawn for a few se- hardness; and therefore cannot be subject to the conds, from under a glass vessel of boiling water, laws of friction. the ebullition will recommence on throwing in a But taken distilled in an exhausted tube ; compinch of iron filings. Of what future importance posing what is called a water-mallet; and the this may be to chemistry, or the arts, we do not pre- sound produced by the streams striking on the sume to judge: but only mention it as a singular bottom of the tube, proves that there is a point at and very modern observation (considering for how which its particles do not yield. many centuries water has been boiled) on the pe- The chemistry of water is very simple; it is culiarities of that body.
comparatively of late discovery; yet nothing in the To return from this incidental notice of steam, whole compass of experimental science appears, in and the steam-engine, we may suggest a few che- its principal points, to be better established mical tests of the purity of water.
Philosophy recognised water as an element, 1. Iron very commonly impregnates it: this is one of the four elements,' from the times of Aristhe case whenever it flows through a gravelly soil. totle to those of the late Mr. Cavendish. That The presence of iron may be detected by pouring gentleman demonstrated, about the year 1784, that into water prussiate of potash, when a blue pre- it is composed, in fact, of two distinct aëri form: cipitate is the result: the Prussian blue of com- fluids-oxygen and hydrogen; containing eightyinerce. 2. The gallic acid, very astringent, or any eight parts by weight out of every 100 of the forvegetable astringents of that kind in water may be mer and twelve of the latter. This was the result detected by pouring into it sulphate of iron, when of three years of laborious experiments. a black inky precipitate results. This is not fre- The late Mr. Watt, the celebrated improver of quently seen in settled, but in unsettled or un- the steam-engine, seems to have inferred at the cleared countries, like the western part of the same period (in 1783), independently of Mr. Ca. United States, it is found through the falling of the vendish, that water was a compound body of the leaves and bark of trees into standing waters. kind it has been since proved to be; as did the
3. The presence of lime in water is detected by French chemist Lavoisier and La Place. A friend breathing into it: the lungs decompose the atmos- of the latter, count Monge of Paris, seems to have pheric air, and, yielding carbonic acid, produce a been the first that suggested an experiment which carbonate of lime.
is often exhibited to the present day, as placing the 4. Passing now into that useful laboratory, the composition of water beyond dispute. He passed kitchen, copper, one of the most deadly poisons, the steam of water through a red-hot iron tube, is but too often carelessly in use there : its pre- and found that the water was oxidised; that is, the sence is to be detected by plunging a common oxygen attached itself to the iron, and the hydroiron knife into water. Copper is formed on the gen disengaged. The hydrogen is, in this experiknife, arising from the greater affinity of iron for ment, proved not to be steam by being forced oxygen, the iron having decomposed the salt of through cold water. But what is called the grand copper in the water.
experiment of the French chemists, as to the com. 5. Do we suspect sulphuric acid to be present? position of water, occupied more than nine days of It may be detected by pouring in the suspected the month of May, 1790. The combustion of the water a vegetable infusion. Pour the tested body gases was kept up by Fourcroy, Vauquelin, and on the test, and the vegetable blue becomes a red. Seguin, on this occasion, 185 hours, during which
the machine was not quitted for a moment; the Llaving thus established the great general fact of experimenters alternately refreshing themselves the composition of water, and what are its compowhen fatigued by lying down for a few hours on nent parts, it will be interesting to examine these mattresses in the laboratory.
parts separately. The volume of hydrogen employed was 25963.568 Oxygen was first obtained by Dr. Priestley in cubic inches, and the weight was 1039-358 grains. 1774, from the red oxide of mercury exposed to a The volume of oxygen was 12570-942, and the burning lens; that is, he obtained this gas from weight was 6209.869 grains. The total weight of the oxide, not knowing or believing it to be a comboth elastic fluids was 7249.227. The weight of ponent part of water. He clearly ascertained, howwater obtained was 7244 grains, or 12 oz., 4 gros, ever, at this period its two great distinguishing 45 grains. The weight of water which should properties of rendering combustion more vivid and have been obtained was 12 02., 4 gros, 49.227 eminently supporting life. Scheele, a Danish chegrains; the deficit being only 4.227 grains-easily mist, and Lavoisier, seemed to have obtained it in accounted for by the imperfection of all human the same way, without any knowledge of Dr. instruments and experiments, especially on such a Priestley's discovery, the saine year. It was rescale.
served for Mr. Cavendish, as we have seen, first to If we take sulphuric or muriatic acid, diluted suggest, in 1781, and prove beyond dispute in three parts with water, and pour it upon iron-filings 1784, the important quantum of this vivifying inin a glass vessel, the temperature of the mixture gredient contained in water. See OXYGEN. We will soon be so much increased by the union of the have said its two principal characteristics are prowater with the acid, as to enable the iron to decom- moting combustion and sustaining life. These, pose a part of the water. A hole being made perhaps, are in substance one. We all remember through a cork which fits the mouth of the phial, the old experiment of the plumbers to ascertain and a piece of tobacco-pipe with a very small ori- whether they may in safety descend a well; that is, fice being fitted into it, and the whole cemented by first letting down a candle-for generally where into the phial, the hydrogen gas, as it is separated a candle burns they know a man can breathe. from the water, will pass in a continued stream How eminently this gas supports combustion through the pipe, and may be set on fire by the may be further inferred from the fact that, 1. It reflame of a candle. The gas will continue to burn lights a taper; 2. Readily produces sulphuric acid with a blue lambent flame, as long as the decom- from sulphur; 3. Or, with equal readiness, phosposition goes on. This shows that the gas is really phuric acid from phosphorus. We may here add hydrogen, and that it arises from the decomposition though this eminent supporter of combustion, this of the water.
gas is not itself a combustible. That water may be re-formed by the combustion Hydrogen, though the much inferior component of this gas may be shown by holding a glass bell part of water, has been honored with a name which over the flame of the gas: as the hydrogen burns, it signifies (vówp, water, and yevvaw, to produce) to unites with the oxygen of the atmosphere, and the produce water. See HYDROGEN. union of the two gases produces water, which will 1. In proof of its being the lightest ponderable soon be seen to deposit itself like dew on the inside known, it is the great ingredient used in aerostation. of the glass. These two experiments, taken toge- One of Bate's balloons may be sent up in any ther, prove the compound nature of water in the parlor filled with this gas: it is composed of the most satisfactory manner.
maw of a turkey, and filled precisely on the prinThe carburetted hydrogen burnt for lights in the ciple of the largest balloons. shops and counting houses sometimes, also, will 2. Hydrogen will not support combustion ; if establish the above facts relative to the composition we immerse in it a taper it instantly dies. Yet is of water. Over the lamps we see bell-glasses with this gas highly combustible in atmospheric air : long curved pipes fitted to the top, ending in a hence its importance in modern times, arising from small glass vessel. By these pipes what would its extensive use (already adverted to) in lights ; otherwise become an annoying smoke is consumed, and its well known connexion with the explosion> and, uniting with the oxygen of the atmosphere, that frequently take place in coal-mines. The informs water, which is received in the glass vessel. vestigation of its properties in the latter case has A friend of ours in Cheapside thus carries off from led to Sir Humphry Davy's admirable invention two burners about half a wine glass full of water of the Safety LAMP, which see. He found that every night.
this gas was generated in large quantities, imperThere are other methods of decomposing water. ceptibly, by the surface of the coal, and then on When two wires from the opposite extremities of mixing with the air of the atmosphere went off, on the galvanic battery are placed in a tube containing application of a common light, in a violent and water, so that they are distant from each other a dangerous explosion. Sir Humphry Davy's inquarter of an inch or half an inch, a stream of gas vention simply prevents the light from coming in issues from each wire—from the positive wire oxy contact with this dangerous mixture of airs by a gen, from the negative hydrogen gas; and these gauze veil. are in the proportions which when exploded, either We conclude in the words of a contemporary by galvanism or electricity, re-form water.
author, which may suggest a reflection for our Vegetables have the power of decomposing wa- younger readers :ter by an operation peculiar to themselves. If a sun-flower leaf be placed in an inverted jar of
When judgment waked the Almighty hand, water, exposed to the rays of the sun, bubbles of
To smite the vile of every land ; oxygen will be rapidly formed; the leaf having
Once in six thousand years he hurl'd appropriated to itself the hydrogen, and conse A waste of waters on the world. quently disengaged the oxygen which forms the But through each day of all the years, bubbles.
Belor, und since his hand appears,