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common misseltoe. It is a shrub, growing on the No more these scenes my meditation aid, bark of several trees, particularly the oak; the Or lull to rest the risionary maid.

Pope. leaves are conjugate and elliptical, ihe stem forked; The lovely visionary gave him perpetual uneasiness. the flowers whitish in the alæ of the leaves. This

Female Quijote.

Vision, in optics, the act of seeing or perceiving plant was reckoned sacred among the Druids. See

external objects by means of the organ of sighi, DRUIDS

VISHNOU, that person in the triad of the the eye. See ANATOMY, and METAPHYSICS.
Brahmins who is considered as the preserver of

VISIT, v.d., v.11., & n.s. Fr. visiter ; Lat.
Vis'ITABLE, adj.

visito. To go the universe. Brahma is the creator and Siva the

to VISITANT, 1...

see; salute, pardestroyer; and these two, with Vishnou, united


ticularly with a prein some inexplicable manner, constitute Brahme,

VISITATORIAL, adj. sent; survey with or the supreme god of the Hindoos. See PoLYTHE

Vis'ITER, 71. S. ISM, and MYTHOLOGY.

authority; send

Vis'ITOR. VISIBLE, adj. & 11. s.) Fr. visible ; Lat. vi

good or evil juVIS'IBLY, adv. sibilis. Perceptible or

dicially: as a verb neuter keep up intercourse of a VISIBIL'ITY, 1.5. ) discovered by the eye;

domestic or personal nature : the act of going to

see or visiting: visitable is liable to be visited : viapparent; open : perceptibility by the eye: visibly corresponds with the adjective: visibility is the

sitant, the person visiting: visitation, the act or state or quality of being visible; conspicuousness.

object of visiting; communication; judicial inVisibles work upon a looking-glass, which is like the

fliction : visitatorial, belonging to a judicial visitapupil of the eye ; and audibles upon the places of echo,

tion : visiter or visitor, he who comes to see anwhich resemble the cavern of the ear. Bacoll.

other; he who inspects or surveys judicially. The factions at court were greater, or more visible Samson visited his wife with a kid.

Judges. than before.

Clarendon. When God visiteth, what shall I answer him ? Job. On this mount he appeared ; under this tree

Thou shalt be visited of the Lord with thunder. Stood visible; and I

Isaiah. Here with him at this fountain talked. Milton. The most comfortable visitations God hath sent men They produced this as an instance against the per

from above, hath taken especially the times of prayer petual visibility of the church, and he brings it to prove as their most natural opportunities.

Hooker. that it ceased to be a true church. Stilling fleet. You must go visit the lady that lies in.-I visit her

A long series of ancestors shews the native lustre with my prayers; but I cannot go thither. Shakspeare, with great advantage ; but, if he degenerate from his

What would you with the princess ;--line, the least spot is visible on ermine. Dryden. ---Nothing but peace and gentle visitation. Id.

In these, the visibility and example of our virtues Here's ado to lock up honesty and honour from the will chiefly consist. Rogers. access of gentle risitors.

1. VISIER, an officer or dignitary in the Ottoman

The risitors expelled the orthodox; they, without

scruple or shame, possessed themselves of their colleges, empire, whereof there are two kinds; one called

l'otton. by the Turks vizier-azem, that is, grand visier, is That which thou dost not understand when thou the prime minister of state in the u hole empire. readest, thou shalt understand in the day of thy risitalle commands the ariny in chief, and presides in tion.

Tavlor. the divan or great council. Next to him are six C onsumptives of this degree entertain their risitets other subordinate visiers, called visiers of the with strange rambling discourses of their intent of bench; who officiate as his counsellors or accessors going here and there.

Harrey. in the divan.

One visit begins an acquaintance ; and, when the VISION, n. S.

Fr. vision : Latin visitant comes again, he is no more a stranger. South. Vis'IosARY, adj. & 16. s. visio. Sight; the fa

To him you must your sickly state refer; Vis'IONIST, n. s

Your charter claims him as your visiter. culty of seeing: an


All hospitals built since the Reformation are visitelile unusual or supernatural appearance; a spectre; bu the

che; by the king or lord chancellor. dream: something shown in a dream : visionary is


Some will have it, that an archdeacon does of comimaginary; affected by phantoms or mere imagina mon right execute their visitatorial power. tions; a person apt to be so affected is termed a

. Parerg. visionary or visionist.

Virgins riited by angel powers.

Pore. The day seems long, but night is odious;

Whatever abuses have crept into the universities, No sleep, but dreams; no dreams, but visions strange. might be reformed by strict injunctions to the visitors Sidney. and heads of houses.

Swift. Last night the very gods shewed me a vision.

In a designed or accidental visit, let some one take

Shakspeare, a book, which may be agreeable, and read in it. This account exceeded all the noctambuli or rision

Watts. aries I have met with.

Turner. The devil visits idle men with his temptations ; God l'ision in the next life is the perfecting of faith in visits industrious men with his favours. Mat. Henry. this ; or faith here is turned into liston there, as hope VI'SIVE, adj. Fr. visif ; Lat. visus. Formed into enjoying.


in the act of seeing. Him God vouchsafed To call by vision from his father's house. Milton.

This happens when the axis of the visive cones, dif

fused from the object, fall not upon the same plane ; His dream returns; his friend appears again;

but that which is conveved into one eye is more deThe murderer's come ; now help, or I am slain!

pressed or elevated than that which enters the other. 'T was but a vision still, and visions are but vain.

Broune's l'ulgar Errours.

Dryden. The idea of any thing in our mind no more proves

VISNEA, in botany, a genus of plants in the the existence of that thing, than the visions of a dream

class of dodecandria, and order of trigynia.

C make a truc history.

- Locke.

VISNOMY, 1.s. Corrupted from physiognoPictures, propagated by motion along the fibres of my. Face; countenance. Not in use. the optick nerves into the brain, are the cause of vi- Twelve gods do sit around in royal state, sion.

Newton. And Jove in midst with awful majesty,





To judge the strife between them stirred late : ing to the west, passes the towns of Plock and Each of the gods by his like visnomy

Culm; and after flowing several hundred miles, Each to be known, but Jove above them all,

with a wide channel, and undiminished volume, By his great looks and power imperial. Spenser. divides, like the Rhine, into two branches, of VISON, in zoology. See MUSTELA.

which one, called the Nogat, and another the Old VIS'OR, n. s. Fr. visiere. This word is va- Vistula, flow eastwards to the Frische Haff, while

Vis'ORED, adj. ) riously written, visard, visar, vi- the largest stream preserves the name of Vistula, sor, vizard, vizor. I prefer visor, as nearest the and, turning to the westward, falls into the Baltic at Latin visus, and concurring with visage, a kindred Dantzic. Flowing generally through a level word.—Johnson. A mask used to disfigure and country the Vistula is navigable many hundred disguise. See VIZARD. Visored is marked ; dis- miles, beginning so far up as Cracow. guised.

VISUAL, adj. Fr. visuel. Used in sight; exThis loutish clown is such that you never saw so ill- ercising, or instrumental to, sight. favoured a visar ; his behaviour such, that he is beyond. An eye thrust forth so as it hangs a pretty distance the degree of ridiculous.

Sidney. by the visual nerve, hath been without any power of But that thy face is, visor-like, unchanging,

sight; and yet, after being replaced, recovered sight. Made impudent with use of evil deeds, I would essay, proud queen, to make thee blush.

Then purged with euphrasy and rue

Shakspeare. The visual nerve ; for he had much to see. Milton. Hence with thy brewed enchantments, foul deceiver ! Hast thou betrayed my credulous innocence

VI'TAL, adj. Lat. vitalis. Contributing With visored falsehood and base forgery? Milton.

VITAL'ITY, n. s. (or necessary to life; containThe Cyclops, a people of Sicily, remarkable for VitaLLY, adv. (ing or being the seat of life; cruelty, mighi, perhaps, in their wars use a head piece, ViTALS, n. s. essential; likely to live (unor visor.

Broome. usual): vitality is, living power: the adverb agrees UIST, North, one of the western islands of with the adjective: and vitals mean parts essential Scotland, in Inverness-shire, between Harris on the to life. north and Benbecula on the south; from which last.

from which last Let not Bardolph's vital thread be cut it is separated by a narrow channel, which is dry With edge of penny, cord, and vile reproach. Shaksp. at low water. It is of a very irregular form; of

Know, grief's vital part ;


Consists in nature not in art. Bishop Corbet. about twenty miles long, and from twelve to eighteen

On the watery calm miles broad. That part of the coast which is His brooding wings the spirit of God outspreads: washed by the Atlantic is inaccessible, except in And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth very calm weather. On the east coast, however, Throughout the fluid mass.

Milton. it has several safe harbours, but here the ground is The silent, slow, consuming fires, hilly and barren. The west and north parts are Which on my inmost vitals prey, low and level. The cultivated parts are pleasant And melt my very soul away.

Philips. and fertile. The lakes abound with trouts, and are On the rock a scanty measure place frequented by flocks of wild fowls. About 2000 Of vital flax, and turn the wheel apace. Dryden. black cattle and 1500 or 1600 small horses are

For the security of species produced only by seed, pastured on the hills. About 1200 tons of kelp

providence hath endued all seed with a lasting vitality,

that if by any accident it happen not to germinate the are made annually. The island belongs to lord

first year, it will continue its fecundity twenty or thirty M'Donald.

Ray. Uist, South, another of the Hebrides, in Inver. The dart flew on, and pierced a vital part. Pope. ness-shire, lies between Barry on the south and

Vital, in physiology, an appellation given to

Vi Benbecula on the north; thirty-two miles long, and

whatever ministers principally to the constituting from nine to ten broad. The surface and soil are

or maintaining life in the bodies of animals; thus similar to those of North Uist. The number of

the heart, lungs, and brain, are called vital parts; sheep is 7000, of horses 1000, and of black cattle

and the operations of these parts, by which the life 700: 1100 tons of kelp are made. These islands

of animals is maintained, are called vital functions. belong to M'Donald of Clanranald and M'Donald

VITALIANO (Donati), naturalist, was born in of Boisdale.

Padua, 1717, wrote Saggio della floria naturale VIS’TA, n. s. Ital. vista. View; prospect

dell'Adriatico in 1750. His Sardinian majesty

Tail through an avenue.

appointed him professor of botany and natural In St. Peter's, when a man stands under the dome, if he looks upwards, he is astonished at the spacious

history at Turin. He sent him to visit Egypt, hollow of the cupola, that makes one of the beautifulest Syria, Palestine, Arabia, and the East Indies, to vistas that the eye can pass through. Addison. make observations and to collect the rarest producThe finished garden to the view

tions of nature. The greatest part of this journey Its vistas opens, and its alleys green. Thomson. he performed; but died at Bassora in 1763. He

VISTULA, a river of Poland, rises in Austrian left in MS. two volumes in folio. Silesia, at the foot of the Carpathians, and, flowing

VITEL'LARY, n. . Lat. vitellus. The place eastward, enters Poland at the southern frontier, where the yolk of the egg swims in the white. passing the ancient capital Cracow; and, after bath A greater difficulty in the doctrine of eggs is, how ing the walls of Sandomir, it receives the San. Its the sperm of the cock attaineth into every egg ; since the course, now northward, brings it, after traversing a vitellary or place of the yolk is very high. Browne. considerable tract of country, to Warsaw; at some VITELLUS, emperor of Rome. See Rome. distance from which it receives the Bug, a river VITELLUS, the yolk of an egg. See Egg. almost equal to itself in magnitude, and bringing VITEPSK, a government of the north-west of with it the waters of the south-east and north of European Russia, lying to the east of Courland, Poland. The Vistula, now become one of the great and south of Livonia, between long. 26° 30' and 31° rivers of Europe, bolds a northward course, inclin- 50' E., lat. 55° 3' and 57° N. Its territorial extent

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is about 20,000 square miles, and its population No troops abroad are so ill disciplined us the Engnearly 750,000, partly Poles, Lithuanians, and glish ; which cannot well be otherwise, while the comLettonians; partly also Russians, Germans, and mon soldiers have before their eyes the vitious example Jews. The surface is generally flat. Hemp and


of their leaders. flax are raised; and, the pastures being generally VITIS, in botany, a genus of the class pentasgood, cattle are reared and exported. There is also dria, order monogynia; and in the natural system some traffic in the article of boney and bees' wax. arranged under the fortieth order, personatæ. The This province contains several lakes. Its chief petals cohere at the top, and are withered; the rivers are the Dwina, the Ula, and the Viteba, fruit is a berry with five seeds. There are eleven

VITEPSK, a city of European Russia, and the species, the most important of which is V. vinifera, capital of the government of the same name, stands or the common vine, which has naked, lobed, sion the Dwina, at the influx of the Viteba, which nuated leaves. There are many varieties, all prodivides it into two parts. The town is surrounded pagated either from layers or cuttings, the former by a wall, but made no regular defence in the cam- of which is greatly practised in England, but the paign of 1812, having been alternately occupied by latter is much preferable. In choosing the cuttings French and Russians. Population 13,000. 322 you should always take such shoots of the last year's miles south of Petersburgh, and 297 west of Mos- growth as are strong and well ripened ; these should cow.

be cut from the old vine, just below the place VITERBO, a considerable town in the States of where they were produced, taking a knot, or piece the Church, the capital of a delegation of the same of the two years' wood, to each, wbich should be name, is situated at the foot of a high mountain. pruned smooth; then you should cut off the uppe This is supposed to have been the ancient Volturna, part of the shoots, so as to leave the cutting about or capital of the Etruria ; by others to have been sixteen inches long. When the cuttings are made, built by the Lombards. It is surrounded with a if they are not then planted, they should be placed wall, and has a number of round towers. Its with their lower part in the ground, in a dry soil, streets are broad and well paved, its market-place laying some litter upon their upper parts to prevent neat, and several of the principal buildings con- them from drying: in this situation they may remain structed with taste. About half a mile from the till the beginning of April; when they should be town is a small lake, called Bulicame, the waters taken out and washed from the filth they have conof which emit a sulphureous smell, and appear to tracted; and, if very dry, should stand with their be in a state of continual agitation. Population lower parts in the water six or eight hours, wbich 10,000. Twenty-seven miles N.N.E. of Civita will distend their vessels, and dispose them for Vecchia, and thirty-eight N.N.W. of Rome. taking root. If the ground be strong, and inclined

VITEX, in botany, the agnus castus, or chaste to wet, open a trench where the cuttings are to tree, a genus of plants in the class of didynamia, be planted, which should be filled with lime ruband order of angiospermia; ranking, by the na- bish, the better to drain of the moisture: then tural system, in the thirty-ninth order, personatæ. raise the borders with fresh light earth about two

VITIATE, v. a. / Lat. vitio. To deprave; feet thick, so that it may be at least a foot above

Vitla'TION, n. s. ) spoil; make less pure: the the level of the ground: then open the holes at noun substantive corresponding.

about six feet distance from each other, putting The foresaid extenuation of the body is imputed to the one good strong cutting into each hole, which blood's vitiation by malign putrid vapors smoking should be laid a little sloping that their tops throughout the vessels. Harvey on Consumption. may incline to the wall : but it must be put in so The organs of speech are managed by so many mus

& deep as that the uppermost eye may be level with cles, that speech is not easily destroyed, though often somewhat vitiated as to some particular letters. Holder.

" the surface of the ground. Having placed the cutThe sun in his garden gives him the purity of visible ting in the ground, fill up the hole gently, pressing obiects, and of true nature before she was vitiated by down the earth close about it, and raise a little hill luxury.

Evelyn's Kalendar. just upon the top of the cutting, to cover the This undistinguished complaisance will vitiate the upper eye quite over, which will prevent it from taste of the readers, and misguide many of them in their drying. Nothing more is necessary but to keep judgments, where to approve and where to censure the ground clear from weeds until the cuttings

Garth begin to shoot; at which time look after them careVITILITIGATION, n. s. From vitilitigate. fully, and rub off any small shoots, fastening the Contention; cavillation.

first main shoot to the wall, continue to look over I'll force you, by right ratiocination,

these once in three weeks during the summer, conTo leave your vitilitigation.

Hudibras. stantly rubbing off lateral shoots which are proVI'TIOUS, adj. Fr. vicieur ; Lat. vitiosus. duced. The Michaelmas following, if the cuttings VI'TIOUSLY, udv. (Corrupt; wicked; opposite have produced strong shoots, prune them down VI'TIOUSNESS, n. s. (to virtuous; and used both to two eyes. In the spring, after the cold weather

VITIOS'ITY. of persons and practices : is past, gently dig up the borders to loosen the earth; all the derivatives correspond.

but be very careful in doing this not to injure the When we in our vitiousness grow hard,

roots; also raise the earth up to the stems of the The wise gods seal our eyes.


plants, so as to cover the old wood, but not so deep Witness the irreverent son Of him who built the ark; who, for the shame

as to cover either of the eyes of the last year's Done to his father, heard his heavy curse,

wood. After this they will require no farther care Servant of servants,' on his vitious race. Milton.

until they begin to shoot; then rub off all weak Here, from the vitious air and sickly skies,

dangling shoots, leaving no more than the two proA plague did on the dumb creation rise. Dryden. duced from the two eyes of the last year's wood,

What makes a governor justly despised is vitiousness which should be fastened to the wall. From this and ill morals. Virtue must tip the preacher's tongue time till the vines have done shooting, look them and the ruler's sceptre with authority. South. Over once in three weeks or a month, rub off all


lateral shoots as they are produced, and fasten the ripened even in the frosts of advancing winter. main shoots to the wall as they are extended in And they were of the same color, and seem to have length; about the middle or latter end of July it been of the same species, as the black Muscadines will be proper to nip off the tops of these two of the present day, which have lately been tried shoots, which will strengthen their lower eyes. As in the island, and found to be fittest for the climate. soon as the leaves begin to drop in autumn, prune These were certainly brought into Britain a little these young vines again, leaving three buds to each after vines had been carried over all the kingdoms of the shoots, provided they are strong: otherwise of Gaul, and about the middle of the third century, it is better to shorten them down to two eyes if they when the numerous plantations had gradually are good; for it is a very wrong practice to leave spread over the face of the latter, and must natumuch wood upon young vines, or to leave their rally have continued their progress into the former. shoots too long, which greatly weakens the roots; The Romans, even nearly to the days of Lucullus, then fasten them to the wall, spreading them out were very seldom able to regale themselves with horizontal each way, that there may be room to wine. Very little was then raised in the compass train the new shoots the following summer, and of Italy. And the foreign wines were so dear that in the spring the borders must be digged as before, they were rarely produced at an entertainment; The uses of the fruit of the vine for making wine, and, when they were, each guest was indulged &c., are well known. The vine was introduced by the only with a single draught. But in the seventh Romans into Britain, and appears formerly to have century of Rome, as their conquests augmented been very common. From the name of vineyard the degree of their wealth, and enlarged the sphere yet adhering to the ruinous sites of our castles of their luxury, wines became the object of partiand monasteries, there seems to have been few in cular attention. Many vaults were constructed, the country but what had a vineyard belonging and good stocks of liquor deposited in them. And to them. The county of Gloucester is particularly this naturally gave encouragement to the wines of mentioned by Malmsbury, in the twelfth century, the country. The Falernian rose immediately into as excelling all the rest of the kingdom in the great repute; and a variety of others, that of Flonumber and goodness of its vineyards. In the rence among the rest, succeeded it about the close earlier periods the Isle of Ely was expressly de- of the century. And the more westerly parts of nominated the Isle of Vines by the Normans. the European continent were at once subjected to Vineyards are frequently noticed in the descrip- the arms, and enriched with the vines, of Italy. tive accounts of Doomsday Book; and those of VITREOUS, adj. French, vitré; Lat. vitreus. England are even mentioned by Bede as early as Glassy; consisting of or resembling glass. the commencement of the eighth century. Dooms- The hole answers to the pupil of the eye ; the crysday book exhibits a particular proof that wine was talline humour to the lenticular glass; the dark room made in England during the period preceding the to the cavity containing the vitreous humour, and the conquest. And after the conquest the bishop of white paper to the retina. Ray on the Creation. Ely appears to have received at least three or four When the phlegm is too viscous, or separates into tuns of wine annually, as tythes, from the produce too great a quantity, it brings the blood into a morbid of the vineyards in his diocese: and to have made state : this viscous phlegm seems to be the vitreous pefrequent reservations in his leases of a certain certain tuite of the ancients.

Arbuthnot. quantity of wine for rent. A plot of land in Lon VITREOUS HUMOR OF THE Eye. See ANATOMY. don, which now forms East Smithfield and some VITREOUS Spar. See CHEMISTRY. adjoining streets, was withheld from the religious

VITRIFY, v.a. & v.n.) Fr. vitrifier ; Lat. house within Aldgate by four successive constables VITRIF'ICATE, v. a. vitrum and facio. To of the Tower, in the reigns of William II., Henry VITRIFICA'TION, n. s. change into glass; beI., and Stephen, and made by them into a vine- come glass or glassy: vitrificate has also the former yard. In the old accounts of rectorial and vicarial signification, and vitrification corresponds. revenues, and in the old registers of ecclesiastical We have metals vitrificated, and other materials, besuits concerning them, the tythe of wine is an ar- sides those of which you make glass.. Bacon. ticle that frequently occurs in Kent, Surrey, and Metals will vitrify; and perhaps some portion of the other counties. And the wines of Gloucestershire, glass of metal vitrified, mixed in the pot of ordinary within a century after the conquest. were little glass metal, will make the whole mass more tough. Id. inferior to the French in sweetness. The beautiful

heutiful Upon the knowledge of the different ways of making region of Gaul, which had not a single vine in the

minerals and metals capable of citrification, depends the

art of making counterfeit or fictitious gems. Boyle. days of Cæsar, had numbers so early as the time

Chymists make vessels of animal substances calcined, of Strabo. The south of it was particularly stocked which will not vitrify in the fire ; for all earth which with them; and they had even extended them- hath any salt or oil in it will turn to glass. Arbuthnot. selves into the interior parts of the country: but

VITRIFICATION, in chemistry. See CHEMISTRY the grapes of the latter did not ripen kindly. and Gua

grapes of the latter and no mpen kiuary; and GLASS-MAKING. France was famous for its vineyards in the reign of

VITRIOL, n. s. Fr. vitriol; Lat. vitriolum. Vespasian, and even exported its wines into Italy.

VIT'RIOLATE, adj. A sulphuric acid with an The province of Narbonne was then covered with

VIT'PIOLATED, Searthy or metallic base. See vines; and the wine-merchants of the country

VITRIOL'IC, ( CHEMISTRY and SULPHURIC were remarkable for all the knavish dexterity of our

Vitri'olous. Acid. Vitriolate or vitriolated modern brewers, tinging it with smoke, coloring is impregnated with vitriol : vitriolic or vitriolous, it, as it was suspected, with herbs and noxious

resembling or containing vitriol. dyes, and even adulterating the taste and appear

Iron may be dissolved by any tart, salt, or vitriolated ance with aloes. And, as our first vines would be

Bacon. transplanted from Gaul, so most probably were Copperose of Mars, by some called salt of steel, those of the Allobroges in Franche Compte. These made by the spirits of vitriol or sulphur, will, after abwere peculiarly fitted for cold countries. They Jution, be attracted by the loadstone ; and therefore whether those shooting salts partake but little of steel, more than three grinders, and the claws are exand be not rather the vitriolous spirits fixed unto salt by serted. There are twenty-seven species, the printhe effluvium or odour of steel, is not without good cipal of which are, 1. V. ichneumon, wich the tail question,



tapering to a point, and the toes distant from each The water having dissolved the imperfectly calcined

other; inhabits Egypt, Barbary, India, and its body, the vitriolate corpuscles swimming in the liquor,

islands. It is there a most useful animal, being an by their occursions constituted little masses of vitriol,

inveterate enemy to the serpents and other noxious which gave the water they impregnated a fair vitriolote colour

Boule. reptiles which infest the torrid zone, and is at preThese salts have somewhat of a nitrous taste, but sent domesticated and kept in houses in India and mixed with a smatch of a litriolic.

Grew. in Egypt, and grows very tame. It sits up like I rubbed it with the vilriol-stone.

Il'iseman. a squirrel, and eats with its fore feet, catching any VITRIOLIC ACID. See SULPHURIC Acrd and

thing that is flung to it. Rumphius observes how

skilfully it seizes the serpents by the throat so as CHEMISTRY. VITRUVIUS Pollo (Marcus), a very cele

to avoid receiving any injury; and Lucan beaubrated Roman architect, was, according to the com

tifully describes the same address of this animal in

conquering the Egyptian asp. 2. V. vulpecula, or mon opinion, born at Verona, and lived in the coal reign of Augustus. His treatise on architecture is

stifling weasel, has a short slender nose; short extant, of which there are several English transla

ears and legs; black body, full of hair; the tail

long, of a black and white color; length from nose tions. VITRY, or VITRY LE FRANÇOIS, a town of

to tail about eighteen inches. It inhabits Mexico, France, in Champagne, has a bridge over the

and perhaps other parts of America. This and Marne, which here becomes navigable for barges.

some other species are remarkable for the pestifeIts trade is in corn, wood, and the cotton and other

rous, suffocating, and most fætid vapor they emit manufactures of the town. Vitry is surrounded by

from behind when attacked, pursued, or frightened ; a wall, and, though built chiefly of wood, has a

it is their only means of defence. Some turn their pleasant appearance; its largest square being neat

tail to their enemy and keep them at a distance and regular, and its principal church built in the

by a frequent crepitus; and others ejaculate their Italian style. The addition of Le François to its

urine, tainted with the horrid effluvia, to the disname is derived from Francis I., in whose reign it

tance of eighteen feet. The pursuers are stopped

with the terrible stench. Should any of this liquor was built. It was the scene of important military operations in 1814. Population 7000. Twenty

fall into the eyes it almost occasions blindness; miles south-east of Chalons.

if on the clothes the smell will remain for several VITTORIA, a town of Spain, the chief place of

nhancer days in spite of all washing; they must even be Alava, stands partly on the slope of a hill, at the

buried in fresh soil in order to be sweetened. entrance of a beautiful valley, watered by the Za

Dogs that are not true bred run back as soon as dora. It is surrounded by a wall, but is a scattered

they perceive the smell ; those that have been used place. Here are, however, a few streets of tole

to it will kill the animal; but are often obliged rable width, and a square, with a fountain in the

to relieve themselves by thrusting their noses into centre. The principal churches are those of the

the ground. There is no bearing the company of Carmelites and the Dominicans. Its trade con

a dog that has killed one for several days. Prosists chiefly in the transit between Castile and the

fessor Kalm was one night in great danger of northern provinces. This town, or rather neigh

being suffocated by one that was pursued into a bourhood, was the scene of a general engagement

house where he slept; and it affected the cattle

so that they bellowed through pain. Another, on 21st of June 1813, in which the French, under Jourdan, were defeated by lord Wellington. Popu

which was killed by a maidservant in a cellar, so lation 6500. Twenty-seven miles south of Bilbao.

affected her with the stench that she lay ill for VITUPERATION, n. s. Latin, vituperutio.

several days; and all the provisions that were in the Blame; censure.

place were so tainted that the owner was obliged Such a writing ought to be clean, and free from any

to throw them away. Notwithstanding this the cavil or vituperation of rasure.


flesh is reckoned good meat, and not unlike that VIVA'CIOUS, adj. ) Latin virar. Löng- of a pig; but it must be skinned as soon as killed VIVACIOUSNESS, n. s. Slived ; lively; sprightly: and the bladder taken carefully out. It breeds in Vivac'ity.

the noun substantives hollow the

bstantives hollow trees, or holes under ground, or in clefts of corresponding.

rocks; climbs trees with great agility ; kills poultry; They are esteemed very hot in operation, and will, in eats eggs and young birds. 3. V. zibetha, or civet a convenient air, survive some days the loss of their cat, has short rounded ears; the back and sides heads and hearts; so vigorous is their vivacity. Boule. cinereous, tinged with yellow, marked with large

He had a great vivacity in his countenance. Dryden. dusky spots disposed in rows; the hair coarse ;

VIVE, adj. Fr. vit ; Lat. rivus. Lively; forci- that on the top of the body longest standing up ble; pressing. Obsolete.

like a mane; the tail sometimes wholly black; By a vive and forcible persuasion, he moved him to a sometimes spotted near the base ; length, from nose war upon Flanders.

Bacon. to tail, about two feet three inches; the tail fourVI'VENCY, n. s. Lat. vivo. Manner of sup- teen inches; the body pretty thick. It inhabits porting or continuing life or vegetation.

India, the Philippine Isles, Guinea, Ethiopia, and Although not in a distinct and indisputable way of Madagascar. The famous drug musk, or civet, vivency, or answering in all points the property of which is produced from an aperture between the plants, yet in inferior and descending constitutions they privities and the anus, in both sexes, is secreted are determined by seminalities.

Broune. from certuin glands. The persons who keep them VIVERRA, the weasel, a genus of quadrupeds procure the musk by scraping the inside of tbis belonging to the order of feræ. They have six bag, twice a week, with an iron spatula, and get fore-teeth, the intermediate ones being shorter, and about 2. drachm each time; but it is seldom sold

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