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what takes place in the process. He impregnated thick and muddy when newly pressed; but wil some water with about its own bulk of carbonic refine in the vessel, and be as clear as wine. Thus acid gas, procured from beer vats in fermentation; let it remain untouched for three months before i and placed this water in a cellar, in vessels com- is drawn off, and it will prove excellent vinegar. municating with the air, and in a short time the Method of making cyder into vinegar.—The cyde whole was converted into acetous acid. This car. (the meanest of which will serve the purpose) is bonic acid gas, procured from beer vats in fermen- first to be drawn off fine into another vessel, and tation, is not perfectly pure, but contains a great a quantity of the must of apples to be added : the quantity of alcohol in solution; wherefore water im- whole is set in the sun, if there be conveniency for pregnated with it contains all the materials necessary it; and at a week or nine days end it may be draw for forming the acetous acid. The alcohol furnishes off. hydrogen and one portion of carbon; the carbonic Method of making wine into vinegar.-Any sort of furnishes oxygen, and the rest of the carbon; and vinous liquor being mixed with its own fæces, the air of the atmosphere furnishes the rest of the flowers, or ferment, and its tartar first reduced to oxygen necessary for changing the mixture into powder; or else with the acid and austere stalks of acetous acid. From this observation it follows that the vegetable whence the wine was obtained, which nothing but hydrogen is wanting to convert carbonic hold a large proportion of tartar; and the whole being acid into acetous acid; or, more generally, that by kept frequently stirring in a vessel which has formeans of hydrogen, and according to the degree of merly held vinegar, or set in a warm place full of the oxydation, carbonic acid may be changed into all steams of the same, will begin to ferment anew, the vegetable acids: and, on the contrary, that, by conceive heat, grow sour by degrees, and soon after depriving any of the vegetable acids of their hy- turn into vinegar. The remote subjects of acetous drogen, they may be converted into carbonic acid. fermentation are the same with those of vinous;

A process still frequently used in making vinegar but the immediate subjects of it are all kinds of consists in fixing two casks in a warm room or vegetable juices, after they have once undergone place, to which two false bottoms of basket-work that fermentation which reduces them to wine; for are fixed at a certain distance, upon which the refuse it is absolutely impossible to make vinegar of must, of grapes and vine twigs are placed. One of these the crude juice of grapes, and other ripe fruits, withtuns is filled with wine, and the other only half out the previous assistance of vinous fermentation. filled. The fermentation begins in this last; and, The proper ferments for this operation, whereby when it is in full action, it is checked by filling the vinegar is prepared, are, 1. The fæces of all acid cask up with wine out of the other. The fermenta. wines. 2. The lees of vinegar. 3. Pulverized tartar, tion then takes place in the last mentioned cask, that especially that of Rhenish wine, or the cream or remained half filled; and this is checked in the same crystals thereof. 4. Vinegar itself. 5. A wooden manner by pouring back the same quantity of liquid vessel well drenched with vinegar, or one that has out of the other : and in this way the process is long been employed to contain it. 6. Wine that continued till the vinegar is made, which is usually has often been mixed with its own fæces. 7. The in about fifteen days. When the fermentation twigs of vines, and the stalks of grapes, currants, developes itself, the liquid becomes heated and tur- cherries, or other vegetables of an acid austere taste. bid; a great number of filaments are seen in it; it 8. Bakers' leven, after it has turned acid. 9. All emits a lively smell; and much air is absorbed, manner of ferments, compounded of those already according to the observation of the abbé Rozier. A mentioned. large quantity of lees is formed, which subsides Acetic acid is the chemical name of the same when the vinegar becomes clear. This lees is very acid which, in a very dilute and somewhat impure analogous to the fibrous matter. Vinegar is purified state, is called vinegar. by distillation. The first portions which pass over This acid, says Dr. Ure, is found combined with are weak; but soon afterwards the acetous acid potash in the juices of a great many plants; parrises, and is stronger the later it comes over in the ticularly the sambucus nigra, phenix dactilifera, distillation. This fluid is called distilled vinegar; galium verum, and rhus typhinus. Sweat, urine, and is thus cleared of its coloring principle, and and even fresh milk contain it. It is frequently the lees, which are always more or less abundant. generated in the stomachs of dyspeptic patients. Vinegar may likewise be concentrated by exposing Almost all dry vegetable substances, and some it to the frost. The superabundant water freezes, animal, subjected in close vessels to a red heat, and leaves the acid more condensed.

yield it copiously. It is the result likewise of a Take however a middling sort of beer, indifferently spontaneous fermentation, to which liquid vegewell hopped; into which, when it has worked well table and animal matters are liable. Strong acids, and grown fine, put some rape, or husks of grapes, as the sulphuric and nitric, develope the acetic by usually brought home for that purpose; mash them their action on vegetables. It was long supposed, together in a tub: then, letting the rape settle, draw on the authority of Boerhaave, that the fermentaoff the liquid part, put it into a cask, and set it tion which forms vinegar is uniformly preceded by in the sun as hot as may be; the bung being only the vinous. This is a mistake. Cabbages sour ic covered with a tile, or slate-stone : and in about water, making sour crout; starch in starch-makers thirty or forty days it will become a good vinegar, sour waters; and dough itself, without any previous and may pass in use as well as that made of wine production of wine. if it be refined, and kept from turning musty. Or "The varieties of acetic acids known in commerce thus :-To every gallon of spring-water add three are four :-1. Wine vinegar; 2. Malt vinegar; 3. pounds of Malaga raisins; which put into an earthen Sugar vinegar; 4. Wood vinegar. We shall dejar, and place them where they may have the hottest scribe first the mode of making these commercial sun from May till Michaelmas; then pressing all articles, and then that of extracting the absolute well tun the liquor up in a very strong iron-hooped acetic acid of the chemist, either from these vinevessel, to prevent its bursting: it will appear very gars, or directly from chemical compounds, of

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which it is a constituent. The following is the poured into each cask, and left there for eight days. plan of making vinegar at present practised in Ten pints of wine are mixed in, every eight days, Paris :-The wine destined for vinegar is mixed in till the vessels are full. The vinegar is allowed to a large tun with a quantity of wine lees, and the remain in this state fifteen days before it is exposed whole being transferred into cloth sacks, placed to sale. within a large iron-bound vat, the liquid matter is The used casks, called mothers, are never extruded through the sacks by superincumbent emptied more than half, but are successively filled pressure. What passes through is put into large again, to acetify new portions of wine. In order casks, set upright, having a small aperture in their to judge if the mother works, the vinegar makers top. In these it is exposed to the heat of the sun plunge a spatula into the liquid ; and, according in summer, or to that of a stove in winter. Fer- to the quantity of froth which the spatula shows, mentation supervenes in a few days. If the heat they add more or less wine. In summer the ats should then rise too high, it is lowered by cool air mospheric heat is sufficient. In winter stoves and the addition of fresh wine. In the skilful regu- heated to about 75° Fahrenheit maintain the requilation of the fermentative temperature consists the site temperature in the manufactory. art of making good wine vinegar. In summer the In some country districts the people keep in a process is generally completed in a fortnight: in place where the temperature is mild and equable winter double the time is requisite. The vinegar a vinegar cask, into which they pour such wine as is then run off into barrels, which contain several they wish to acetify; and it is always preserved chips of birch-wood. In about a fortnight it is full by replacing the vinegar drawn off by new found to be clarified, and is then fit for the market. wine. To establish this household manufacture it It must be kept in close casks.

is only necessary to buy at first a small cask of The manufacturers at Orleans prefer wine of a good vinegar. year old for making vinegar. But if by age the At Gand a vinegar from beer is made, in which wine has lost its extractive matter, it does not the following proportions of grain are found to be readily undergo the acetous fermentation. In this most advantageous: case acetification, as the French term the process, 1880 Paris pounds of malted barley. may be deterinined by adding slips of vines,

• . . . wheat. bunches of grapes, or green woods. It has been

500 . .

buck wheat. asserted that alcohol, added to fermentable liquor, These grains are ground, mixed, and boiled, along does not increase the product of vinegar. But this with twenty-seven casks-full of river water, for is a mistake. Stahl observed, long ago, that if we three hours. Eighteen casks of good beer for vinemoisten roses or lilies with alcohol, and place them gar are obtained. By a subsequent decoction more in vessels in which they are stirred from time to fermentable liquid is extracted, which is mixed time, vinegar will be formed. He also informs us, with the former. The whole brewing yields 3000 if after abstracting the citric acid from lemon English quarts. juice by crabs' eyes (carbonate of lime), we add a In this country vinegar is usually made from little alcohol to the supernatant liquid, and place malt. By mashing with hot water, 100 gallons of the mixture in a proper temperature, vinegar will wort are extracted in less than two hours from one be formed.

boll of malt. When the liquor has fallen to the Chaptal says that two pounds of weak spirits, temperature of 75° Fahrenheit, four gallons of the specific gravity 0.985, mixed with 300 grains of barm of beer are added. After thirty-six hours it beer yeast, and a little starch water, produced ex- is racked off into casks, which are laid on their tremely strong vinegar. The acid was developed sides, and exposed, with their bung holes loosely on the fifth day. The same quantity of starch and covered, to the influence of the sun in summer; yeast, without the spirit, fermented more slowly, but in winter they are arranged in a stove-room. In and yielded a weaker vinegar. A slight motion is three months this vinegar is ready for the manufacfound to favor the formation of vinegar, and to en- ture of sugar of lead. To make vinegar for domesdanger its decomposition after it is made. Chaptal tic use, however, the process is somewhat different. ascribes to agitation the operation of thunder; The above liquor is racked off into casks placed though it is well known that, when the atmosphere upright, having a false cover pierced with holes is highly electrified, beer is apt to become suddenly fixed at about a foot from their bottom. On this sour, without the concussion of a thunder-storm. a considerable quantity of rape, or the refuse from In cellars exposed to the vibrations occasioned by the makers of British wine, or otherwise a quantity the rattling of carriages, vinegar does not keep well. of low priced raisins, is laid. The liquor is turned The lees, which had been deposited by means of into another barrel every twenty-four hours, in isinglass and repose, are thus jumbled into the which time it has begun to grow warm. Sometimes, liquor, and make the fermentation recommence, indeed, the vinegar is fully fermented, as above, Almost all the vinegar of the north of France being without the rape, which is added towards the end, prepared at Orleans, the manufacture of that place to communicate flavor. has acquired such celebrity as to render their pro- Good vinegar may be made from a weak syrup, cess worthy of a separate consideration.

consisting of eighteen ounces of sugar to every The Orleans casks contain nearly 400 pints of gallon of water. The yeast and rape are to be wine. Those which have been already used are here used as above described. Whenever the preferred. They are placed in three rows, one vinegar (from the taste and flavor) is considered to over another, and in the top have an aperture of be complete, it ought to be decanted into tight bartwo inches diameter, kept always open. The wine rels or bottles, and well secured from access of for acetification is kept in adjoining casks, contain- air. A momentary ebullition before it is bottled ing beech shavings, to which the lees adhere. The is found favorable to its preservation. In a large wine thus clarified is drawn off to make vinegar. manufactory of malt vinegar, a considerable reve100 pints of good vinegar, boiling hot, are first nue is derived from the sale of yeast to the bakers. Vinegar obtained by the preceding methods has in distillation. Ils strength will be proportional more or less of a brown color, and a peculiar but to the concentration of the decomposing acid. rather grateful smell. By distillation in glass The acetic acid of the chemist may be prepared vessels, the coloring matter, which resides in a in the following modes :--1. Two parts of fused mucilage, is separated, but the fragrant odor is acetate of potash with one of the strongest oil of generally replaced by an empyreumatic one. The vitriol yield, by slow distillation from a glass retort best French wine vinegars, and also some from into a refrigerated receiver, concentrated acetic malt, contain a little alcohol, which comes over acid. A small portion of sulphurous acid, which early with the watery part, and renders the first contaminates it, may be removed by redistillation product of distillation scarcely denser, sometimes from a little acetate of lead. 2. Or four parts of even less dense, than water. It is accordingly good sugar of lead, with one part of sulphuric rejected. Towards the end of the distillation the ucid treated in the same way, afford a slightly empyreuma increases. Hence only the intermedi- weaker acetic acid. 3. Gently calcined sulphate ate portions are retained as distilled vinegar. Its of iron, or green vitriol, mixed with sugar of lead specific gravity varies from 1:005 to 1.015, while in the proportion of one of the former to two and that of common vinegar of equal strength varies a half of the latter, and carefully distilled from a from 1.010 to 1.025.

porcelain retort into a cooled receiver, may be also A crude vinegar has been long prepared for the considered a good economical process. Or withcalico printers, by subjecting wood' in iron retorts out distillation, if 100 parts of well dried acetate to a strong red heat. The following arrangement of lime be cautiously added to sixty parts of strong of apparatus has been found to answer well. A sulphuric acid diluted with five parts of water, and series of cast-iron cylinders, about four feet diame- digested for twenty-four hours and strained, a good ter and six feet long, are built horizontally in brick acetic acid, sufficiently strong for every ordinary work, so that the fame of one furnace may play purpose, will be obtained. round about two cylinders. Both ends project a The distillation of acetate of copper or of lead little from the brick work. One of them has a per se, has also been employed for obtaining strong disc of cast-iron well fitted and firmly bolted to it, acid. Here, however, the product is mixed with a from the centre of which disc an iron tube about portion of the fragrant pyro-acetic spirit, which it six inches diameter proceeds, and enters at a right is troublesome to get rid of. Undoubtedly the angle the main tube of refrigeration. The diame- best process for the strong acid is that firsi deter of this tube may be from nine to fourteen scribed, and the cheapest the second or third. inches, according to the number of cylinders. The When of the utmost possible strength its specific other end of the cylinder is called the mouth of gravity is 1.062. At the temperature of 500 Fahthe retort. This is closed by a disc of iron, renheit it assumes the solid form, crystallising in smeared round its edge with clay-lute, and secured oblong rhomboidal plates. It has an extremely in its place by wedges. The charge of wood for pungent odor, affecting the nostrils and eyes even such a cylinder is about 8 cwt. The hard woods, painfully when its vapor is incautiously snuffed up. oak, ash, birch, and beech, are alone used. Fir Its taste is eminently acid and acrid. It excoriates does not answer. The heat is kept up during the and inflames the skin. day time, and the furnace is allowed to cool during The purified wood vinegar, which is used for the night. Next morning the door is opened, the pickles and culinary purposes, has commonly a charcoal removed, and a new charge of wood is specific gravity of about 1.009; when it is equivaintroduced. The average product of crude vinegar lent in acid strength to good wine or malt vinegar called pyrolignous acid is thirty-five gallons. It of 1.014. It contains about one-twentieth of its is much contaminated with tar; is of a deep brown weight of absolute acetic acid, and nineteen-twencolor; and has a specific gravity of 1.025. Its tieths of water. An excise duty of four-pence is total weight is therefore about 300 lbs. But the levied on every gallon of vinegar of the above residuary charcoal is found to weigh no more than strength. This, however, is not estimated directly one-fifth of the wood employed. Hence nearly by its specific gravity, but by the specific gravity one half of the ponderable matter of the wood is which results from its saturation with quicklime. dissipated in incondensable gases. Count Rum- The decimal number of the specific gravity of the ford states that the charcoal is equal in weight lo calcareous acetate is nearly double that of the pure more than four-tenths of the wood from which it is wood vinegar. Thus 1.009 in vinegar becomes made. The count's error seems to have arisen 1.018 in liquid acetate. But the vinegar of ferfrom the slight heat of an oven to which his wood mentation = 1.014 will become only 1.023 in was exposed in a glass cylinder. The result now acetate, from which, if 0.005 be subtracted for given is the experience of an eminent manufactur- mucilage or extractive, the remainder will agree ing chemist at Glasgow. The crude pyrolignous with the density of the acetate from wood. A acid is rectified by a second distillation in a copper glass hydrometer of Fahrenheit's construction is still, in the body of which about twenty gallons of used for finding the specific gravities. It consists viscid tarry matter are left from every 100. It has of a globe about three inches diameter, having a now become a transparent brown vinegar, having little ballast ball drawn out beneath, and a stem a considerable empyreumatic smell, and a specific above of about three inches long, containing a slip gravity of 1.013. Its acid powers are superior to of paper with a transverse line in the middle, and those of the best household vinegar, in the propor- surmounted with a little cup for receiving weights tion of 3 to 2. By redistillation, saturation with or poises. The experiments on which this instriquicklime, evaporation of the liquid acetate to ment, called an acetometer, is constructed, bave dryness, and gentle torrefaction, the empyreumatic been detailed in the sixth volume of the Journal or matter is so completely dissipated, that on decom- Science. They do not differ essentially from those posing the calcareous salt by sulphuric acid, a of Mollerat. The following points were determined pure, perfectly colorless, and grateful vinegar rises by this chemist :- The acid of specific gravity 1.063

requires two and a half times its weight of crystal- mersed in it is not quite removed by their subse lised subcarbonate of soda for saturation, whence quent ebullition in water. M. Thenard regards it as a compound of eleven Acetic acid and common vinegar are sometimes of water, and eighty-nine of real acid in 100 fraudulently mixed with sulphuric acid to give parts. Combined with water, in the proportion of them strength. This adulteration may be detected 100 to 112-2, it does not change its density, but it by the addition of a little chalk, short of their sathen remains liquid several degrees below the turation. With pure vinegar the calcareous base freezing point of water. By diluting it with a forms a limpid solution, but with sulphuric acid a smaller quantity of water, its specific gravity aug- white insoluble gypsum. Muriate of barytes is a ments, a circumstance peculiar to this acid. It is still nicer test. British fermented vinegars are 1.079, or at its maximum, when the water forms allowed by law to contain a little sulphuric acid, one-third of the weight of the acid.—Ann. de but the quantity is frequently exceeded. Copper Chimie, tom. 66.

is discovered in vinegars by supersaturating them The following table is given by Messrs. Taylor, with ammonia, when a fine blue color is produced ; as the basis of their acetometer :

and lead by sulphate of soda, hydrosulphurets, Revenue proof acid, called by the manufacturer and sulphuretted hydrogen. None of these should No. 24.

produce any change on genuine vinegar. sp. gr. 1.0085 contains real acid in 100, 5 Acetic acid dissolves deutoxide of barium with1.0170

10 out effervescence. By precipitating the barytes 1.0257

15 with sulphuric acid, there remains an oxygenised 1.0320

20 acid, which, being saturated with potash, and 1.0470

30 heated, allows a great quantity of oxygen gas to 1.0580

40 escape. There is disgengaged at the same time a An acetic acid of very considerable strength may notable quantity of carbonic acid gas. This shows also be prepared by saturating perfectly dry char- that the oxygen, when assisted by heat, unites in coal with common vinegar, and then distilling. part with the carbon, and doubtless likewise with The water easily comes off and is separated at first; the hydrogen of the acid. It is in fact acetic but a stronger heat is required to expel the acid. deutoxide of hydrogen. Or by exposing vinegar to very cold air, or to Salts consisting of the several bases, united in freezing mixtures, its water separates in the state of definite proportions to acetic acid, are called aceice, the interstices of which are occupied by a tates. They are characterised by the pungent smell strong acetic acid, which may be procured by of vinegar, which they exhale on the effusion of suldraining. The acetic acid, or radical vinegar of phuric acid; and by their yielding on distillathe apothecaries, in which they dissolve a little tion in a moderate red heat a very light, odorous, camphor or fragrant essential oil, has a specific and combustible liquid called pyro-acetic spirit. gravity of about 1.070. It contains fully one part They are all soluble in water; many of them so of water to two of the crystallised acid. The much so as to be uncrystallisable. About thirty difpungent smelling salt consists of sulphate of ferent acetates bave been formed, of which only a potasb moistened with that acid. Acetic acid acts very few have been applied to the uses of life. on tin, iron, zinc, copper, and nickel; and it com- The acetic acid unites with all the alkalies and bines readily with the oxides of many other metals, most of the earths, and with these bases it forms by mixing a solution of their sulphates with that of compounds, some of which are crystallisable. The an acetate of lead.

salts it forms are distinguished by their great soluThis acid, as it exists in the acetates of barytes bility: their decomposition by fire, which carbonises and of lead, has been analysed by MM. Gay Lus- them; the spontaneous alteration of their solution; sac and Thenard, and also by Berzelius.

and their decomposition by a great number of acids, Gay Lussac found 50-224 carbon, 5.629 hydro- which extricate from them the acetic acid in a congen, and 44:147 oxygen; or in other terms 50 224 centrated state. It unites likewise with most of carbon, 46.911 of water or its elementary consti- the metallic oxides. tuents, and 2.863 oxygen in excess. Berzelius, With barytes, the saline mass, by spontaneous 46.83 carbon, 6:33 hydrogen, and 46.82 oxygen in evaporation, crystallises in fine transparent prisma100 parts.

tic needles, of a bitterish acid taste, which do not By saturating known weights of bases with deliquesce when exposed to the air, but rather acetic acid, and ascertaining the quantity of ace- effloresce. tates obtained after cautious evaporation to dryness, With potash this acid unites, and forms a deliBerzelius obtained with lime (3:56) 6.5 for the quescent salt scarcely crystallisable, called formerly prime equivalent of acetic acid, and with yellow foliated earth of tartar, and regenerated tartar. The oxide of lead 6.432. Recent researches, which solution of this salt, even in closely stopped veswill be published in a detailed form, induce me to sels, is spontaneously decomposed. fix the prime of acetic acid at 7.0.

With soda it forms a crystallisable salt, which Acetic acid dissolves resins, gum resins, cam does not deliquesce. phor, and essential oils. Its odor is employed in The salt formed by dissolving chalk or other medicine to relieve nervous headache, fainting fits, calcareous earth in distilled vinegar, has a sharp or sickness occasioned by crowded rooms. In a bitter taste, and appears in the form of silky crysslightly dilute state, its application has been found tals. The acetate of strontian has a sweet taste, is very to check hemorrhagy from the nostrils. Its anti- soluble, and is easily decomposed by a strong heat. contagious powers are now little trusted to. It is The salt formed by uniting vinegar with ammonia, very largely used in calico printing. Moderately anciently called spirit of mindererus, is generally rectified pyrolignous acid has been rewmmended in a liquid state, and is commonly believed not to for the preservation of animal food; but the em- be crystallisable. It nevertheless may be reduced pyreumatic taint it communicates to bodies im- into the form of small needle-shaped crystals, when this liquor is evaporated to the consistence of a But a small degree of fire-heat is of great advantage, syrup.

and might be applied either by a flued wall, the With magnesia the acetic acid forms a viscid saline fue running through the house, or by cast-iron mass, which does not shoot into crystals, but re- pipes for the purpose. mains deliquescent, has a taste sweetish at first, These sorts of houses, Mr. Nicol remarks, vary and afterwards bitter, and is soluble in spirit of exceedingly in their construction; and, although wine.

some lay great stress on this article (and there are Glucine is readily dissolved by acetic acid. This extremes which ought not to be followed), he is solution, as Vauquelin informs us, does not crys- convinced the failure of success in the production tallise; but is reduced by evaporation to a gummy of the grape is much less a consequence of bad substance, which slowly becomes dry and brittle; construction in the house, than in the preparation retaining a kind of ductility for a long time. It of the border, the choice of the kinds, and the gehas a saccharine and pretty strongly astringent neral management. It has fallen to his lot to have taste, in which that of vinegar however is distin- the construction and management of three several guishable.

and differently constructed grape-houses in the Yttria dissolves readily in acetic acid, and the same garden, under his care for years, which have solution yields by evaporation crystals of acetate equally and uniformly produced excellent crops. of yttria. These have commonly the forın of thick This, in his opinion, is a proof of the necessity of six-sided plates, and are not altered by exposure to a greater niceness in the formation of the border the air.

being observed, than in the construction of the Acetate of alumina is commonly made by adding house; the fire-place and flues excepted, which gradually to a boiling solution of alum in water a should always be particularly attended to. He solution of acetate of lead, till no further precipi- also thinks that the scite of a vinery is an object of tate ensues. The sulphate of lead having subsided, such consequence to the welfare of the plant, and decant the supernatant liquor, evaporate, and the successful cultivation and production of well-flaacetate of alumina may be obtained in small voured fruit, that the greatest care should be taken needle-shaped crystals, having a strong styptic and in the choice of it. A gentle hill, having a south acetous taste. This salt is of great use in dyeing aspect, and considerable declivity that way, the and calico-printing.

soil a strong brown loam of two feet, over a bottom Acetate of zircone may be formed by pouring of dry sand, gravel, or soft clay, is, he thinks, the acetic acid on newly precipitated zircone. It has most desirable, and would be the least expensive of an astringent taste. It does not crystallise; but, all situations. In this case the border requires no when evaporated to dryness, forms a powder, paving or draining; and admits of a proper mixwhich does not attract moisture from the air. It ture of sandy loam, vegetable mould, 'marle, and is very soluble both in water and alcohol; and is dung, by the removal of two feet of the natural not so easily decomposed by heat as nitrate of zire bottom, with the natural soil, to form a border,

cone. M. Vauquelin has found that acetic acid perfectly adapted to the growth of the vine, in the , may be combined with volatile oils.

following proportion, viz. one half strong brown Vinegar dissolves the true gums, and partly the loam, a quarter light sandy loam, an eighth vegetagum resins, by means of digestion.

ble mould of decayed tree-leaves, and an eighth VINERY, in horticulture, a sort of garden erec- stable-dung; to which add about a fiftieth part of tion generally consisting of a wall twelve or four- shell-marle. This is the composition of the vineteen feet in height, extending from east to west, borders at Wemyss Castle, none of which are less furnished with stoves and proper flues, with roof than four feet deep, and one (owing to the accidenand lights of glass, covering a border of some ex- tal situation of the house) is six. tent, as ten feet or more in width. When vines VIO (Thomas de). See CAJETAN. are to be forced early, upright glasses, two and a VI'OL, n. s.) Fr. violle ; Ital, viola. A stringed half or three feet in height, are often employed in Violin'. S instrument of music : a fiddle. front to support the roof, and to admit sun and Praise with timbrels, organs, flutes; light to the border, which is frequently occupied

Sandys. with low-growing vegetables ; but, when they are My tongue's use is to me no more not wanted early, a low wall will answer equally Than an unstringed viol, or a harp. Shakspeare. well. In forcing vines, the following dimensions Loud o'er the rest Cremona's trump doth sound; are supposed to form an improved vinery :-The Me softer airs befit, and softer strings wall twelve feet high, the breadth ten feet, and the Of lute or viol, still more apt for mournful things. height of the upright wall in front three feet, where

Milton. the roof will form an angle of about forty-three de

Sharp violins proclaim grees; which experience has shown to be a suitable Their jealous pangs and desperation, pitch. These buildings may also be constructed for the fair disdainful dame.

Dryden. on a plan somewhat similar to that of a single- VIOLA, in botany, a genus of plants of the class pitted pine-stove, having the hack wall fourteen syngenesia, order monogynia; in the natural system feet high; the roof slanting, and covering an ex- arranged under the twenty-ninth order, campanatent of about sixteen feet, with a flue running from ceæ. The calyx is pentaphyllous; the corolla five east to west near the front wall. This is well suited, petaled, irregular, with a nectarium behind, hornnot only for grapes, but early crops of melons, shaped; the capsule is above the germen, threestrawberries, &c.

valved, monolocular. There are twenty-eight spe. Where there are peach-houses, the glass frames cies; six of which are natives of Britain. The may be employed for the vinery, when constructed most important are, 1. V. odorata, purple sweet with this intention, and good grapes may be ob- violet, has leaves heart-shaped, notched : the flowers tained from vines trained against walls about six deep purple, single; creeping scions. The flowers of feet high, by means of melon-frame glasses, where this plant, taken in the quantity of a dram or two, a small slanting roof is made proper to receive them. are said to be gently purgatire or laxative, and, ac

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