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VIATKA, d government or province of Euro- VIC'AR, n. s. Lat. vicarius. The incumpean Russia, bounded on the north-east by the Vic'ARAGE, bent of an appropriated or government of Perm, and on the south by that of Vica'rious, adj. S impropriated benefice; a subKasan. It extends from 56° to 61° N. lat. ; and stitute or representative: a vicarage is the benefice has an area of 47,000 square miles.. The capital of a vicar: vicarious, deputed, delegated, repreis of the same name. 420 miles E. N. E. of Mos- sentative. cow.

Procure the vicar
VI'BRATE, v. a. & v. n.) Latin vibro. To To stay for me at church, 'twixt twelve and one,

S move to and fro with To give our hearts united ceremony. Shakspeare. quick motion : make to quiver : to quiver; play T he soul in the body is but a subordinate efficient, up and down or to and fro: vibration, the act of a

of and vicarious and instrumental in the hands of the

Almighty, being but his substitute in this regiment of doing so, or state of being moved in this way.

the body.

Hale. Breath vocalized, that is, vibrated or undulated, may An archbishop may not only excommunicate and in. differently affect the lips, and impress a swift tremu- terdict his suffragans, but his vicar-general may do the lous motion, which breath passing smooth doth not. same.

Ayliffe. Holder. This gentleman lived in his vicarage to a good old The air compressed by the fall and weight of the age, and having never deserted his flock died vicar of quicksilver, would repel it a little upwards, and make it Bray.

Swift. vibrate a little up and down.

Vicar, a person appointed as deputy to another, Do not all fixed bodies, when heated beyond a cer.

to perform his functions in his absence and under tain degree, emit light, and shine? And is not this

his authority. In the canon law it denotes a emission performed by the vibrating motions of their parts?

Newton. priest of a parish, the predial tithes whereof are imThe whisper that to greatness still too near,

propriated or appropriated ; that is, belong either Perhaps, yet vibrates on his sovereiga's ear. Pope. to a chapter, religious house, &c., or to a layman

who receives them, and only allows the vicar the VIBRATION, in mechanics, a regular reciprocal small tithes, or a convenient salary. See Parson. motion of a body, as a pendulum.

VICARS (John), writer of some virulent pamVIBURNUM, in botany, a genus of plants of phlets against the royalists in the civil wars, was the class pentandria, order trigynia ; and in the na- born at London, and educated at Oxford. He betural system arranged under the forty-third order, came usher of the school in Christ's Hospital. He dumosæ. The calyx is quinquepartite and above; died in 1652 the corolla divided into five laciniæ; the fruit a VICARY (Thomas), the first anatomical writer monospermous berry. There are nineteen spe- in English, was sergeant surgeon to Henry VIII., cies, three of which are natives of Britain. 1. V. Edward VI., Mary L., and Elizabeth, and chief surlantana, common viburnum, wayfaring, or pliant geon of St. Bartholomew's hospital. His book is meally tree, rises with a woody stem, branching entitled A Treasure for Englishmen, containing the twenty feet high, having very pliant shoots covered Anatomy of Man's Bodie, published in 1548. with a lightish-brown bark, large heart-shaped,

VICĚ, n. s. ) Lat. vitium. Depravity; wickveined, serrated leaves, white and hoary underneath;

VICED, adj. Sedness; a course of action oppoand the branches terminated by umbels of white V icious. site to virtue ; inordinate life; offlowers, succeeded by bunches of red berries, &c. fence : fault: the fool of old shows : viced is used 2. V. opulus, or gelder rose; consisting of two by Shakspeare for vicious, corrupted ; depraved. varieties, one with flat flowers, the other globular. Be as a planetary plague, when Jove The former grows eighteen or twenty feet high, Will o'er some high viced city hang his poison branching opposite, of an irregular growth, and In the sick air.

Shakspeare. covered with a whitish bark; large lobated or three- No vice, so simple, but assumes lobed leaves on glandulose foot-stalks, and large Some mark of virtue on its outward parts. Id. flat umbels of white flowers at the ends of the

I'll be with you again branches, succeeded by red berries. The latter In a trice, like to the old vice, grows fifteen or eighteen feet high, branching like

Your need to sustain; the other, garnished with large lobated, or three

Who with dagger of lath, in his rage and his wrath,
Cries, Ah, ha! to the devil.

Id. lobed leaves, on glandular foot-stalks ; and large

No spirit more gross to love globular umbels of white flowers at the ends of the

Vice for itself.

Milton. branches in great abundance. This tree, when in He heard the heavy curse. bloom, exhibits a singularly fine appearance : the Servants of servants on his vicious race.

Id. flowers, though small, are collected numerously into I cannot blame him for inveighing so sharply against large globular umbels round like a ball; hence it is the vices of the clergy in his age.

Dryden. sometimes called snow-ball tree. 3. V. tinus, com The foundation of error will lie in wrong measures mon laurustinus, or evergreen viburnum; grows of probability; as the foundation of vice in wrong mea. eight or ten feet high or more, branching numerously sures of good.

Locke. from the bottom upwards, assuming a close bushy Vice, n. s. & v. a. Fr. vis ; Belg. vijs. A growth, with the branches somewhat hairy and screw, or press operating by screws; hence gripe, glandulous; very closely garnished with oval, grasp : to draw by a kind of violence; to gripe. wholly entire leaves, of a strong green color, placed with all confidence he swears. in pairs opposite; and whitish and red flowers collect- As he had seen 't or been an instrument ed numerously in large umbellate clusters all over To vice you to it, that you have touched his queen the plant, at the sides and ends of the branches, from Forbiddenly.

Shakspeare. January until March or April, exhibiting a most He found that marbles taught him percussion ; bottlebeautiful appearance. There are many varieties. screws, the vice ; whirligigs, the axis in peritrochio. VICA Pota, a goddess at Rome, who presided

Arbuthnot on Pope. over victory.

Vice, in smithery and other arts conversant z

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metals, a machine or instrument serving to hold or twelve pair, lance-shaped, downy. Stipulæ en fast any thing they are at work upon, whether it is tire. Flowers purple, numerous, pendulous, in im. to be beaten, filed, or rivetted.

bricated spikes. It is also reckoned an excellent Vice, in ethics, is ordinarily defined an elective fodder for cattle. 2. V. faba, or common garden habit, denoting either an excess or defect from bean. It is a native of Egypt. It is too well known the just medium wherein virtue is placed.

to require description. 3. V. sativa, common Vice is also used in the composition of divers vetch, or tare. The stalks are round, weak, words to denote the relation of something that branched, about two feet long. Pinnæ five or comes instead or in the place of another; as seven pair, a little hairy, notched at the end. vice-admiral, vice-chancellor, &c., are officers who Stipulæ dentated. Flowers light and dark purple, take place in the absence of admirals, &c.

on short pedicles, generally two together; pods VICEAD'MIRAL, n. 8.2 Lat. vice (very com- erect; seeds black. It is known to be an excellent

VICEAD'MIRALTY. S monly used in com- fodder for horses. position for one qui vicem gerit who performs in his

VIC'INAL, adj. ) Lat. vicinus. Near; neighstead the office of a superior) and admiral. The Vic'ine, second commander of a fleet: the station or office Vicin'ity, n. s. S bouring : state of being near. of a viceadmiral.

The position of things is such, that there is a vicinity The foremost of the fleet was the admiral; the rear- between agents and patients, that the one incessantly admiral was Cara Mahometes, an arch pirate. The invades the other.

Hale. viceadmiral in the middle of the fleet, with a great Opening other vicine passages might obliterate any squadron of galleys, struck sail directly. Knolles. attack; as the making of one hole in the yielding mud The viceadmiralty is exercised by Mr. Trevanion. defaces the print of another near it. Glanville.

Carew. Gravity alone must have carried them downwards to VICEAGʻENT, n. s. Vice and agent. One the vicinity of the sun.

Bentley. who acts in the place of another.

The abundance and vicinity of country seats. Swifi. A vassal Satan hath made his viceagent, to cross VICIS'SITUDE, n. s. Lat. vicissitudo. Reguwhatever the faithful ought to do.


lar change; return of the same things in the same VICEGE'RENT, n. s. ) Latin vicem gerens. succession ; revolution. VICEGE'RENCY. A lieutenant ; one who

It makes through heaven is intrusted with the power of the superior, by Grateful vicissitude, like day and night. Milton. whom he is deputed: his quality, station, or office.

The rays of light are alternately disposed to be reWhom send I to judge thee? Whom but thee, flected or refracted for many vicissitudes. Newton. Vicegerent Son! To thee I have transferred

During the course of the war, did the vicissitudes of All judgment, whether in heaven, or earth, or hell. good and bad fortune affect us with humility or thank. Milton. fulness.

Atterbury. Employ it in unseigned piety towards God, in un

VICTIM, n. s. Lat. victima. A sacrifice; someshaken duty to his vicegerent; in hearty obedience to

thing slain for a sacrifice; something destroyed.


Sprat. his church.

The authority of conscience stands founded upon its All that were authors of so black a deed, vicegerency and deputation under God. South. Be sacrificed as victims to his ghost. Denham.

VICENZA, a town and province of Austrian . Clitumnus' waves, for triumphs after war,
Italy, in the government of Venice. It is a fertile

The victim ox, and snowy sheep prepare.

Addison. and well cultivated country, containing, on a super

Behold where age's wretched victim lies ! ficial extent of less than 1000 square miles, above See his head trembling, and his half-closed eyes.

Prior. 310,000 inhabitants. The capital has 25,000 inhabitants.

VICTOR, n. s. Lat. victor. Conqueror; VICEʻROY, n. s. ) French viceroi. He who VICTO'Rious, adj. vanquisher; he that gains

VICEROY'Alty. governs in place of a king VICTOʻRIOUSLY, adv. Sadvantage in any contest. with regal authority : the office of a viceroy.

Vic'TORY, n. s. (Seldom used with a geniShall I, for lucre of the rest unvanquished,


tive; we say the conqueror Detract so much from that prerogative,

of kingdoms, not the victor of kingdoms; and As to be called but viceroy of the whole ? Shakspeare. never but with regard to some single action or

These parts furnish our viceroyalties for the gran- person : as we never say, Cæsar was in general a dees; but in war are incumbrances to the kingdom. great victor, but that he was victor at Pharsalia :


*: the adjective and adverb correspond : a victory is VI'CETY, n. s. A nice thing, says Johnson, is

a conquest; triumph; success in battle: victress, a called in vulgar language point vice, from the Fr.

female conqueror. point devise, or point de vice; whence the barbarous word vicety may be derived. Nicety; exact

Although the victor, we submit to Cæsar. ness. A word not used.

Shakspeare, Here is the fruit of Pem,

Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths; Grafted upon Stub his stem;

Our bruised arms hung up for monuments. Id. With the peakish nicety,

I'll lead thy daughter to a conqueror's bed; And old Sherewood's vicety.

Ben Jonson.

And she shall be sole victress ; Cæsar's Cæsar. Id.

Victory doth more often fall by error of the vanquishVICIA, in botany, a genus of plants of the class ed, than by the valour of the viciorious. Hayward. diadelphia, and order of decandria ; natural order

That grace will carry us, if we do not wilfully betray thirty-second, papilionaceae. The stigma is bearded

our succours, victoriously through all difficulties. transversely on the lower side. There are twenty

Kammona, species, seven of which are natives of Britain. Their hearts at last the vanquished re-assume, The most important of these are, 1. V. cracca, And now the victors fall.

Denham, tufted vetch. It has a stem branched, three or four Then to the heaven of heavens he shall ascend, feet long. Leaves pinnated; pianæ generally ten With victory, triumphing o'er his foes. Milton

Say where and when

VIENNA, Germ. Wien, the capital of the AusTheir fight; what stroke shall bruise the victor's heel. trian empire, is situated in the province of Lower


Austria, on the right bank of the Danube, which is In love, the victors from the vanquished fly,

here slow and majestic in its course, forming a They fly that wound, and they pursue that die.


number of islands and windings. It is joined by

the Wien and Alser, two streams, small but rapid, Lose not a thought on me, I'm out of danger;

which flow through the town. Vienna is subject Heaven will not leave me in the victor's hand. Addison,

to occasional inundations from each of these rivers. Sudden these honors shall be snatched away, And curst for ever this victorious day.


The city, or original part, forins a town distinct

from the suburbs, of a circular shape, hardly a mile VICTORINA, a matron, who led the Roman

toman in any direction, and not above three miles in cirarmies against the emperor Gallienus. See Rome. cuit. 'Between it and the suburbs is an open space, VICTORINUS. See STRIGELIUS.

also circular, and of the width of somewhat more VICTORIUS (Benedict), physician, was born at than half a mile, the computed range of cannon in Faenza, about 1481. He was professor at Bo- .

a remote age. The suburbs, consisting formerly of logna, and died about 1560. He wrote De Morbo a succession of scattered villages, are now so conGallico, 8vo., and some other works.

nected as to form a continuous whole, surrounded VICTORIUS (Lionel), a medical professor at Bo

on the outside by a wall which embraces a circuit logna; wrote on Infantile Diseases, 8vo. ; and of no less than twelve miles. The ramparts have died 1520.

long been used for public walks. VICTORIUS (Peter), a commentator on the an- The houses of the city in general built of brick. cients, was born at Florence, 1499, where he was slated and m

slated, and most of the streets are paved with yeprofessor of rhetoric, and member of the senate. nite, a little raised above the causeway. In the He died 1585.

suburbs the houses are not so high, the streets are VICTORY, in mythology, is represented by He- wider, and many of the buildings good. In genesiod as the daughter of Styx and Pallas; and Varro ral the best houses are those which front the city. calls her the daughter of heaven and earth. The Some of the streets here are not paved: but

are Romans erected a temple to her, where they prayed all well lighted at night; and in the city there are for success to their arms. They painted her in large subterranean sewers, which discharge themthe form of a woman clad in cloth of gold. In selves into the Danube. Vienna has eight small some medals she is represented flying in the air, and irregular squares. The best is that called Am holding a laurel crown in one hand, and a palm Hof, on account of its vicinity to the court. The in the other ; but in others she stands on a globe. Graben is rather a wide street than a square, and

VICTUAL, n. s.&) Fr. victuailles ; barb, Lat. stands nearly in the centre of the city. The Joseph VICT'UALS, Tv.a. victulus, of Lat. vitalis. Pro. Platz contains a good equestrian statue of the em

VICT'UALLER. vision of food; stores for the peror Joseph II., and has various good buildings. support of life; meat; sustenance: to victual is to "At the western extremity is situated the imperial store with provisions : victualler, one who provides palace, a square edifice of vast extent ; but, having them.

been built at different periods, the appearance of He was not able to keep that place three days for the exterior is very irregular. The interior is highly lack of victuals,

Knolles. interesting, on account of the valuable collections A huge great flagon full I bore,

which it contains. The riding academy here is And, in a good large knapsacke, victles store.

said to be one of the largest in Europe, but it is Chapman.

surpassed by an assembly-room called the hall of They planted their artillery against the haven, to impeach supply of victuals; yet the English victuallers

Apollo, which is capable of containing 10,000 peosurceased not to bring all things necessary. Hayward.

ple. The Belvidere, a palace built by prince Eu

Ple. He landed in these islands, to furnish himself with gene, is in one of the suburbs. The imperial mews victuals and fresh water.

Abbut, are capable of containing more than 400 horses ; VIDA, the ancient name of Cremona.

the arsenal has an immense collection of arms, and VIDA (Mark Jerome), bishop of Alva, in Mont

of Alain Mont many curious ornaments, of iron. All these ediserrat, and one of the most excellent Latin poets

fices belong either to government or the imperial that have appeared since the Augustine age, was born

family. at Cremona in 1470. He was made bishop of

of the churches the whole number is twenty-nine, Alva in 1552. He wrote hymns, eclogues and

besides fourteen monasteries, and three convents. poems, in Latin; and in prose, dialogues, synod

The ancient Gothic cathedral is dedicated to St. ical constitutions, letters, and other pieces.

Me Stephen, and dates from 1270.
He sepne

The interior is died in 1566, soon after his being made bishop of

of elegant and simple, containing several fine monu Cremona. The best edition of his poems is that

ments, particularly that erected to prince Eugene. of Oxford, 3 vols. 8vo.

Its tower is of enormous height. The church of VIE, v. a, & o.n. Fr. vier. To show or prac

St Peter is in the Italian style. In that of the Autise in competition; rival : contest; strive for su

gustinians, the ceremonies connected with the imperiority.

perial family are performed; and it contains per

haps the most interesting monument in ViennaShe hung about my neck, and kiss and kiss She vied so fast,

that erected to the archduchess Maria Christina, That in a twink she won me to her love. Shakspeare.

by her husband, considered a master-piece of CaThey vie power and expence with those that are too

nova's, high.


The great hospital, equal in extent to any in The wool, when shaded with Ancona's dye,

Paris or London, receives often 10,000 patients in May with the proudest Tyrian purple vie. Addison. the course of a year: there are separate hospitals Now voices over voices rise ;

for soldiers, Jews, foundlings, orphans, and aged While each to be the loudest vies.

Swift. persons. Several of these charitable establishments

are served by nuns. The lying-in hospitals are measure from Hungary ; vegetables from the district also on a liberal plan, and under good management around the capital. For fuel, the inhabitants use

Vienna has manufactures of silks, ribbons, gloves, partly wood, partly coals and turf. The water lace, paper, earthen-ware, instruments, philosophi- drank in Vienna is not in general good; and is ofcal and musical; maps, engravings, coaches, and ten found to disagree with strangers. Nor is the carriages in general. In these, and a variety of climate equally healthy with that of London or Paris. other branches, a transfer of manufacture would be It is extremely variable, intense heat being not made to towns of greater salubrity and cheaper unfrequently followed by piercing cold. The polabor, did the country possess canal carriage, or pulation has been progressive for a century past; even good roads. Those leading to Vienna are few and the total number at present is not below compared to the approaches of London or Paris. 270,000.

Vienna is the emporium of all the commerce of Under the name of Vindobona, Vienna was long the Austrian states; the place for exchange opera- the head quarters of a Roman legion, and aftertions, for extensive sales and purchases, for loans wards fell successively into the hands of the Goths and contracts; in short, it is the London of Aus- and Huns. In 791 Charlemagne attached it to tria, without any thing like an equal repartition of his dominions : at that time, and for more than two business to provincial towns. Yet the number of centuries after, it was of inconsiderable extent; the wholesale mercantile houses hardly exceeds 200. church of St. Stephen, which is now nearly in its There is here an exchange, a bank chartered so centre, having been erected in 1144, outside of the lately as 1817, and an establishment on the plan walls. The town continued, however, to increase. of the Lombard or pawn bank of Hamburgh and The most remarkable incidents in its history are its other continental cities.

capture in 1484 by the Hungarians, under their The university dates from 1237, and was under king Mathias, who resided in it will his death. In the management of the Jesuits, till the celebrated 1529 the Turks, supported by Hungarian insurVon Swieten prevailed on the court, in the middle gents, ventured to approach this capital, and deof the eighteenth century, to take it out of their stroyed the suburbs. In 1619 the insurgents, suphands. A botanical garden was now established; ported by a party in Austria, succeeded in medical men were sent to the most celebrated se- penetrating into the city ; but a different result minaries in Europe, to observe the state of the took place on an attempt made in 1625 by Torsscience; a military hospital and an anatomical tenson, a Swedish general, commanding a mixed theatre were founded; and at a subsequent date a army of his countrymen and of German Protestants. veterinary school. In consequence Vienna is by The attack most generally known to the readers of far the first medical school in Germany. The uni- history was that of 1683, made by a Turkish army, versity of Vienna also has public classes for philo- supported by disaffected chiefs in Hungary, but sophy, classical languages, literature, law, theology, repulsed under the governor of Sobieski. In 1741, without, however, surpassing in these departments though pressed by the Bavarians on the west, and the seminaries of Gottingen, Leipsic, and Halle. the French and Prussians on the north, Vienna The total number of professors is fifty-four; that was preserved ; and an increase of the army, with of assistants eighteen. Vienna has likewise a se financial supplies from England, soon changed the minary for the oriental languages, an academy of aspect of affairs. In the present age it was threatfine arts, and an institution formed in 1770 for the ened by Buonaparte in 1797, and occupied by him in reception of specimens of manufacture. Greek li- 1805 and 1809. On both occasions proper discipline terature is also cultivated here : books are printed was observed by the invaders, and little injury done. in Romaic, and a correspondence kept up with Vienna suffered from the ravages of the plague, first several schools in Greece. The military institu- in 1679, and afterwards in 1713. 630 miles east tions are a school of cadets; and, since 1816, a of Paris, and 896 south-east of London. polytechnic school for engineers, civil and military. VIENNE, a river of France, which rises in the Vienna contains five schools or seminaries for Limousin, and, flowing northward, joins the Loire, training teachers for provincial towns and villages. in the department of the Indre and Loire, two

The imperial library is very extensive ; and is miles above Saumur. It gives name to two desaid to consist of 12,000 MSS., and 300,000 print- partments, and is navigable at some distance above ed volumes. Next to this comes the library of the its influx into the Loire. university, computed at 90,000 volumes; the im- VIENNE, a department of France, formed of the perial collection of medals and coins is reckoned ancient province of Upper Poitou, and bounded! the most complete in Europe.

on the north by the department of the Indre and The principal amusements of the people are the Loire, on the south by that of the Charente. It public walks and theatres. Of the latter, there are has a superficial extent of 2800 square miles, and no less than five; two in the city, which belong to a population of 252,000, all Catholics, with the exthe court, and three in the suburbs; but all below ception of about 13,000 Protestants. The surface mediocrity. The public walks are much better is for the most part level. The principal rivers are calculated to afford gratification. The Prater is the Vienne, the Charente, the Dive, the Clain, and an immense park on the east side of the town, be- the Creuse. The principal productions are corn, longing to the court, but thrown open to the public. pulse, potatoes, hemp, flax, and wine. AgriculA number of slightly built coffee-houses are erected ture is very backward. along the walks ; and parties are formed on the VIENNE, UPPER, a department in the west of grass for taking coffee. The Augarten is another France, including the greatest part of the Limousin, place of public resort to the north of the Prater, and traversed by the river Vienne, which flows and separated from it only by an iron-railing. The northward to the Loire. It has a superficial extent Brigitten-Au is another agreeable walk; but both of 2230 square miles, and a population of 240,000. are much less frequented than the Prater.

This department is mountainous, produces comCorn, meat, and wine, are supplied in a great paratively little corn, but has extensive pasturages,


in which are reared quantities of horses, oxen, asses, forbearance of sleep; watchfulness; guard; circum. and mules. Its forests are extensive, its game spect care : the adverb corresponding: abundant. Its mineral products are marble, mines He that outlives this day, and sees old age, of coal, iron, lead, and antimony. The depart. Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours, ment is divided into the four arrondissements And say, to-morrow is St. Crispian. Shakspeare. of Limoges (the capital), Bella, Roche-chouart,

No post is free, no place, and St. Yriex. Limoges is the seat of a bishop, That guard and most unusual vigilance and of a provincial court of the first class.

Does not attend my taking.

Id. Vienne, a town in the south-east of France, on Thus, in peace, either of the kings so vigilantly obthe right bank of the Rhone, eighteen miles south served every motion of the others, as if they had lived of Lyons ; contains several public buildings, a ca- upon the alarm.

Hayward. thedral, which is a fine Gothic edifice, erected on

ic edifice. erected on In this their military care, there were few remarkable an eminence, and two good churches. The popu

occasions under the duke, saving his continual vigilancy, and voluntary hazard of his person.

Wotton. lation is about 10,300; the manufactures, woollen,

So they in heaven their odes and vigils tuned. linen, hard-ware, leather, and colored paper.

Milton. Vienne has various antiquities, among which are Though Venus and her son should spare a square building, similar to that at Nimes, and Her rebel heart, and never teach her care; supposed to have been a Roman temple; a pedes- Yet Hymen may perforce her vigils keep, tal and entablature, surmounted by a pyramidal top, And for another's joy suspend her sleep. Waller. probably the tomb of some distinguished Roman. Shrines ! where their vigils pale-eyed virgins keep, There are here also the remains of a theatre and And pitying saints, whose statues learn to weep. amphitheatre, and several traces of aqueducts; arcades supposed to have belonged to a triumphal And that which on the Baptist's vigil sends arch: and, on the opposite bank of the Rhone. the To nymphs and swains the vision of their friends. piles of an ancient Roman bridge. It is mention

Harte. ed by Cæsar as a place of consequence.

Vigil, in church history, is the eve or next day VIETA (Francis), a mathematician, born at before any solemn feast; because then Christians Fontenay in 1540. He was the first who used let- were wont to watch, fast, and pray, in their churches. ters in algebra to designate known quantities. He VIGILS OF PLANTS, a term under which some also made corrections on the calendar, and improve- botanists comprehend the precise time of the day ments in geometry. He died in 1603. His works in which the flowers of different plants open, expand, were published, Paris, 1646, 1 vol. folio.

and shut. A flower which opens in Senegal at VIEW, v.a. & n. s.) Fr. veu from veoir, or

six will not open at the same season in France and VIEWLESS, adj. S voir. To survey ; ex England till eight or nine, nor in Sweden till ten. amine; perceive by the eye: a prospect; survey;

Linné distinguishes by the general name of solar examination by the eye; appearance; act or power

(flores solares), all those flowers which observe a of seeing; sight; mental 'survey; intention; de- determinate time in opening and shutting. These sign; hope : viewless is unseen, undiscernible. flowers are again divided from certain circumGo, and view the country.

Joshua. stances, into three species, or kinds : 1. Equinoctial To be imprisoned in the viewless winds,

flowers (flores equinoctiales) are such as open And blown with restless violence about

and shut, at all seasons, at a certain fixed or deterThe pendant world.

Shakspeare. ininate hour. 2. Tropical flowers (flores tropici) Vast and indefinite views, which drown all apprehen are such whose hour of opening is not fixed at all sions of the uttermost objects, are condemned by good seasons, but accelerated or retarded according as authors.


the length of the day is increased or diminished. Each stair mysteriously was meant, nor stood

3. Meteorous flowers (flores meteorici) are such There always, but drawn up to heaven sometimes

whose hour of expansion depends upon the dry or Viewless.

Milton. They here with eyes aghast

humid state of the air, and the greater or less presViewed first their lamentable lot.

sure of the atmosphere. Of this kind is the SiSome safer resolution I've in view.

Id. berian sow thistle, which shuts at night if the enThe walls of Pluto's palace are in view. Dryden. suing day is to be clear and serene, and opens if it Time never will renew,

is to be cloudy and rainy. In like manner the While we too far the pleasing path pursue,

African marigold, which in dry serene weather Surveying nature with too nice a view.

opens at six or seven in the morning, and shuts With a view to commerce, in returning from his ex at four o'clock in the afternoon, is a sure indicapedition against the Parthians, he passed through tion that rain will fall during the course of the day, Egypt.

Arbuthnot. when it continues shut after seven. Fisher, the Jesuit, in the year 1626, seconded the

VIGILIUS, an African prelate, and polemical cardinal in the same plea, and upon the same views.


writer, who flourished about A. D. 484. His Cut wide views through mountain to the plain,

works were printed at Dijon, 1665, 4to. You 'll wish your hill a sheltered hill again. Pope.

VIGNOLE (James Baroggio), architect, was Whene'er we view some well-proportioned dome,

born at Vignola, in 1507. He died at Rome, No single parts unequally surprize;

1573. He wrote a treatise on the five orders of All come united to the admiring eyes.


architecture, 3 vols. 4to. Light-bounding from the earth, at once they rise ; VIGʻOR, n. s.

Latin vigor. Force; Their feet half viewless quiver in the skies. Id. ViG'OROUS, adj. (strength; energy; mental

VIGʻIL, n. s. Lat. vigilia. Watch ; de- VIG'OROUSLY, adv. (force : the adjective, ad-
VIG'ILANCE, votions performed in the ViG'OROUSNESS, n.s.) verb, and noun substantive
VIG'ILANCY, customary hours of rest; a following correspond.
ViG'ILANT, adj. (fast or religious service be. He hath given excellent sufferance and vigorousness
VIG'ILANTLY, adv.) fore a holiday: vigilance is to the sufferers, arming them with strange courage,

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