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having previously enjoyed the benefit of good given, so as to clear out well the intestinal canal. grass, air, and free exercise; it may also originate Take of castor oil eight ounces, gruel half a pint. from excessive high feeding, in order expedi- 11. Nephritis. This disorder may arise from tiously to restore a horse to tesh that has been in peritonitis (inflammation of the bowels), excessive a debilitated and emaciated state ; it may like- over exercise, or from drawing weighty loads bewise arise from an injudicious use of corrosive yond the animal's physical strength, whereby the sublimate in the attempt to drive a cutaneous loins become seriously affected. The horse, in disorder into the bowels. This class of the dis- such cases, should be bled copiously, until the ease is discoverable by the following indications: inflammatory appearances subside. A warm excessive lowness of spirits, unusual lassitude, embrocation should be applied to the diseased slight dysenteric affection, restless in the stall, parts, composed of oil of turpentine, hartshorn, breathing and pulsation quick, appetite reduced, and olive oil. The best embrocation, however, film of the eye inflamed and red, and, if proper is the following :-Oil of turpentine one ounce, remedies be not at this critical stage of the disc liquor of ammonia two ounces, olive oil four order immediately applied, the pulsation be- ounces, spirits of camphor one ounce. comes rapid, and violent dysentery ensues, ac- 12. Ophthalmia. When the complaint is the companied by severe costiveness, the horse stools result of external injury, use a little of the folbut little at a time, and bis urine is of a deep lowing eye-water :- Take Goulard's extract one red color; at last the poor animal, overcome by ounce, rose water one quart, shake together in a cruel torture, dies distracted and exhausted. bottle. In all cases of inflammation of the eyes The first remedy in this case is, spontaneous a purging ball must be given, first with a mash, bleeding, even to fainting; doses of castor oil and then on using the following eye-water :-Of should also be given every alternate hour, and sulphate zinc three drachms, of common water clysters of warm water and castor should also be one pint. Mix and wash a little into the eye. thrown up, until a copious discharge has freed This is the best possible collyrium for all sore the bowels, and removed the dysenteric action. eyes; the eyelids must be well bathed with this
8. Enteritis. Molten grease. Inflammation water three or four times a day, fine linen rag of the intestinal canal proceeds sometimes from must be used, and when you wish you can easily suddenly over-working a horse in very full con- separate the lids and draw the rag over. dition, and heretofore not used to much exercise; 13. Psorophthalmia. A dim cloud over the it may also be produced by severely working eye, swollen and inflamed eye-lids; generally a horse just taken into stables from grass. This closed, the globe of the eye red and dull, indisease is frequently called molten grease, increased sensibility, and a disposition to avoid consequence of the slimy matter apparent in the light; if the eye-lids be separated, the membrane excrement of the animal, which some veterina- is seen covering a great portion of the eye, in rians suppose may be the fat thus converted into order to protect it from the light, and to supply slime. À liquid blister on the belly, after the the office of the eye-lids, a hot burning humor bowels are free, often checks the disease.
runs from the eye, irritates the cheek and destroys 9. Splenitis. Inflammation of the spleen. The the hair in its course; sometimes the surface of symptoms are the same with inflammations of the eye, from an infusion of lymph, appears quite other intestines; but as the horse cannot point to opaque. The vessels in the white of the eye are the part where he feels pain, and as there is no much inflamed, and contain red blood, so are the external appearance of disease over the region of smaller, the vessels of the apple of the eye; hence the spleen, it would be only leading our readers the defect in the vision of the horse. First blind astray to affect a particular description of this the horse, and then bathe the eye three or four disease.
times a day with the eye-water, give him a mash 10. Hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver. of scalded bran twice a day for a few days, and When the liver becomes the seat of active in- then give him the following ball:-Take Tartar flammation, the symptoms are nearly the same emetic one drachm, James's powder one drachm, with those of enteritis, or inflammation of the in- calomel half a drachm, Castile soap two drachms. testines, except that the pain is not so intense on Make this into a ball, give it to the horse at pressing the belly with the hand; the extremi- night, and the following purge next morning lies are cold, the fauk heaves, the pulse hard and fasting. Take of Barbadoes tar six or seven wiry, and the mouth, nostrils, and eyes, are drachms, Castile soap two drachms, powdered tinged somewhat with a yellow color. In pro- ginger half an ounce, oil of juniper half a portion to the violence of the disease the horse's drachm, nitre two drachms. Make a ball with strength fails, and in some cases he can scarcely buckthorn syrup: two hours after you give this, stand. The bowels may be either very costive give him a mash and warm water, and physic him or the reverse, as this will depend upon whether moderately every five or six days for two or the inflammation stimulates the liver to throw off three times. a great deal of bile, or to prevent it from its 14. Poditis. Founder of the foot. All veteoffice almost entirely; in the former case, fætid rinary practitioners of eminence and experience black purging takes place, and in the latter, have universally admitted that it is impossible, costiveness and extreme yellowness of the nostrils at least up to the present time, to effect a radical and mouth. There is great thirst in this disease, cure for this too general and fatal disease. and the skin is mostly dry. In the early stages 15. Inticore. The chief remedies for this unof the complaint bleeding must often be resorted frequent disease are bleeding and purging, with to, after which the following purgative must be fomentations.
Genus II.-ABSORBENT SYSTEM.
the operation of tapping will be necessary. This Species 1. Anasarca. Young horses, while is done by puncturing the cavity through the teething, are very frequently exposed to this ribs, near their cartilaginous ends; and between disease; the torture they endure at this period the seventh and eighth, or eighth and ninth ribs, prevents them from chewing their food suffi- will be the best place to puncture. The skin ciently, whence arise various affections of the must be divided by a scalpel, and the trochar stomach, which produce general dropsy. The pushed in and rather backwards, and close to the animal exhibits, in such cases, general drowsi- anterior edge of the rib, to avoid wounding the ness, inability to exercise or eat; the sheath, artery. The canula is then to be left in until belly, and chest appear much swollen. At length the water be drawn off, and taken out quickly, the whole surface of the body becomes affected, so as to admit as little air as possible. À dresand, on pressing with the knuckles or fingers on sing of sticking plaster is then to be put on. the animal, the impression remains a little time, 5. Hydropericardium. Dropsy of the periand then fills up. Horses, aged, and hard cardium. This disease is formally mentioned worked, when turned into bad grazing and damp by writers; but it appears that we never can grounds, are much exposed to this disease. The either ascertain positively that such disease is horse should be taken in, and a few diuretic and present, or do any thing more for its relief than purging balls should be given; he should be re- to keep the horse regular and quiet, administergularly exercised, in order to create a sudorific ing occasional physic and diuretic balls. The and diuretic action. If these remedies prevail, nature of the disease is a superabundant increase let his regimen consist of warm bran-mashes, of the lubricating fluid, which the pericardium, and small portions of the best hay; and, when or bag, in which the heart is enclosed, secretes. his howels are well opened, the following tonic It is mostly fatal. draught should be given every morning :-of ale 6. Hydrocephalus. Water of the brain. This two pints, tincture of opium two drachms, tinc- disorder may arise from a plethoric habit, a deture of muriate of iron three drachms. Mix. termination of blood to the head, a debility of
2. Hydrelcus. Water farcy. This is only the brain in performing its natural functions, or another name for the foregoing disease, when from water lodged in the cavity or cavities of the ulcers are the consequence of the dropsy. The brain. The symptoms vary according to the treatment in every respect is the same. Farriers early or advanced stages of the disease; the call every partial dropsical affection water farcy; horse appears heavy, drooping, and stupefied; but those affections have nothing to do with the he often suddenly rears up, staggers about, bedisease called farcy.
comes violently convulsed, and then lies down 3. Ascites. Dropsy of the belly. This dis- exhausted. Hydrocephalus is, in nineteen cases ease often accompanies general dropsy. The out of twenty, considered incurable by our most seat of it is the cavity of the abdomen, imme- experienced veterinarians. However, if attended diately within the lining membrane, called the to carefully at first, the animal may survive for peritoneum. The treatment is the same as that years. When the first symptoms are apparent, of general dropsy, with the exception that, when bleed profusely: if the horse be of a plethoric the belly becomes much distended, tapping is habit, and used to high feeding and little exercise, necessary; and this is done by puncturing in let purgative doses be given; and, if so constithe centre of the abdomen, half way between pated as to render their operation insufficient the navel and sheath. Diuretics, purgatives, good let clysters of castor or olive oil, with warm living, with gentle exercise, will often cure this water, be served until the bowels are free, and disease.
all appearance of inflammatory action ceases. 4. Hydrothorar. Dropsy of the chest is 7. Hydrocnemia. Dropsy of the legs. To usually the consequence of inflammation of the remove swelled legs requires great attention. lungs, or pleurisy. When the pleura, which is The animal must be physicked, and a diuretic that membrane immediately enclosing the lungs, ball administered every second day. The legs has been suffering from inflammation, a debility nust be hand-rubbed every day, and the horse remains after the inflammatory action subsides, walked about morning and evening. and the Anid which its surface naturally secretes 8. Diarrhæa. Looseness. Most animals are for the necessary purpose of lubrication is so affiicted with this disease more frequently than increased, as to accumulate within the cavity of the horse, yet veterinary surgeons who are in the chest to the extent often of many gallons, very extensive practice know that confirmed and that in no very great space of time. The cases are not unfrequent. It will be produced symptoms are, great difficulty of breathing, en either from an increased secretion of bile, or largement of the sides, of the chest and belly, from impaired action in the absorbent vessels, loss of appetite, the animal becomes thin and which prevents their taking up those Auid partibaggard, restless, and cannot lie down but for a cles that enter into combination with the dung, short time, and sometimes not at all. So like The appearance of the stools is generally liquid, are the symptoms to inflammation of the lungs and they come from him in small quantities at and pleurisy, that the veterinarian must form his every slight movement that he makes. In the cure decision from the history of the disease. The of this disease apply a fresh sheepskin over the disease may be first treated by medicine, such as loins, keeping the body of the horse moderately opening the bowels occasionally, using diuretic warm by covering it with a rug, and exhibiting balls daily, with a drachm of calomel every se- the following drink twice a day until the cond night, and proper diet; but, when the bad purging ceases :-lake aniseeds and carraway symptoms appear rather to increase than decrease, seeds powdered, of each one ounce, prepared
having previously enjoyed the benefit of good given, so as to clear out well the
8. Enteritis. Molten grease. Inflammation water three or four ti
9. Splenitis. Inflammation of the spleen. The the hair in its cou symptoms are the same with inflammations of the eye, from an in other intestines; but as the horse cannot point to opaque. The vess the part where he feels pain, and as there is no much inflamed, an external appearance of disease over the region of smaller, the vessel the spleen, it would be only leading our readers the defect in the astray to affect a particular description of this the horse, and th disease.
times a day with 10. Hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver. of scalded bran When the liver becomes the seat of active in- then give him flammation, the symptoms are nearly the same emetic one drac with those of enteritis, or inflammation of the in-calomel half ad testines, except that the pain is not so intense on Make this into pressing the belly with the hand; the extremi- night, and the ties are cold, the flank heaves, the pulse hard and fasting. Take wiry, and the mouth, nostrils, and eyes, are drachms, Cas tinged somewhat with a yellow color. In pro- ginger half portion to the violence of the disease the horse's drachm, nitre strength fails, and in some cases he can scarcely buckthorn sy stand. The bowels may be either very costive give him am or the reverse, as this will depend upon whether moderately the inflammation stimulates the liver to throw off three times. a great deal of bile, or to prevent it from its 14. Podi office almost entirely; in the former pro id rinary prac black purging takes place, and i
have univ costiveness and extreme yellowne
t least ur and mouth. There is grea'
are for th and the skin is mostly
115. of the complaint bleer to, after which the
. from all I length;
th varies shape and is in mi
1, always iellow hue. ::mbers, re
tirmly to the ,eans of two : the smaller feet, arranged
of the bott ular hoops or ✓ supposed to tween the two
i other circummaterially from ite; its appear· common earth. m eight to ten
rin every respect orms; they genetestines, and, al. poor condition, ; and then only animal has been scarides and the
voided with the i three species of understood. It is paying a due and
owing line of treat id speedily effected : stile soap one drachra,
397 r; that is by means apparatus is a pewles long, and an inch hased at Mr. Long's, er, Holborn, London.
or bullock's bladder In opening clyster is 'ul or two of salt with im water: to this a little should be added. Linwith a little treacle or suollient clyster. And an ter is made by dissolving ur drams of crude opium of warm water. This last loyed in locked jaw, espe3 impossible to give medi
In this case nourishment
clysters. Nourishing clysbroth, milk, rich gruel, and
erved by Gibson that when · are given in locked jaw, they is by the bowels, and absorbed .e sustained a horse a considerway. 18. Fomentations are commonly wormwood, chamomile flowers,
and elder flowers or leaves in k and poppy heads are used for tations. Warm water, probably, od a purpose as any thing. In gs, where there is great tension of je sallad oil may be a useful addiaxant, or some fresh hog's lard. s should not be used so hot as to ut should be continued for a consiP, and frequently repeated; on this * efficacy greatly depends; and on : the emollient poultice is always pren the situation of the inflamed part is ill admit of its being applied; for a when properly made and applied, may ered as a continual fomentation. i ticing. The cheapest poultice, and as good a one as any, is made by pourng water on a quarter of a peck of bran, make a very thin mash; some linseed
is then to be stirred into it, and a little lard. When linseed powder cannot be me oatmeal or four may be substituted
Boiled turnips make a good poultice, ay be improved by the addition of a little dpowder. Poultices are generally too , and confined, and too dry. They should onsidered as a means of keeping water, muse, and oil constantly in contact with the in..ed part; it will then be evident that if they not constantly moist in every part they cannot wer this purpose. 5. Blistering. Before a blister is applied, the air must be cut off from the part as closely as
ossible: this may be much more easily and efiectually done by means of shears than scissars. The blistering ointment is then to be well rubbed into the part with the hand; and, after this has been continued about ten minutes, some of the ointment may be smeared on the part. In blistering the legs, the tender part of the heel, under the fetlock joint, is to be avoided, and it may be better to rub a little hog's lard on it in order to
chalk two ounces, fine opium half a drachm; powders in a pint of warm peppermint water, mix in a pint of linseed gruel, and administer. and add the contents of the phial, and give the Should the purging continue three or four days whole immediately. If he should not be better after this drink has been given, it will be ne- in two hours, repeat this, and remove four quarts cessary to give the following astringent medicine of blood, this will assist in removing the spasms ; three or four times a day :-Take of powdered but if he be restless two hours after bleeding, ginger, dover's powder, of each two drachms; give him the following drink and clyster :prepared chalk in powder, pomegranate shell Take castor oil one pound, prepared kali half an powdered, of each one ounce; tincture of catechu ounce, ginger one ounce. Mix in a pint of warm one drachm and a half. Let these be mixed in gruel, and give it immediately. This clyster and one pint of warm gruel, and administer twice a drink generally succeed in procuring an evacuaday.
tion through the bowels; but, if twelve hours 9. Dysenteria. Moulten grease. This dis- after using them that effect be not produced, tressing complaint was formerly described by you must repeat them. veterinarians as a melting down of the fat oc- 11. Hydrospanis. Dry gripes is a dangerous casioned by excessive heat, and a discharge of and distressing disorder. It is first discovered that fat by the anus, accompanied by purging; by the horse frequently straining to dung. The even now farriers believe it to be the same thing, rectum and the end of the intestines are overnay some modern writers have thought it such! loaded and pressed to the fundament; this causes No man acquainted with the physiology of the constant endeavours to expel the contents. The horse can for a moment entertain so absurd an tail of the horse has a quick and frequent moidea. The fact is, the disease is a constriction tion, and he frequently tries to stool, which he of parts of the intestines, accompanied with can only partially effect, as the dung presses on chronic inflammation of the inner coat, discharge the neck of the bladder. The disease seldom ing a fætid matter and sloughing away in films, requires more than the clysters I have mentioned and in severe cases blood is discharged. The to afford relief, or the following:- Take warm disease differs widely from the diarrhea both in gruel four quarts; then dissolve a handful of nature and treatment, and therefore requires skill common salts, two ounces of Epsom salts, and in the practitioner to distinguish, as the treatment half a pound of treacle, sweet oil half a pint. which applies to diarrhea, if adopted in dysen- Mix them well and use. tery, must kill the animal. Chalk, opium, and 12. Scolecia. Worms. other astringents are necessary and salutary in a Botts. The botts are distinguished from all the treatment of the former, but poison in the other species of worms by their shape and length; latter. The symptoms very clearly mark the they are of an oval form, and their length varies difference in both diseases; in diarrhea there is from balf an inch to one inch; in shape and nothing but an excessive purging; but in dysen- general appearance they resemble casks in mitery there is a discharge of matter apparently niature; the basis of their color is red, always mixed with fat, and often blood, generally ac presenting, however, a dark brown or yellow hue. companied with costiveness—little or no dung Botis are frequently found in great numbers, reis discharged. Fever sometimes accompanies sembling solid masses, and adhering firmly to the these symptoms, and sometimes the disease de internal coat of the stomach, by means of two generates into inflammation of the bowels. The strong curveted fangs, situated at the smaller first thing to be done is to bleed the horse, then, end, and by a series of very short feet, arranged the same day, administer the following :-Castor on each side of the belly; the body of the bott oil four ounces, gruel two pints, ipecacuanha one is composed of ten or twelve circular hoops or drachm. Mix.
joints, and the mouth is generally supposed to 10. Tympanitis. Windy colic. This is ge- be placed at the smaller end, between the two nerally produced by too much juicy food, as fangs already mentioned. clover and different grasses, new corn, or new Round worms. In shape, and other circumhay; or by eating too much after great fatigue; stances, the round worm differs materially from or by checked perspiration, from whatever cause the bott; its color is usually white; its appearthat may happen. The health of the bowels is ance much resembles that of the common earth. disturbed, and they are distended in some parts worm; its length averages from eight to ten and contracted in others. The symptoms are rest- inches; and it is generally found infesting the lessness of the horse ; he rises with rapidity and small intestines. lies down again; he stamps with his fore hoofsy Ascarides. Ascarides differ in every respect and strikes his belly with his hind feet, and he from the preceding species of worms; they generejects all food. When violent, it occasions rate exclusively in the larger intestines, and, alconvulsions; his limbs are extended as in death, though they keep the horse in a poor condition, and his eyes are turned up; his extremities are they scarcely ever prove fatal ; and then only alternately hot and cold ; sweating and shivering when the constitution of the animal has been fits succeed each other; he cannot stool, and his much decayed. Both the ascarides and the head is frequently turned towards his flanks; he round worm are frequently voided with the falls suddenly down, and rolls over on his back. dung. The treatment of all three species of The best plan of treatment is the following :- worms is now pretty well understood. It is Take oil of turpentine, sweet spirits of nitre, oil similar in each case, and, by paying a due and of junipers, and laudanum, of each balf an prompt application to the following live of treatounce ; mix in a phial. Carraway seeds and ment, a cure may be easily and speedily effected : ginger powdered, of each one ounce. Mix the Take calomel one drachm, castile soap one drachm,