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between Cicero and Archias? What service did Cicero still expect to receive from Archias? Give your own estimation of the latter half of the speech. How does Cicero refer to the praetor presiding at the trial? Who was the praetor? Did Cicero win his case?

Explain the reference in in hos . . . impetus.

(Williams.)

73. Quaeret quispiam: “Quid? illi ipsi summi viri, quorum virtutes litteris proditae sunt, istane doctrina, quam tu effers laudibus, eruditi fuerunt?" Difficile est hoc de omnibus confirmare, sed tamen est certe quod respondeam. Ego multos homines excellenti2 animo ac virtute fuisse, et sine doctrina naturae ipsius habitus prope divino per se ipsos et moderatos et gravis exstitisse, fateor; etiam illud adiungo, saepius? ad laudem atque virtutem naturam sine doctrina quam sine natura valuisses doctrinam. Atque idem ego contendo,' cum ad naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserito ratio quaedam11 conformatioque doctrinae, tum illud nescio quid praeclarum ac singulare12 solere13 exsistere.14 Ex hoc esse hunc numero, quem patres nostri viderunt,15 divinum hominem Africanum, ex hoc fortissimum virum et illis temporibus doctissimum, M. Catonem illum senem;17 qui profecto si nihil ad percipiendam colendamque virtutem18 litteris adiuvarentur,19 numquam se ad earum studium contulissent.20-15, 16.

(a) Explain the syntax of the words in italics.

(b) What is the bearing of this passage on the argument of the speech? (c) Tell what you know about Pompey, Lucullus, Ennius.

(d) What qualities seem to you to make Cicero a great orator? What characteristics of Cicero as a man are shown in the speeches you have read? Illustrate by examples your answer. How does the Archias differ from the others you have read?

(e) Describe as fully as you can the scene in the senate or in a lawcourt during a session. (Smith.) (1) Write the declension of senem(17); the nominative singular masculine of excellenti(2); quaedam (11); singulare (12); the comparison of difficile(); saepius(7).

(2) Write the principal parts of fateor(); contendo); solere(13); adiuvarentur (19); the conjugation of fateor() in the future indicative; contulissent (20) in the present indicative active and the present imperative active; all the participles of viderunt(15), naming each; the first person singular present indicative of valuisse(8); accesserit (19).'

(3) Explain the construction of habitu); temporibus (16); virtutem (18); exsistere(14). What form of conditional sentence is qui . . . contulissent (20)?

(4) Explain the derivation of naturae(4); virtutem(18) ̧

(5) Divide into syllables, marking the quantity of their penults and final syllables, and the accent of: respondeam, doctrina, ipsius, praeclarum, temporibus. (Board.)

74. Quis nostrum tam animo agresti ac duro fuit ut Rosci morte nuper non commoveretur? qui cum esset senex mortuus, tamen propter excellentem artem ac venustatem videbatur omnino mori non debuisse. Ergo ille corporis motu tantum amorem sibi conciliarat a nobis omnibus; nos animorum incredibiles motus celeritatemque ingeniorum neglegemus? Quotiens ego hunc Archiam vidi, iudices,-utar enim vestra

benignitate, quoniam me in hoc novo genere dicendi tam diligenter attenditis quotiens ego hunc vidi, cum litteram scripsisset nullam, magnum numerum optimorum versuum de eis ipsis rebus quae tum agerentur dicere ex tempore, quotiens revocatum eandem rem dicere commutatis verbis atque sententiis! Quae vero accurate cogitateque scripsisset, ea sic vidi probari ut ad veterum scriptorum laudem perveniret. Hunc ego non diligam, non admirer, non omni ratione defendendum putem? Atque sic a summis hominibus eruditissimisque accepimus, ceterarum rerum studia ex doctrina et praeceptis et arte constare, poetam natura ipsa valere et mentis viribus excitari et quasi divino quodam spiritu inflari.-17, 18.

Give the construction of the words printed in italics.

(Cornell, Dartmouth.)

75. Quam multos scriptores rerum suarum magnus ille Alexander secum habuisse dicitur! Atque is tamen, cum in Sigeo ad Achillis tumulum adstitisset: 'O fortunate,' inquit, 'adulescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem1 inveneris?!' Et vere. Nam, nisi Ilias illa extitisset idem tumulus, qui corpus eius contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset." Quid? noster hic Magnus, qui cum virtute fortunam adaequavit, nonne Theophanem Mytilenaeum, scriptorem rerum suarum, in contione militum civitate donavit, et nostri illi fortes viri, sed rustici ac milites, dulcedine quadam gloriae commoti quasi participes eiusdem laudis magno illud clamore approbaverunt? Itaque, credo, si civis Romanus Archias legibus non esset, ut ab aliquo imperatore civitate donaretur,1o perficere non potuit.-24.

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(a) Explain the syntax of praeconem(); laudis(); inveneris(2); obruisset(); esset(); donaretur (10). Change Theophanem (5) and civitate (6) to the other possible construction with donavit. What is the force of illa(3), credo (8)?

(b) Write the principal parts of contererat; the superlative of the adverb from multos; the ablative singular of fortes; the present participle of perficere in the genitive plural; the third person singular passive, imperfect subjunctive of credo. Show the derivation of scriptorem, participes, perficere.

(c) What is the bearing of this passage on the argument for Archias? To whom does Magnus refer, and what special compliment is paid by the speaker to that person? Who were Alexander and Homer? (Board, Regents, Wellesley.)

76. Itaque, credo,1 si civis Romanus Archias legibus non esset, ut ab aliquo imperatore civitate3 donaretur, perficere non potuit. Sulla cum Hispanos et Gallos donaret,1 credo, hunc petentem repudiasset; quem nos in contione vidimus, cum ei libellum malus poeta de populo subiecisset, quod epigramma' in eum fecisset tantum modo alternis versibus longiusculis, statim ex iis rebus, quas tum vendebat, iubere ei praemium tribui, sed ea condicione, ne quid postea scriberet. Qui sedulitatem mali poetae duxerit aliquo tamen1o praemio11 dignam, huius ingenium et virtutem in scribendo et copiam non expetisset1? -25.

(a) Explain the use of credo (1). Tell in what case the following

words are and why this case is used: legibus(2); civitate(3); quem(6); epigramma(7).

Tell in what mood and tense the following are and why this mood and tense are used: donaret); repudiasset(); scriberet(8); duxerit("). State the derivation of libellum, ingenium.

(b) What is a contio? What proof was offered that Archias was a Roman citizen? (Holyoke.)

(c) Make clear the logical force of tamen (10) in this sentence. (d) What is the suffix in longiusculis, and what does it denote❞ (e) What verb is used as the passive of vendo? (Board.) (ƒ) Explain the mood and tense of expetisset(12); the case of praemio (11).

(g) Write the principal parts of credo, potuit, vendebat, duxerit. (Johns Hopkins.)

77. Certe, si nihil animus praesentiret1 in posterum, et si, quibus regionibus vitae spatium circumscriptum est, eisdem omnes cogitationes terminaret suas, nec tantis se laboribus frangeret neque tot curis vigiliisque angeretur nec totiens de ipsa vita dimicaret. Nunc insidet quaedam in optimo quoque virtus, quae noctes ac dies animum gloriae stimulis concitat atque admonet non cum vitae tempore esse dimittendam commemorationem nominis3 nostri, sed cum omni posteritate adaequandam. An vero tam parvi animi videamur esse omnes, qui in re publica atque in his vitae periculis laboribusque versamur, ut, cum usque ad extremum spatium nullum tranquillum atque otiosum spiritum duxerimus, nobiscum simul moritura omnia arbitremur"? An statuas et imagines, non animorum simulacra, sed corporum, studiose multi summi homines reliquerunt; consiliorum relinquere ac virtutum nostrarum effigiem nonne multo malle debemus summis ingeniis expressam et politam? Ego vero omnia, quae gerebam, iam tum in gerendo spargere me ac disseminare arbitrabar in orbis terrae memoriam sempiternam.-29, 30.

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(a) Explain the case of nominis(3), animi(4); give the mood and tense of each of the following verbs and tell why this mood and tense are used: frangeret 2), duxerimus(5), arbitremur(®). (Vassar.) (b) What belief is expressed in the foregoing passage and what reason is given for the belief? How does this passage fit into the general argument which Cicero makes in defense of Archias? Give the principal parts of praesentiret1). Compare posterum and optimo. Explain the derivation of commemorationem. (Board.) 78. Qua re conservate, iudices, hominem pudore eo quem amicorum videtis comprobari cum dignitate tum etiam vetustate; ingenio autem tanto quantum id convenit existimari quod summorum hominum ingeniis expetitum esse videatis; causa vero eius modi quae beneficio legis,1 auctoritate municipi,2 testimonio Luculli, tabulis Metelli comprobetur. Quae cum ita sint, petimus a vobis, iudices, si quas non modo humana verum etiam divina in tantis ingeniis commendatio debet esse, ut eum qui vos, qui vestros imperatores, qui populi Romani res gestas semper ornavit, qui etiam his recentibus nostris vestrisque domesticis periculis aeternum se testimonium laudis daturum esse profitetur, estque ex eo numero qui semper apud

omnis sancti sunt habiti itaque dicti, sic in vestram accipiatis fidem ut humanitate vestra levatus potius quam acerbitate violatus esse videatur.-31.

1. In what year was this speech delivered? Who was the praetor before whom the case was tried? What was the charge against Archias? What was the real purpose of the prosecution?

2. Explain the reference in legis). State the provisions of this legis. Give the name of the municipi(2). Of what is Cicero thinking when he says his periculis (8,9)?

3. Where did Archias receive his early education? What advantage does Cicero find in the fact that the poems of Archias were written in Greek? What poetical writings of Archias does Cicero refer to in this speech?

4. For what does Cicero say that he was personally indebted to Archias? Show precisely how Cicero uses his praise of literature as an argument for the acquittal of his client.

5. What is gained by the repetition of qui4,5,7)? After what other words would qua(3) have the same meaning that it has in this sentence? (Board.)

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GENERAL QUESTIONS ON ARCHIAS

79. 1. Give the date and occasion of this speech. What reason did Cicero give for defending this man?

2. Outline briefly the life of Archias.

3. What two laws were made the basis respectively of the prosecution and the defense? What was the real purpose of the prosecution? What was Cicero's line of argument on the facts of the case?

4. Outline briefly the substance of the latter part of the speech. What advantage to a state did Cicero claim for the recognition of literary men?

5. What allusion is made to Orpheus, Homer, Alexander, Cato, Ennius?

6. Give briefly the main facts in Cicero's life and services to the state.

PART I(B)

PASSAGES IN PROSE FOR TRANSLATION AT SIGHT

(Your victories in war insure eternal fame; your conquest of self wins our love and admiration.)

80. Domuisti gentis immanitate barbaras, multitudine innumerabilis, locis infinitas, omni copiarum genere abundantis; sed tamen ea vicisti quae et naturam et condicionem ut vinci possent habebant. Nulla est enim tanta vis quae non ferro et viribus debilitari frangique possit. Animum vincere, iracundiam cohibere, victoriae temperare, adversarium nobilitate, ingenio, virtute praestantem non modo extollere iacentem sed etiam amplificare eius pristinam dignitatemhaec qui facit, non ego eum cum summis viris comparo sed simillimum deo iudico.

Itaque, C. Caesar, bellicae tuae laudes celebrabuntur illae quidem non solum nostris sed paene omnium gentium litteris atque linguis, nec ulla umquam aetas de tuis laudibus conticescet.-Pro Marcello, 8-9. (Amherst.)

(An imposing monument should be erected to the dead in everlasting memory of their valor.)

81. Placet igitur mihi, patres conscripti, legionis Martiae militibus et iis qui una pugnantes occiderint, monumentum fieri quam amplissimum. Magna atque incredibilia sunt in rem publicam huius merita legionis: haec se prima latrocinio abrupit Antoni; haec tenuit Albam; haec se ad Caesarem contulit; hanc imitata quarta legio parem virtutis gloriam consecuta est. Quarta victrix desiderat neminem; ex Martia non nulli in ipsa victoria conciderunt. O fortunata mors, quae naturae debita pro patria est potissimum reddita! Vos vero patriae natos iudico, quorum etiam nomen a Marte est, ut idem deus urbem hanc gentibus, vos huic urbi genuisse videatur. In fuga foeda mors est, in victoria gloriosa. In Anton. XIV, 31–32.

(Brown.)

(Patricide is the worst and rarest crime.)

82. Occidisse patrem Sex. Roscius arguitur. Scelestum, di immortales! ac nefarium facinus, atque eius modi, quo uno maleficio scelera omnia complexa esse videantur. Etenim si, id quod praeclare a sapentibus dicitur, voltu saepe laeditur pietas, quod supplicium satis acre reperietur in eum qui mortem obtulerit parenti, pro quo mori ipsum, si res postularet, iura divina atque humana cogebant? In hoc tanto, tam atroci, tam singulari maleficio, quod ita raro exstitit ut, si quando auditum sit, portenti ac prodigi simile numeretur, quibus tandem tu, G. Eruci, argumentis accusatorem censes uti oportere? -Pro. Sex Rosc., 37-38.

(Michigan.)

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