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❝upons optional conditions between equal states, that the payments to be made by him were not "a tribute, but a rent; and that the instruments, by

which his territories were conveyed to him, did "not differ from common: grants too Zemindars, "who weres merely subjects; but that being no$thing more than a common Zemindar, and mere

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subject, the Company, holding a the acknow "ledged rights of his former sovereign, held an "absolute authority over him that in the known *relations of Zeminder to the sovereign authority,

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or power delegated by it, she owed as personal

allegiance, and an implicit and unreserved obe"dience to that authority, at the forfeiture of his “Zemindary, and even of his life and property.” Whereas the saids Hastings did well know, arthat whether the payments from the Rajah were called rent or tribute, having been frequently by himself called the one and the other, and that of whatever nature the instruments, by which he held, might have been, he did not consider him as a commÓR Zemindar or Landholder, but as far independent as a tributary princeo could be; for he did assign as a reason for receiving his crent rather within the Company's province than in his own capital, that it would not frustrate the intention oferen*dering the Rajah independent; that if a Resident was appointed to receive the money pit became due at Benares, suchdan Resident would Jasbasq "

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"unavoidably

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unavoidably acquire an influence over the Rajah, $6 and over his country, which would in effect ❝ render him the master of both; that this concsequence might not perhaps be brought.completely to pass without a struggle, and many *appeals to the Council, which, in a government ffsconstituted like this, cannot fail to terminate against the Rajah, and by the construction, to which this sopposition to the agent would be liable might eventually draw on him severe restrictions, and end in reducing him to the mean Mand depraved state of a Zemindar”

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And the said Hastings, in the said Minute of Consultation, having enumerated the frauds, embezzlements and oppressions, which would ensue from the Rajah's being in the dependent, state aforesaid and having obviated all apprehensions from giving to him the implied symbols of domi nion, did assert," that, without such appearance, "obe would expect from every change of governAment additional demands to be made upon him; ffand would of course descend to all the arts of “intrigue and concealment practised by other de "pendent Rajahs, which would keep him indigent

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and weak, and eventually prove hurtful to the Company.ca But that by proper encouragement Band protection, he might prove a profitable de ldsbiovams " pendant,

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pendant, an useful barrier, and even a powerful ally to the Company; but that he would be nei"ther, if the conditions of his connexion with the Company were left open to future variations."

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XXX.

That if the fact had been true, that the Rajah of Benares was merely an eminent landholder, or' any other subject, the wicked and dangerous doctrine aforesaid, namely, that he owed a personal allegiance, and an implicit and unreserved obedience to the sovereign authority, at the forfeiture of his Zemindary, and even of his life and property, at the discretion of those, who held, or fully represented, the sovereign authority, doth leave security neither for life nor property to any per sons residing under the Company's protection; and that no such powers, nor any powers of that nature, had been delegated to the said Warren' Hastings by any provisions of the Act of Parliament appointing a Governour-General and Council at Fort William in Bengal.

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XXXI. bivibut 1533. That the said Warren Hastings did at last advance another dangerous and pernicious principle, justification of his violent, arbitrary, and iniquito Y tous acting aforesaid; namely, "that if he had "acted with an ́unwarrantable righe Silf suber of

in

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rigour, and even

"injustice,

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injustice, towards Cheyt Sing, yet, first, if he "did believe that extraordinary means were ne66 cessary, and those exerted with a strong hand, to preserve the Company's interests from sink

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ing under the accumulated weight, that oppressed "them; or, secondly, if he saw a political neces

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sity for curbing the overgrown power of a great "member of their dominion, and to make it con"tribute to the relief of their pressing exigencies; "that his errour would be excusable, as prompted

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by an excess of zeal for their (the Company's). "interest, operating with too strong a bias on his judgment; but that much stronger is the presumption that such acts are founded on just "principles, than that they are the result of a misguided judgment." That the said doctrines

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66.

are,

in both the members thereof, subversive of all the principles of just government, by empowering a governour with delegated authority in the first case, on his own private belief concerning the necessities of the state, not to levy an impartial and equal rate of taxation suitable to the circumstances of the several members of the community, but to select individual from the same as an object of arbitrary and unmeasured imposition; and, in the second case, enabling the same governour, on the same arbitrary principles, to determine whose property should be considered as overgrown, and to reduce the same at his pleasure..

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PART

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PART IV.

· Second Revolution in Benares.

THAT the said Warren Hastings, after he had, in the manner aforesaid, unjustly and violently expelled the Rajah Cheyt Sing, the Lord or Zemindar of Benares, from his said Lordship or Zemindary, did, of his own mere usurped authority, and without any communication with the other members of the Council of Calcutta, appoint another person, of the name of Mehip Narrain, a descendant by the mother from the late Rajah Bulwant Sing, to the Government of Benares; and, on account or pretence of his youth or inexperience (the said Mehip Narrain not being above twenty years old) did appoint his father Durbege Sing to act as his representative or ad ministrator of affairs; but did give a controlling authority to the British Resident over both, not withstanding his declarations before mentioned of the mischiefs likely to happen to the said country from the establishment of a Resident, and his opinions since declared, in a letter to the Court of Directors, dated from this very place (Benares) the 1st of October 1784, to the same or stronger effect, in case "agents are sent into the country, " and armed with authority for the purposes of 66 vengeance

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