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fitted these fragments into his tessellated work, and has thus secured an episode to give interest to the voyage from Sicily to Italy, which would otherwise have been uneventful.


INTEREA medium Aeneas iam classe tenebat
Certus iter, fluctusque atros aquilone secabat,
Moenia respiciens, quae iam infelicis Elissae
Conlucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit ignem,
Caussa latet; duri magno

sed amore dolores Polluto, notumque, furens quid femina possit, Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt.

Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec iam amplius ulla Occurrit tellus, maria undique et undique caelum, Olli caeruleus supra caput adstitit imber,

10 Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris. Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab alta : “ Heu! quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi? Quidve, pater Neptune, paras”? Sic deinde locutus Colligere arma iubet validisque incumbere remis, 15


1.] 'Medium iter' is not to be ture, as "augurat”. 7. 273, so that it pressed, merely meaning that he had is not a full realization of Dido's wish, got well on his way. "Tenere iter,' 2. 4. 661. 359.

8-11.] Nearly repeated from 3. 192 2.] 'Certus,' unwavering, as -195. arrow going straight to its mark is 12.] 'Ipse'as in 3. 201. Things were called “ certa sagitta.” “Atros' with so bad that even the pilot, &c. 'aquilone.'. Aeneas encounters the 13.] 'Quianam' 10. 6, an archaic danger Dido threatened (4. 310), and word. Quinct. Inst. 8. 3 thinks that, we see the consequence in the next like 'olli,' it lends dignity to the paragraph.

passage. 4.] Dido did not light her own pile, 14.] Sic deinde locutus' below v. as some of the commentators have 400, where, as here and in 7. 135, “defancied: but she had a pile made to inde’ is out of its place, belonging burn, as she gave out, the effigy of not to the participle but to the verb. Aeneas: she killed herself upon it, Comp. 2. 391, and for the transposihaving ascended it apparently for the tion of 'deinde,' 1. 195. purpose of lighting it: and it would 15.] ‘Arma, of a ship's furniture, naturally be made use of to burn her as in 6. 353, where the specific referbody.

ence is to the rudder, and possibly in 5.] ‘Dolores’and 'notum'nomina- 3. 371., 4. 290. We have already had tives to 'ducunt' in v. 7. 'Dolores “armari classem” 4. 299. Soora Od not the pains themselves, but the 2.390, 423, 430., 12. 410, passages which thought of the pains.

may have suggested to Virg. this use 6.1 Polluto : see on 3.61. Notam,' of the word. The precise meaning the knowledge-a use of the neuter however, of 'colligere arma' is not participle often found elsewhere, as quite certain. It seems generally to in Livy 1. 53, "degeneratum in aliis, be understood of taking in part of the “his degeneracy in other things.". sails. M. Jal, in his Virgilius Nau

7.] Their minds are led through a ticus' ('La Flotte de César,' &c.) exsorrowful presage: that is the course plains it of stowing away those parts their thoughts are led to take. 'Au

of the ship's furniture that the wind gurium' means no more than conjec- might take hold of, streamers, &c.



Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur:
Magnanime Aenea, non, si mihi Iuppiter auctor
Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere caelo.
Mutati transversa fremunt et vespere ab atro
Consurgunt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aer.
Nec nos obniti contra, nec tendere tantum
Sufficimus. Superat quoniam Fortuna, sequamur,
Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longe
Fida reor fraterna Erycis portusque Sicanos,
Si modo rite memor servata remetior astra.
Tum pius Aeneas: Equidem sic poscere ventos
Iamdudum et frustra cerno te tendere contra.
Flecte viam velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla,
Quove magis fessas optem demittere navis,
Quam quae Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten,



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Mr. Long thinks Virg: means gene- 22.] Comp. vv. 709, 710 below; also rally to make every thing ‘tight'and V. 387, 388. prepare for a squall. Validis in- 24.] Fraterna Erycis' = “fratris cumbite remis” 10. 294.

Erycís.” So in v. 630 below fraterni' 16.] He turns the sails so that the is nom. plural. Fida, 'fraterna :' a wind may

catch them sideways. double epithet is not common in Comp. Livy 16. 39, “ aliae ad incertos Latin except (1) when one of the ventos hinc atque illinc obliqua epithets may, as here, be expressed transferentes vela in altum evectae by a genitive, or (2) when a repetition sunt."

of adjectives is necessary for emphasis, 17.] 'Magnanime Aenea,' a Home- as in the line“ Monstrum horrendum, ric address, like Tvdeion Meyadvue Il. informe, ingens, cui lumen ademp6. 145. "Auctor' has its technical tum.” sense of guarantee, its union with 25.] 'Rite' with 'memor' or 're'spondeat implying that he who metior.'. Servata’ already observed, gives the promise is in this case the i. e. in their previous voyage to Siperson to make it good.

cily. 'Servare' of watching the stars 18.] ‘Hoc caelo'=“ hac tempestate," 6. 338, G. 1. 205. With remetior as we might say with a sky like this.' astra'

comp. “sidera emensae," v. 628 ‘Spero' with pres. inf. 4. 337 &c. below.

19.] *Transversa'adverbially, as in 27.] 'Iamdudum' probably with E. 3. 8. The meaning seems to be, “poscere’and ‘tendere.' the wind is changed, and instead of 28.] ‘Flecte viam velis' like "hanc being favourable blows right across arripe velis” 3. 477, “tendit iter velis our path. Comp. the metaphorical 7.7, velis' being nearly = 'navi. use of the word Čic. Brut. 97, “Cuius gando, so that 'flecte viam velis' = in adolescentiam per medias laudes “flecte navis cursum." quasi quadrigis vehentem transversą rently = “esse potest.” incurrit misera fortuna reipublicae." 29.) 'Fessas navis' 1. 168. Demit.

Vespere ab atro’ is Homer's Sopov tere 'of bringing into harbour. Comp. ήερόεντα. 'The west is blackening, devenire' of reaching the end of and a wind is getting up there.' one's journey.

21.] Contra' with 'tendere' 30.] Than where my friend Acestes well as with obniti:' comp. v. 27 yet lives. Comp. for the thought below. "Tantum,' as much as is 1. 550, for the language 1. 546. The wanted. Comp. "tanto tractu' G. 2. living friend is contrasted with the 153.

dead father.

Sit' appa



Et patris Anchisae gremio conplectitur ossa ?
Haec ubi dicta, petunt portus, et vela secundi
Intendunt Zephyri; fertur cita gurgite classis,
Et tandem laeti notae advertuntur arenae.

At procul excelso miratus vertice montis
Adventum sociasque rates occurrit Acestes,
Horridus in iaculis et pelle Libystidis ursae,
Troia Crimiso conceptum flumine mater
Quem genuit. Veterum non inmemor ille parentum
Gratatur reduces et gaza laetus agresti
Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis.

Postera cum primo stellas Oriente fugarat Clara dies, socios in coetum litore ab omni Advocat Aeneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur: Dardanidae magni, genus alto a sanguine divom,




31.] Perhaps from Lucr. 1. 135, ster to ravage the Troad, that Trojan "Morte obita quorum tellus amplec- maidens were ordered to be given to titur ossa."

it, that fathers in consequence sent 32.] Virg. seems to mean that the their daughters away, that one Hipwind, which distressed them while potas put his daughter Segesta or they were sailing against it, was now Egesta

on board a ship which carried in their favour. Thus Zephyri’here her to Sicily, and that there a union agrees with 'vespere' v. 19. This took place between Segesta and the however, as Mr. Long remarks, ob- river-god Crimisus, the fruit of which liges us to suppose that Virg. had was Egestus or Acestes. The common misconceived the relative position of construction is concipere de' or ex Carthage and the west part of Sicily. aliquo.' Pliny 8. 16 has “conceptus So perhaps 'gurgite' may intimate leone." that the sea was still excited (comp. 39.] 'Veterum parentum,' his mo1, 118., 3. 564 &c.).

ther's Trojan ancestry. 34.] * Advertere' of bringing a ship 40.] No authority is quoted for this to land, G. 4. 117 &c. Comp. also A. construction of 'gratatur' with an 1. 158. “Tandem:'• at length after all acc. Perhaps it is best to derstan their dangers.'

esse.' Comp. Tac. A. 6. 21, “Con. 35.] Vertice' without a preposi- plexus eum Tiberius praescium peri. tion from the top.' Comp. 1. 143., 4. culorum et incolumem fore gratatur,” 168.

where the sense is "congratulates 36.] Adventum sociasque rates,' him on his foresight and on the safety hendiadvs.

which will be his in consequence.' 37.] ‘Horridus in iaculis et pelle, Gaza' is a Persian word transferred &c. 'Iooking rough in his javelins and into Greek and Latin, and signifying bear-skin: so Ennius (inc. 46) le- 'royal treasure;} .so that with the vesque sequuntur in hastis;”. Stat. epithet ‘agresti' it produces a kind Theb. 4. 221, "gravi metuendus in of oxymoron, like“ dapibus inemptis” hasta.” 'Libystis' is an adj. pecu- G. 4. 133. liar to Virg., here and 8. 368, where 42.] ‘Primo Oriente: comp. 3. the half-line recurs. Pliny 8. 83 589. denies that there are bears in Africa : 43.] 'Litore ab omni :' they would but they are mentioned by Herodotus naturally be lodged near their ships, and Solinus.

44.] Aeneas speaks from a mound, 38.] The story as told by Serv. on like a Roman general. 1. 550 is that Poseidon in punishment 45.] The Trojans are called the of Laomedon's fraud sent a sea-mon- descendants of the gods, because

Annuus exactis conpletur mensibus orbis,
Ex quo reliquias divinique ossa parentis
Condidimus terra maestasque sacravimus aras.
Iamque dies, nisi fallor, adest, quem semper acerbum,
Semper honoratum—sic di voluistis-habebo. 50
Hunc ego Gaetulis agerem si Syrtibus exsul,
Argolicyve mari deprensus et urbe Mycenae,
Annua vota tamen sollemnisque ordine pompas
Exsequerer, strueremque suis altaria donis.
Nunc ultro ad cineres ipsius et ossa parentis,

Haud equidem sine mente reor, sine numine divom,
Adsumus et portus delati intramus amicos.
Ergo agite, et laetum cuncti celebremus honorem;


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Dardanus was the son of Jupiter, Suis' “debitis," as in 6. 142. 7. 219. 'Altus' = 'lofty' in the sense *Altaria' here and in v. 93 seems to of noble: so often of birth or coun- be used vaguely for 'arae,' if the view try.

is true which restricts ‘altaria' to the 46.] Comp. 1. 269. 'Exactis men- superior gods. sibus' G. 3. 139.

55.] Ultro' has its primitive sense 47.] 3. 63.

of 'beyond.' * Not only has the day 49.] 'Iamque dies adest: the day returned, bringing back its obligaon which he is speaking is the actual ţions, which I should have discharged anniversary: comp. 104 below, ex- in any case, but more than this, a spectata dies aderat.”

thing which we had no right to ex50.]. 'Sic di voluistis' is a formula pect, we are at the very spot. See of resignation.

on 2. 145. * Ipsius' virtually = : ipsos.' 51.] Hunc' with 'agerem,' were 56.] It is true that 'equidem' may I keeping this day.' Aeneas' lan- be used with other persons than guage is of course hyperbolical, his the 1st sing.; but that is no reason meaning being that he would cele- for taking it with adsumus' here, brate the anniversary under the most when usage is in favour of taking adverse circumstances. The Gaetu- it with 'reor. Comp. 6. 848, G. 1. lian Syrtes, like the Argive (Aegaean) 415, where, as here, the clause is consea, are doubtless chosen as associated structed parenthetically. Haud' not only with natural dangers, but goes not with ‘reor' but with 'sine with human enemies.

mente,' &c. 'Mente' with 'divom,' 52.] 'Deprensus,' surprised, not like 'numine.' "Deorum mente atque however by a storm, which is a com- ratione omnem mundum administrari mon application of the word (see G.4. et regi” Cic. N. D. 1. 2. Sine nu421), but by the arrival of the day at mine divom '2.777, ‘numen’ meaning an inopportune time. 'Et' couples will or purpose, as in 2. 123 note. It Mycenae with the Aegaean as distin- is the Homeric ουκ άέκητι θεων. guished from Aeneas' African foes. 57.] “Delati portus intravimus There seems to have been a nom. 3. 219. ‘Delati’ brought down from singular, “Mycena.' With the gen.

the high sea to the shore, like the comp. "urbem Patavi” 1. 247.

Greek katépxeobal of returning home. 53.] 'Pompa' is to be understood 58.] Laetum honorem:' Aeneas strictly, of a funeral procession. means to say, Let our service be a Here as elsewhere Virg. is thinking cheerful one: the gods have done of Roman observances. "Sollemnis well in bringing us here, and are inpompas' G. 3. 22. 'Ordine'= "rite," tending to do well to us hereafter. as in 3. 548.

The word laetus' is rather a com54.] . Exsequi' of funerals : mon one in connexion with sacrifices, Dict. 'Struere,' to pile up: 1. 704. e. g. 8. 267, 279.

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Poscamus ventos, atque haec me sacra quot annis
Urbe velit posita templis sibi ferre dicatis.
Bina boum vobis Troia generatus Acestes
Dat numero capita in navis; adhibete Penatis
Et patrios epulis et quos colit hospes Acestes.
Praeterea, si nona diem mortalibus almum
Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem,
Prima citae Teucris ponam

certamina classis; Quique pedum cursu valet, et qui viribus audax Aut iaculo incedit melior levibusque sagittis,

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59.] It is a question whether the some trouble to the commentators. prayer is made to the winds them- Serv. suggests that the contingency selves, or to Anchises. The latter may lie in the word 'almum'-if the interpretation perhaps is more ob- day should be fine. It would seem to viously suggested by the context, and be a modest, perhaps religious, way of was evidently maintained by Lactan- speaking of a future event. Nam, tius, who says of Anchises (Inst. 1. 15) si luxerit, ad librariorum Curram “cui Aeneas non tantum immortali-. scrinia" Catull. 14. 17. Nona: tatem, verum etiam ventorum tribuit the ninth day after the anniversary. potestatem." On the other hand Virg. is here thinking of the novemofferings were made as a fact to the diale,' the festival on the ninth day winds themselves at the end of the after death, when the mourning ceremonies to Anchises, v. 772 below, ceremonies were brought to an end. as we have seen done already, 3. 115 There was another festival of a diffefoll., where “placemus ventos"is like rent kind which bore the same name, poscamus ventos' here.

lasting nine days, and Virg. seems to 60.] The abl. abs. urbe posita' have blended the characteristics of really contains the gist of the the two: see v. 762. prayer.

65.] See 4. 119. 61.] Acestes, like a true son of 66.] ‘Prima' doubtless means first Troy, supplies the materials for the in order, though the other games are sacrifice. 'Troia generatus’ shows not distinguished numerically. 'Pothe spirit in which the present is nam certamina ;' note on G. 2. 530. made. With the division according *Certamina classis' for 'certamina to ships comp. 1. 193. 'In navis bina, navium,' the collective noun for the two to each ship: comp. “in navis distributive, not merely for metrical ternos iuvencos" 5. 247.

purposes, but because the race was 62.] 'Capita' of animals numeri- open to the whole fleet, and, as we cally 3. 391. Adhibete' with ‘epulis, might say, an encouragement to the as in Hor. 4 Od. 5. 32, "Te mensis naval interest. See v. 115. adhibet deum." 'Adhibere” to invoke 67.] Pedum cursu' 7. 807. Virior invite the god, who is said bus audax, βίη πεποιθώς.

adesse." In this feast, as in the 68.] In the actual games the caesgames shortly to be mentioned, Virg. tus’ precedes the archery. “Iaculo' follows the Roman custom. Comp. seems to point to a different kind of Dict. A. ‘Funus.' “Public feasts and contest, throwing spears: comp. G. 2. funeral games were sometimes given 530, II. 23. 884 foil., where a dartingon the anniversary of funerals. match is proposed, but not carried Faustus, the son of Sulla, exbibited out. Either Virg. has expressed himin honour of his father a show of self loosely, or when he wrote this gladiators several years after his line he thought of introducing one death, and gave a feast to the people, more game. Incedit' probably is to according to his father's testament be explained of the proud bearing of (Dio 37. 51, Cic. pro Sull. 19).”

tho who anticipate victory or ha 64.] This use of 'si' where 'cum' actually gained it. Comp. Hor. Epod. might have been expected has given 15. 17, "quicunque es felicior atque

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