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Iago. You have a thing for me?-It is a common
Emil. Ha!

Jago. To have a foolish wife.


Emil. O, is that all? what will you give me
For that fame handkerchief?

Jago. What handkerchief?
Emil. What handkerchief?

Why, that the Moor first gave to Desdemona;
That which fo often you did bid me steal.

Iago. Haft ftolen it from her?

Emil. No; but the let it drop by negligence; And, to the advantage, I, being here, took it up '. Look, here it is.

Jago. A good wench; give it me.

Emil. What will you do with it, that you have been fo earnest

To have me filch it?

Iago. Why, what is that to you?

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[Snatching it. 20

Emil. If it be not for fome purpose of import, Give it me again: Poor lady! fhe'll run mad, When the fhall lack it.

Iago. Be not you known on't; I have ufe for it. Go, leave me.

[Exit Emil. 25

I will in Caffio's lodging lofe this napkin,
And let him find it: Trifles, light as air,
Are, to the jealous, confirmations strong
As proofs of holy writ. This may do fomething.
The Moor already changes with my poison:-
Dangerous conceits are, in their natures, poisons,
Which, at the first, are scarce found to distaste;
But, with a little act upon the blood,
Burn like the mines of fulphur.-I did fay fo:-
Enter Othello.

Look, where he comes! Not poppy, nor man-|
dragora 2,

Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world,
Shall ever med'cine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou ow'dft 3 yesterday.

Otb. Ha! ha! falfe to me? to me?

Iago. Why, how now, general? no more of that.
Oth. Avaunt! be gone! thou haft fet me on
the rack :-

I fwear, 'tis better to be much abus'd,
Than but to know 't a little.

Jago. How now, my lord?


[Catching bold on bim.

Or, by the worth of mine eternal foul,
Thou hadst been better have been born a dog,
Than anfwer my wak'd wrath.

Iago. Is it come to this?

Otb. Make me to fee it; or (at the deaft) fo
prove it,

That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop,
To hang a doubt on: or, woe upon thy life!
Iago. My noble lord,→→→

Otb. If thou doft flander her, and torture me,
Never pray more: abandon all remorfe 4;

On horror's head horrors accumulate ;

Do deeds to make heaven weep, all earth amaz'd;
For nothing canst thou to damnation add,
Greater than that.

Jago. O grace! O heaven defend me!
Are you a man? have you a foul, or sense?—
God be wi' you; take mine office, O wretched

That liv'ft to make thine honesty a vice !—

O monstrous world! Take note, take note, O world,
To be direct and honest, is not safe.-

I thank you for this profit: and, from hence,
35 I'll love no friend, fith love breeds fuch offence.
Oth. Nay, ftay :-Thou shouldst be honest.
Iago. I should be wife; for honesty's a fool,
And lofes that it works for.

Oth. By the world,

40I think my wife be honest, and think the is not;
I think that thou art juft, and think thou art not;
I'll have fome proof: Her name, that was as fresh
As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd and black
As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
45 Poison, or fire, or fuffocating streams,
I'll not endure it.-'Would, I were satisfied!
Iago. I fee, fir, you are eaten up with paffion;
I do repent me, that I put it to you.
You would be satisfied?
Oth. Would? nay, I will,

Oth. What fenfe had I of her ftolen hours of luft?
I faw it not, thought it not, it harm'd not me:
I flept the next night well, was free, and merry; 50
I found not Caffio's kiffes on her lips:
He that is robb'd, not wanting what is stolen,
Let him not know it, and he's not robb'd at all.
Iago. I am forry to hear this.

Oth. I had been happy, if the general camp,
Pioneers and all, had tasted her fweet body,
So I had nothing known: O now, for ever,
Farewel the tranquil mind! farewel content!
Farewel the plumed troop, and the big wars,
That make ambition virtue! O, farewel!


Iago. And may; But, how? how fatisfied, my Would you, the supervisor, grofsly gape on? Behold her tupp'd 5 ?

Otb. Death and damnation! O!

55 Iago. It were a tedious difficulty, I think,
To bring 'em to that prospect: Damn them then,
If ever mortal eyes do fee them boliter,
More than their own! What then? how then?
What fhall I fay? Where's fatisfaction?
6olit is impoffible, you should see this,

1i. e. I being opportunely here, took it up. 2 The mandragoras, or mandrake, has a foporific quality, and the ancients ufed it when they wanted an opiate of the moft powerful kind. 3 i. e. poffeffèdft, or badft. 5 A ram in Staffordshire and fome other counties is called

4 i. e. pity.

a tup.

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Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys,|
As falt as wolves in pride, and fools as grofs
As ignorance made drunk. But yet, I fay,
If imputation, and strong circumstances,--
Which lead directly to the door of truth,--
Will give you fatisfaction, you might have it.
Oth. Give me a living reafon that he's difloyal.
Iago. I do not like the office:

But, fith I am enter'd in this caufe fo far,
Prick'd to it by foolish honesty, and love,-
I will go on. I lay with Caffio lately;
And, being troubled with a raging tooth,
I could not fleep.

There are a kind of men fo loose of foul,

That in their fleeps will mutter their affairs;
One of this kind is Caffio:

In fleep I heard him fay,-Sweet Desdemona,
Let us be wary, let us bide our loves!

And then, fir, would he gripe, and wring my hand;|
Cry,-O fweet creature! and then kifs me hard,
As if he pluck'd up kiffes by the roots,
That grew upon my lips: then lay his leg
Over my thigh, and figh, and kifs; and then
Cry, Curfed fate! that gave thee to the Moor!
Oth. O monftrous! monftrous!
Iago. Nay, this was but his dream.

Orb. But this denoted a foregone conclufion 3; 'Tis a fhrewd doubt, though it be but a dream. Iago. And this may help to thicken other proofs, That do demonstrate thinly.

Oth. I'll tear her all to pieces.

Iago. Nay, but be wife: yet we fee nothing

She may be honeft yet. Tell me but this,—
Have you not fometimes seen a handkerchief,
Spotted with strawberries, in your wife's hand?
Orb. I gave her fuch a one; twas my first gift.
Lago. I know not that: but such a handkerchief
(I am fure, it was your wife's) did I to-day
See Caffio wipe his beard with.

Orb. If it be that,

Iago. If it be that, or any, if 'twas hers, It speaks against her, with the other proofs.

Otb. O, that the flave had forty thousand lives; One is too poor, too weak for my revenge! Now do I fee 'tis true.-Look here, Jago; All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven: 'Tis gone.

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Witnefs, you ever-burning lights above!
10 You elements that clip us round about!
Witnefs, that here lago doth give up
The execution of his wit, hands, heart,
To wrong'd Othello's fervice! Let him command,
And to obey fhall be in me remorse,

15 What bloody work foever 7.

Oth. I greet thy love,


Not with vain thanks, but with acceptance bounte-
And will upon the inftant put thee to 't:
Within these three days let me hear thee say,
20 That Caffio's not alive.

[queft: Iago. My friend is dead; 'tis done at your reBut let her live.

Oth. Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her!
Come, go with me apart; I will withdraw,
25 To furnish me with fome swift means of death
For the fair devil. Now art thou my lieutenant.
Iago. I am your own for ever.




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Enter Desdemona, Emilia, and Clown.

Def. Do you know, firrah, where lieutenant

Caffio lies?

Clown. I dare not fay, he lies any where.
Def. Why, man?

Cieron. He's a foldier; and for me to say a foldier lies, is ftabbing.

Def. Go to; Where lodges he?

Clown. To tell you where he lodges, is to tell you where I lie.

Def. Can any thing be made of this?

Clown. I know not where he lodges; and for me to devise a lodging, and say-he lies here, or 45 he lies there, were to lie in mine own throat.

Arife, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell!
Yield up, O love, thy crown, and hearted throne 4, 50
To tyrannous hate! fwell, bosom,with thy fraught",
For 'tis for afpicks' tongues!

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Iago. Patience, I fay; your mind, perhaps, may 55
Orb. Never, lago: Like to the Pontic fea,
Whofe icy current and compulfive courfe
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on

1 Prime is prompt, from the Celtic or British prim.

for fact.

Def. Can you enquire him out? and be edify'd by report?

Clown. I will catechize the world for him; that is, make questions, and make them answer. Def. Seek him, bid him come hither: tell him, I have mov'd my lord in his behalf, and hope, all will be well.

Clown. To do this is within the compafs of man's wit; and therefore I will attempt the doing of it. [Exit. Def. Where fhould I lofe that handkerchief, Æmilia?

Emil. I know not, madam.

2 Living for fpeaking, manifeft.



4 Hearted throne, is the heart on which thou waft enthroned. 5 i. e. fwell, because the draught is of poifon. 6 i. e. ample; capacious. 7 Mr. Tollet explains this passage thus: "Let him command any bloody bufinefs, and to obey fhall be in me an act of pity and compassion for wrong'd Othello. Remorfe frequently fignifies pity, mercy, compaffion, or a tenderness of heart, unattended with the ftings of a guilty confcience.


Def. Believe me, I had rather have loft my purfe
Full of cruzadoes': And, but my noble Moor
Is true of mind, and made of no fuch baseness
As jealous creatures are, it were enough
To put him to ill thinking.

Emil. Is he not jealous?

Def. Who, he? I think the fun, where he was

Drew all fuch humours from him.

Emil. Look, where he comes.

Def. I will not leave him now, 'till Caffio be Call'd to him.-How is it with you, my lord?

Enter Othello.


A fibyl, that had number'd in the world
The fun to courfe 3 two hundred compaffes,
In her prophetic fury few'd the work:
The worms were hallow'd, that did breed the filk;
5 And it was dy'd in mummy, which the skilful
Conferv'd of maiden's hearts.


Def. Indeed! is it true?

Otb. Moft veritable; therefore look to it well.
Def. Then 'would to heaven, that I had never

feen it!

Oth. Ha! wherefore?

Def. Why do you speak so startingly and 4 rash? Oth. Is it loft? is it gone? fpeak, is it out of the way?

Otb. Well, my good lady:-[Afide.] O, hard-15 Def. Heaven blefs us!~

nefs to diffemble!—

How do you, Desdemona?

Def. Well, my good lord.

Oth. Give me your hand: This hand is moist,

my lady.

[forrow. 20

Def. It yet hath felt no age, nor known no
Oth. This argues fruitfulness and liberal heart ;-
Hot, hot, and moift: This hand of yours requires
A fequefter from liberty, fafting and prayer,
Much castigation, exercise devout;
For here's a young and sweating devil here,
That commonly rebels. 'Tis a good hand,
A frank one.


Oth. Say you?

Def. It is not loft; But what an if it were?
Oth. Ha!

Def. I fay, it is not loft.

Orb. Fetch it, let me fee it.

Def. Why, fo I can, fir, but I will not now: This is a trick to put me from my fuit;

I pray, let Caffio be receiv'd again.

Oth. Fetch me that handkerchief: my mind mifgives.

Def. Come, come;

You'll never meet a more fufficient man.

Oth. The handkerchief,

Def. I pray, talk me of Caffio.

Def. A man that, all his time,

Hath founded his good fortunes on your love;

Def. You may, indeed, fay fo;

For 'twas that hand that gave away my heart..


Otb. The handkerchief,

Oth. A liberal hand: the hearts, of old, gave


But our new heraldry is-hands, not hearts.

Def. I cannot speak of this. Come now, your promise.


Oth. What promife, chuck?

Oth. Away!

Def. I have fent to bid Caffio come speak with you.
Oth. I have a falt and fullen 2 rheum offends me;

Lend me thy handkerchief.

Def. Here, my lord.

Oth. That which I gave you.

Def. I have it not about me.

Oth. Not?

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Shar'd dangers with you ;

Oth. The handkerchief.

Def. In footh you are to blame.

Emil. Is not this man jealous?

[Exit Othelle.

Def. I ne'er faw this before.
Sure there's fome wonder in this handkerchief:
40I am most unhappy in the loss of it.


'Twould make her amiable, and fubdue my father 50
Intirely to her love; but, if the loft it,
Or made a gift of it, my father's eye
Should hold her loathly, and his spirits fhould hunt
After new fancies: She, dying, gave it me;
And bid me, when my fate would have me wive,
To give it her. I did fo: and take heed on't,
Make it a darling like your precious eye;
To lofe 't, or give 't away, were fuch perdition,
As nothing elfe could match.

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Emil. 'Tis not a year or two fhews us a man:
They are all but stomachs, and we all but food;
They eat us hungerly, and, when they are full,
They belch us. Look you! Caffio, and my husband.
Enter Iago, and Caffio.

Iago. There is no other way; 'tis she must do 't;
And, lo, the happiness! go, and importune her.
Def. How now, good Caffio? what's the news

with you?

Caf. Madam, my former fuit: I do beseech you,
That, by your virtuous means,
Exift, and be a member of his love,
may again
55 Intirely honour; I would not be delayed:
Whom I, with all the duty of my heart,
If my offence be of fuch mortal kind,
That neither fervice paft, nor present sorrows,
Nor purpos'd merit in futurity,

Can ranfom me into his love again,

60 But to know fo must be by benefit;
So fhall I clothe me in a forc'd content,

* A Portugueze coin, (fo called from the cross stamped upon it) in value three fhillings fterling. 2 i. e. a rbeum obftinately troublesome. 3 i.e. number'd the fun's courses. 4 i. c. vebement, violent.


And shut myself up in fome other course,
To fortune's alms'.

Def. Alas! thrice-gentle Caffio,

My advocation is not now in tune;

My lord is not my lord; nor fhould I know him, 5
Were he in favour2, as in humour, alter'd.

So help me every spirit fanctified,

As I have spoken for you all my beft;

And stood within the blank of his displeasure 3,

Emil. Lady, Amen.

Def. I will go feek him.-Caffio, walk hereabout: If I do find him fit, I'll move your fuit,

And feek to effect it to my uttermoft.

Caf. I humbly thank your ladyship.

[Exeunt Desdemona and Æmilia. Enter Bianca.

Bian. Save you, friend Caffio!

Caf. What make you from home?

For my free fpeech! You must a while be patient: 10 How is it with you, my most fair Bianca ?

What I can do, I will; and more I will,

Than for myfelf I dare; let that fuffice you.
Lago. Is my lord angry?

Emil. He went hence but now,

And, certainly, in strange unquietness.

Indeed, fweet love, I was coming to your house.

Bian. And I was going to your lodging, Caffio.
What! keep a week away? feven days and nights?
Eightscore eight hours? and lovers' absent hours,
15 More tedious than the dial eightscore times?
O weary reckoning!

Iago. Can he be angry? I have feen the cannon
When it hath blown his ranks into the air;
And, like the devil, from his very arm
Puff'd his own brother;-And can he be angry?
Something of moment, then: I will go meet him; 20
There's matter in 't indeed, if he be angry. [Exit.
Def. I pr'ythee, do so.-Something, fure, of

Either from Venice; or fome unhatch'd practice +,
Made demonftrable here in Cyprus to him,-
Hath puddled his clear spirit: and, in such cases,
Men's natures wrangle with inferior things,
Though great ones are their object.

"Tis even fo; for let our finger ach,

And it endues our other healthful members

Even to that fenfe of pain: Nay, we must think,|
Men are not gods;

Nor of them look for fuch obfervancy

As fits the bridal.-Befhrew me much, Æmilia,
I was (unhandfome warrior 5 as I am)
Arraigning his unkindness with my foul;
But now I find, I had fuborn'd the witness,
And he's indited falfely.

Emil. Pray heaven, it be state matters, as you


And no conception, nor no jealous toy,
Concerning you.

Def. Alas the day! I never gave him cause.
Emil. But jealous fouls will not be anfwer'd fo;
They are not ever jealous for the cause,
But jealous for they are jealous: 'tis a monster,
Begot upon itself, born on itself.

Def. Heaven keep that monster from Othello's



Caf. Pardon me, Bianca;

I have this while with leaden thoughts been prefs'd:
But I fhall, in a more continuate time,
Strike off this score of abfence. Sweet Bianca,
[Giving ber Desdemona's bandkerchief.

Take me this work out 7.

Bian. O Caffio, whence came this?
This is fome token from a newer friend.
To the felt abfence now I feel a caufe:

Is it come to this? Well, well.

Caf. Go to, woman!

Throw your vile gueffes in the devil's teeth,

From whence you have them. You are jealous now,

30 That this is from some mistress, some remembrance: No, in good troth, Bianca.

Bian. Why, whose is it?


Caf. I know not, fweet: I found it in my cham-
I like the work well; ere it be demanded,
35 (As like enough it will) I'd have it copy'd :
Take it and do 't; and leave me for this time.
Bian. Leave you! wherefore?

Caf. I do attend here on the general;
And think it no addition, nor my wish,
40 To have him fee me woman'd.
Bian. Why, I pray you?

Caf. Not that I love you not.

Bian. But that you do not love me.

I pray you, bring me on the way a little;

45 And fay, if I fhall fee you foon at night.

Caf. 'Tis but a little way that I can bring you, For I attend here: but I'll fee you foon.

Bian. 'Tis very good; I must be circumstanc'd 3,

The meaning, according to Mr. Steevens, is, " I will put on a constrained appearance of being contented, and shut myfelf up in a different courfe of life, no longer to depend on my own efforts, but to wait for relief from the accidental hand of charity." We think, however, it means no more than that he would try what Fortune would do for him in fome other course of life. 2 In look, in countenance. 3 i. e. within the fhot of his anger. 4 Some treason that has not taken effect. 5 Unbandfome warrior, is unfair affailant. 6 i. e. a time lefs interrupted, time which I can call more my own. 7 i. c. "Copy this work in another handkerchief." i.e. Your civility is now grown conditional,


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No more than he'll unfwear.

Oth. What hath he said ?

Iago. Why, that he did,—I know not what he did.
Otb. What? what?

Lago. Lie

Otb. With her?

Lago. With her, on her; what you will.

Oth. Lie with her! lie on her!-We fay, lie on her, when they belie her: Lie with her! that's 10 fulfome. Handkerchief,-confeffions,-handkerchief. To confefs, and be hang'd for his labour.

Firft, to be hang'd, and then-to confefs:-I tremble at it.-Nature would not invest herself in fuch fhadowing paffion, without some instruction. 15 It is not words, that shake me thus 3:—Pish !— Nofes, ears, and lips+:-Is it poffible?-Confefs! -Handkerchief!-O devil![Falls in a trance.

Iago. Work on,

Iago. Why, then 'tis hers, my lord; and, being 20 My medicine, work! Thus credulous fools are She may, I think, bestow 't on any man.

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Iago. Her honour is an effence that 's not feen;
They have it very oft, that have it not :
But, for the handkerchief,-

Oth. By heaven, I would most gladly have for-
got it :-

Thou faidft,-O, it comes o'er my memory,
As doth the raven o'er the infected house,
Boding to all, he had my handkerchief.
Iago. Ay, what of that?

Orb. That's not so good now.

Lago. What if I had faid, I had seen him do

you wrong?

Or heard him fay,-As knaves be such abroad,
Who having, by their own importunate suit,
Or voluntary dotage of some mistress,
Convinced 2 or fupplied them, cannot choose
But they must blab,

Orb. Hath he said any thing?

Lago. He hath, my lord; but, be you well affur'd,]



And many worthy and chafte dames, even thus,
All guiltlefs meet reproach.-What, ho! my lord!
My lord, I fay !-Othello !-How now, Caffio?
Enter Caffio.

Caf. What's the matter?

Iago. My lord is falien into an epilepfy; This is his fecond fit; he had one yesterday. Caf. Rub him about the temples.

30 Iago. No, forbear:

The lethargy must have his quiet course :
If not, he foams at mouth; and, by and by,
Breaks out to favage madness. Look, he ftirs:
Do you withdraw yourself a little while,
35 He will recover ftraight; when he is gone,

I would on great occasion speak with you.————
[Exit Caffio.

How is it, general? have you not hurt your head?
Orb. Doft thou mock me?


Iago. I mock you! no, by heaven: 'Would, you would bear your fortunes like a man. Otb. A horned man 's a monster, and a beast.

This obfervation, Dr. Warburton fays, feems ftrangely abrupt and unoccafioned. We must suppofe that Iago had, before they appear in this scene, been applying cases of false comfort to Othello; as that though the parties had been even found in bed together, there might be no harm done; it might be only for the trial of their virtue; as was reported of the Romish faint, Robert D'Arbriffel and his nuns. To this we muft fuppofe Othello here replies; and like a good proteftant. For fo the fentiment does but fuit the character of the speaker, Shakspeare little heeds how thefe fentiments are circumstanced. 2 Convinc'd, for conquer'd, fubdued. 3 Dr. Johnson's comment on this paffage is as follows: "There has always prevailed in the world an opinion, that when any great calamity happens at a distance, notice is given of it to the fufferer by fome dejection or perturbation of mind, of which he discovers no external caufe. This is afcribed to that general communication of one part of the universe with another, which is called sympathy and antipathy; or to the fecret monition, inftruction, and influence of a fuperior Being, which fuperintends the order of nature and of life. Othello fays, Nature could not inveft berfelf in fuch shadowing paffion without instruction. It is not words that shake me thus. This paffion, which spreads its clouds over me, is the effect of fome agency more than the operation of words; it is one of thofe notices which men have of unfeen calamities." 4 Othello is imagining to himself the familiarities which he supposes to have paffed between Caffio and his wife.

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