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Caf. You advife me well. lago. I proteft, in the fincerity of love, and honeft kindness.

Caf. I think it freely; and, betimes in the morning, I will beseech the virtuous Desdemona 5 to undertake for me: I am desperate of my fortunes, if they check me here.

Iago. You are in the right. Good night, lieutenant; I muft to the watch.

Caf. Good night, honest Iago.

[Exit Caffio. Iago. And what's he then, that says-I play the villain?

When this advice is free 1 I give, and honest,
Probable to thinking, and (indeed) the course
To win the Moor again? For 'tis most easy
The inclining Desdemona to subdue

In any honeft fuit; fhe's fram'd as fruitful
As the free elements 2: And then for her
To win the Moor,—were't to renounce his baptism,
All feals and symbols of redeemed fin,-
His foul is fo enfetter'd to her love,

That she may make, unmake, do what she lift,
Even as her appetite shall play the god
With his weak function. How am I then a villain,
To counsel Caffio to this parallel 3 course,
Directly to his good? Divinity of hell!
When devils will their blackeft fins put on,
They do fuggeft at first with heavenly fhews,
As I do now: For, while this honest fool,
Plies Defdemona to repair his fortunes,
And the for him pleads ftrongly to the Moor,
I'll pour this peftilence + into his ear,—
That the repeals 5 him for her body's luft;
And, by how much the ftrives to do him good,

She shall undo her credit with the Moor.
So will I turn her virtue into pitch;
And out of her own goodness make the net
That shall enmesh them all. How now, Roderigo?
Enter Roderigo.

Rod. I do follow here in the chace, not like a hound that hunts, but one that fills up the cry.— My money is almost spent; I have been to-night exceedingly well cudgel'd; and, I think, the iffue 10 will be-I shall have fo much experience for my pains and fo, with no money at all, and a little more wit, return to Venice.

Iago. How poor are they, that have not patience! What wound did ever heal, but by degrees? 15 Thou know'ft, we work by wit, and not by witchcraft ;

And wit depends on dilatory time.

Does 't not go well? Caffio hath beaten thee, And thou, by that small hurt, hast cashier'd Caffio: 20 Though other things grow fair against the fun, Yet fruits, that blossom first, will first be ripe: Content thyfelf a while.-By the mafs, 'tis morning:

Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short.25 Retire thee; go where thou art billeted: Away, I fay; thou shalt know more hereafter: Nay, get thee gone.-[Exit Roderige.

Two things are to be done,→→→
My wife must move for Caffio to her mistrefs;
30I'll fet her on;

Myfelf, the while, will draw the Moor apart,
And bring him jump when he may Caffio find
Soliciting his wife :-Ay, that's the way;
Dull not device by coldness and delay.


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that I know. But, mafters, here's money for you: and the general so likes your mufic, that he 45 defires you, of all loves, to make no more noise with it.



Muf. Well, fir, we will not.

Clown. If you have any mufic that may not be heard, to 't again: but, as they say, to hear mufic, the general does not greatly care.

Muf. We have none fuch, fir.

Clown. Then put up your pipes in your bag, for

I'll away: Go; vanish into air; away.

[Exeunt Muf. Caf. Doft thou hear, my honest friend? Clown. No, I hear not your honeft friend; I hear you.

Caf. Pr'ythee, keep up thy quillets. There's a poor piece of gold for thee: if the gentlewoman

frank good-will.

1i.e. has an appearance of honeft openness, of elements, out of which all things are produced. Peftilence, for poifon. 5 That is, recals him. 7 The venereal difeafe first appeared at the fiege of Naples.

2 Liberal, bountiful, as the

3 i. e. a courfe level, and even with his defign. 6 A metaphor from taking birds in meshes.


that attends the general's wife, be stirring, tell her, there's one Caffio entreats her a little favour of speech: Wilt thou do this?

Clown. She is stirring, fir; if she will stir hither, I shall seem to notify unto her. [Exit Clown.

Enter Iago.

Caf. Do, good my friend.—In happy time, Iago.
Iago. You have not been a-bed then?
Caf. Why, no; the day had broke
Before we parted. I have made bold, Iago,
To fend in for your wife: My fuit to her
Is, that she will to virtuous Desdemona
Procure me fome access.

Iago. I'll fend her to you prefently:
And I'll devife a mean to draw the Moor
Out of the way, that your converse and business
May be more free.


Caf. I humbly thank you for 't. I never knew
A Florentine more kind and honeft.
Enter Emilia.

Emil. Good morrow, good lieutenant: I am

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Caf. Ay, but, lady,

That policy may either last so long,

15 Or feed upon fuch nice and waterish diet,
Or breed itself so out of circumstance,
That, I being abfent, and my place supply'd,
My general will forget my love and fervice.

Def. Do not doubt that; before Æmilia here,
20I give thee warrant of thy place: affure thee,
If I do vow a friendship, I'll perform it

For your displeasure; but all will foon be well.
The general, and his wife, are talking of it;
And the speaks for you ftoutly: The Moor replies, 25
That he, you hurt, is of great fame in Cyprus,
And great affinity; and that, in wholsome wisdom,
He might not but refuse you : but, he protefts, he
loves you;

And needs no other fuitor, but his likings,
To take the safest occasion by the front,
To bring you in again.

Caf. Yet, I beseech you,

If you think fit, or that it may be done,-
Give me advantage of fome brief discourse
With Desdemona alone.

Emil. Pray you, come in;

I will beftow you where you shall have time
To speak your bofom freely.

Caf. I am much bound to you.


A Room in the Caftie.

Enter Othello, Iago, and Gentlemen.


To the laft article: my lord fhall never reft;
I'll watch him tame 1, and talk him out of pa-

His bed shall seem a school, his board a shrift;
I'll intermingle every thing he does
With Caffio's fuit: Therefore be merry, Caffio;
For thy folicitor fhall rather die,
Than give thy cause away.

Enter Othello, and Iago, at a distance.
Emil. Madam, here comes my lord.

Caf. Madam, I'll take my leave.

Def. Why, stay, and hear me speak.

Caf. Madam, not now; I am very ill at eafe,

35 Unfit for mine own purposes.

[Excunt. 40

Oth. These letters give, Iago, to the pilot; And, by him, do my duties to the state: That done, I will be walking on the works, Repair there to me.


[fee't? 50

Lago. Well, my good lord, I'll do 't.
Otb. This fortification, gentlemen,-fhall we
Gent. We'll wait upon your lordship.

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Def. Well, do your difcretion.
logo. Ha! I like not that.
Otb. What doft thou say?

[Exit Caffio.


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If I have any grace, or power to move you,
His prefent reconciliation take;

For, if he be not one that truly loves you,
55 That errs in ignorance, and not in cunning,
I have no judgment in an honeft face:

Æmil. Good madam, do; I know it grieves my 60 As if the cafe were his.

■ It is faid, that the ferocity of dued by keeping them from sleep.

I pr'ythee, call him back.

Oth. Went he hence now?

Def. Ay, footh; fo humbled,

That he hath left part of his grief with me,
To fuffer with him: Good love, call him back.

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Ob. Not now, fweet Defdemona; fome other


Def. But shall 't be shortly?
Orb. The fooner, fweet, for you.
Def. Shall 't be to-night at fupper?

Otb. No, not to-night.

Def. To-morrow dinner then?

Oth. I fhall not dine at home.

I meet the captains at the citadel.



Def. Why then, to-morrow night; or Tuefday 10
Or Tuesday noon, or night; or Wednesday morn;
I pray thee, name the time; but let it not
Exceed three days: in faith, he's penitent;
And yet his trefpafs, in our common reason,

(Save that, they fay, the wars must make ex-15

Out of their best) is not almost a fault

To incur a private check: When shall he come?
Tell me, Othello. I wonder in my foul,
What you could ask me, that I should deny,
Or stand so mammering on. What! Michael


[time, That came a-wooing with you; and fo many a When I have spoke of you dispraisingly, Hath ta'en your part; to have so much to do To bring him in! Trust me, I could do much,Orb. Pr'ythee, no more: let him come when] he will;

I will deny thee nothing.

Def. Why, this is not a boon;'

"Tis as I fhould entreat you wear your gloves, Or feed on nourishing difhes, or keep you warm; Or fue to you to do a peculiar profit

To your own perfon: Nay, when I have a fuit,
Wherein I mean to touch your love indeed,
It shall be full of poize 2 and difficulty,
And fearful to be granted.

Oth. I will deny thee nothing:
Whereon, I do befeech thee, grant me this,-
To leave me but a little to myself.

Def. Shall I deny you? no: Farewel, my lord. Otb. Farewel, my Desdemona: I will come to thee ftraight. [teach you; Def. Æmilia, come:Be it as your fancies Whate'er you be, I am obedient.

[Exit with Emil. Otb. Excellent wretch 3! Perdition catch my foul, But I do love thee! and when I love thee not,

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Iago. But for a fatisfaction of my thought; No further harm.

Oth. Why of thy thought, Iago?

Iago. I did not think, he had been acquainted

with it.

Oth. O yes; and went between us very oft, Iago. Indeed?

Otb. Indeed! ay, indeed;—Difcern'st thou aught in that?

Is he not honeft?

Iago. Honeft, my lord?

Oth. Honeft! ay, honeft.

Iago. My lord, for aught I know.
Oth. What doft thou think?
Iago. Think, my lord?


Otb. Think, my lord;-By heaven, he echoes As if there were fome monfter in his thought, Too hideous to be fhewn.-Thou doft mean fomething:

20I heard thee fay but now,-Thou lik'dft not that,
When Caffio left my wife; What didst not like?
And, when I told thee-he was of my counfel
In my whole courfe of wooing, thou cry'dft,

25 And didft contract and purfe thy brow together,
As if thou then hadft shut up in thy brain
Some horrible conceit. If thou dost love me,
Shew me thy thought.


Iago. My lord, you know I love you.

Oth. I think, thou do'ft;

And, for I know thou art full of love and ho


[breath,And weigh'ft thy words before thou giv'ft them Therefore thefe ftops of thine fright me the more: 35 For fuch things, in a falfe difloyal knave, Are tricks of cuftom; but, in a man that's juft, They are clofe delations 5, working from the heart, That paffion cannot rule.

Iago. For Michael Caffio,

40I dare be fworn, I think that he is honeft. Otb. I think fo too.


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Iago. Men fhould be what they seem ; Or, thofe that be not, 'would they might feem none 6 !

Oth. Certain, men should be what they feem. Lago. Why then, I think Caffio's an honeft


Otb. Nay, yet there's more in this:

I pray thee, fpeak to me as to thy thinkings,
As thou doft ruminate; and give thy worst of

The worst of words.


Iago. Good my lord, pardon me; Though I am bound to every act of duty,

I am not bound to that all flaves are free to.

To hefitate, to stand in fufpence. 2 i. e. of weight. 3 The word wretch, in fome parts of England, is a term of the fofteft and fondeft tenderness. It expreffes the utmoft degree of amiablenefs, joined with an idea, which perhaps all tenderness includes, of feebleness, foftnefs, and want of protection. 4 i. e. When I ceafe to love thee, the world is at an end; i. e. there remains nothing valuable or important. 5 i. e. occult and fecret accufations, working involuntarily from the beart, which though refolved to conceal the fault, cannot rule its paffion of refentment. 6i. c. would they might us

longer feem, or bear the shape of men,


Utter my thoughts? Why, fay, they are vile and

As where's that palace, whereinto foul things
Sometimes intrude not? who has a breast so pure,
But fome uncleanly apprehenfions

Keep leets, and law-days, and in feffion fit
With meditations lawful1?

Oth. Thou doft conspire against thy friend, Iago,
If thou but think'st him wrong'd, and mak'st his
A ftranger to thy thoughts.

Iago. I do befeech you,

[Think'ft thou, I'd make a life of jealousy, To follow ftill the changes of the moon With fresh fufpicions? No; to be once in doubt, Is-once to be refolv'd: Exchange me for a goat, 5 When I fhall turn the bufinefs of my foul To fuch exfuffolate and blown furmises 5, Matching thy inference. "Tis not to make me jealous,

[ear 10

Though I-perchance, am vicious in my guess 2,
(As, I confefs, it is my nature's plague
To spy into abuses; and, oft, my jealousy
Shapes faults that are not) that your wisdom yet,
From one that so imperfectly conceits,
Would take no notice; nor build yourself a trouble
Out of his scattering and unfure observance :-
It were not for your quiet, nor your good,
Nor for my manhood, honesty or wifdom,
To let you know my thoughts.

Oth. What doft thou mean?

Jago. Good name, in man and woman, dear my lord,

Is the immediate jewel of their fouls:

Who fteals my purse, steals trash; 'tis fomething,


'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands;
But he, that filches from me my good name,
Robs me of that, which not enriches him,
And makes me poor indeed.

Oth. By heaven, I'll know thy thought.
Lago. You cannot, if my heart were in your


Nor fhall not, whilft 'tis in my cuftody.

Otb. Ha!

Iago. O, beware, my lord, of jealousy;
It is the green-ey'd monster, which doth mock 3
The meat it feeds on: That cuckold lives in blifs,
Who, certain of his fate, loves not his wronger;
But, O, what damned minutes tells he o'er, floves!
Who dotes, yet doubts; fufpects, yet strongly
Oth. O mifery!

Lago. Poor, and content, is rich, and rich enough;
But riches, finelefs 4, is as poor as winter,
To him that ever fears he fhall be poor :-
Good heaven, the fouls of all my tribe defend

From jealousy!

Orb. Why? why is this?

To fay-my wife is fair, feeds well, loves company,
Is free of speech, fings, plays, and dances well;
Where virtue is, these are more virtuous;
Nor from mine own weak merits will I draw
The fmalleft fear, or doubt of her revolt;
For the had eyes, and chofe me: No, Iago;
15 I'll fee, before I doubt; when I doubt, prove;
And, on the proof, there is no more but this,→→
Away at once with love, or jealousy. [reafon
Iage. I am glad of this; for now I fhall have
To fhew the love and duty that I bear you
20 With franker fpirit: therefore, as I am bound,
Receive it from me :-I fpeak not yet of proof.
Look to your wife; obferve her well with Caffio;
Wear your eye-thus, not jealous, nor fecure:
I would not have your free and noble nature,
Out of felf-bounty, be abus'd; look to 't:
I know our country difpofition well;
In Venice they do let heaven see the pranks
They dare not fhew their husbands; their best


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She that, fo young, could give out fuch a feeming,

To feel her father's eyes up, close as oak 8,

He thought, 'twas witchcraft :-But I am much

to blame;

I humbly do befeech you of your pardon,

For too much loving you.

Orb. I am bound to thee for ever.

Iago. I fee, this hath a little dash'd your fpirits,
Otb. Not a jot, not a jot.

Iago. Trust me, I fear it has.

hope, you will confider, what is fpoke

Comes from my love :-But, I do fee, you are

mov'd ;

I The poet's meaning is, "Who has a breaft fo little apt to form ill opinions of others, but that foul fufpicions will fometimes mix with his fairest and most candid thoughts, and erect a court in his mind, to enquire of the offences apprehended? 2 i. e. am apt to put the worst construction on every thing. i. e. loaths that which nourishes and fuftains it. This being a miferable state, Iago bids him beware of it. 4 i. e. unbounded, endlefs, unnumbered treasures. 5 The allufion is to a bubble. Self-bounty, for inherent generosity. 7 Dr. Johnson obferves, that "this and the following argument of Iago ought to be deeply impreffed on every reader. Deceit and falfhood, whatever conveniencies they may for a time promise or produce, are, in the fum of life, obftacles to happinefs. Those who profit by the cheat, diftrust the deceiver, and the act by which kindness was fought, puts an end to confidence. The fame objection may be made with a lower degree of strength against the imprudent generosity of disproportionate marriages. When the first heat of paffion is over, it is easily fucceeded by fufpicion, that the fame violence of inclination, which caused one irregularity, may stimulate to another; and those who have fhewn, that their paffions are too powerful for their prudence, will, with very flight appearances against them, be cenfured, as not very likely to restrain them by their virtue. Clofe as oak, means, clafe as the grain of the oak. To feel is an expreffion 3Y 3

taken from falconry.

I am

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And knows all qualities, with a learned spirit, Of human dealings: If I do prove her haggard, Though that her jeffles were my dear heart-strings, I'd whistle her off, and let her down the wind, 5 To prey at fortune 10. Haply, for I am black; And have not those soft parts of conversation That chamberers 11 have: Or, for I am declin'd Into the vale of years;—yet that's not much;She's gone; I am abus'd; and my relief Muft be-to loath her. O curse of marriage, That we can call these delicate creatures ours, And not their appetites! I had rather be a toad, And live upon the vapour of a dungeon, Than keep a corner in the thing I love, For others' ufes. Yet, 'tis the plague of great ones; Prerogativ'd are they lefs than the base: 'Tis destiny unshunnable, like death; Even then this forked plague 12 is fated to us, When we do quicken. Defdemona comes: Enter Desdemona and Æmilia. If fhe be falfe, O, then heaven mocks itself!I'll not believe it.

Otb. And yet, how nature erring from itself,-
Jago. Ay, there's the point: As, to be bold 15
with you,

Not to affect many proposed matches,
Of her own clime, complexion, and degree;
Whereto, we fee, in all things nature tends t
Foh! one may fmell, in fuch, a will most rank 3,
Foul difproportion, thoughts unnatural.
But pardon me; I do not, in pofition,
Distinctly speak of her: though I may fear,
Her will, recoiling to her better judgment,
May fall to match you with her country forms,
And (happily) repent.

Oth. Farewel, farewel:

If more thou doft perceive, let me know more; Set on thy wife to obferve: Leave me, Iago. Iago. My lord, I take my leave. Otb. Why did I marry?-This honeft creature, doubtless, [folds.


Def. How now, my dear Othello? Your dinner, and the generous islanders 13 25 By you invited, do attend your prefence. Oth. I am to blame.


Sees and knows more, much more, than he unIago. My lord,-I would, I might entreat your honour

To scan this thing no further; leave it to time:
And though it be fit that Caffio have his place,
(For, fure, he fills it up with great ability)
Yet, if you please to hold him off a while,
You fhall by that perceive him and his means 4:
Note, if your lady ftrain his entertainment 5
With any ftrong, or vehement importunity;
Much will be seen in that. In the mean time,
Let me be thought too busy in my fears,
(As worthy cause I have, to fear-I am)
And hold her free, I do befeech your honour.
Otb. Fear not my government".

Iago. I once more take my leave.
Oth. This fellow's of exceeding honesty,




Def. Why is your speech so faint? are you not
Oth. I have a pain upon my forehead here.
Def. Why, that's with watching; 'twill away

again :

Let me but bind it hard, within this hour
It will be well.

Oth. Your napkin 14 is too little;

[She drops ber bandkerchief. 35 Let it alone. Come, I'll go in with you. Def. I am very forry that you are not well, [Exeunt Def. and Orb.

Emil. I am glad, I have found this napkin; This was her first remembrance from the Moor: 40 My wayward husband hath a hundred times

Woo'd me to fteal it; but the fo loves the token, (For he conjur'd her, she should ever keep it) That the referves it evermore about her, To kifs and talk to. I'll have the work ta'en out, 45 And give it Iago:

What he'll do with it, heaven knows, not I;
I nothing but to please his phantafy.
Enter Iago.

Iago. How now? what do you here alone?

fues, for conclufions. Iago means, "Should you do fo, my lord, my words would be attended by fuch infamous degree of fuccefs, as my thoughts do not even aim at."

3 A rank wil,

is felf-will overgrown and exuberant. 4 i. e. You fhall difcover whether he thinks his best means, his moft powerful intereft, is by the folicitation of your lady. 5 i. e. prefs hard his re-admiffion to his pay and office. Entertainment was the military term for admiffion of foldiers.

6 i. e. do not

diftruft my ability to contain my passion. 7 Learned, for experienced. 8 A baggard hawk is a wild hawk, a bawk difficult to be reclaim'd. It appears alfo, that baggard was a term of reproach fometimes applied to a wanton. 9 Jesses are short ftraps of leather tied about the foot of a hawk, by which the is held on the fift. 10 Dr. Johnson obferves, that the falconers always let fly the hawk

If therefore a hawk was

against the wind, if the flies with the wind behind her, the feldom returns. for any reafon to be difmiffed, fhe was let down the wind, and from that time shifted for herself, and prey'd at fortune, 11 i, e. men of intrigue. 12 In allusion, according to Dr. Johnfon, to a barbed or forked arrow, which, once infixed, cannot be extracted. Or, according to Dr. Percy, the forked plague may mean the cuckold's borns. *3 The generous iflanders are the islanders of rank, difunction, your pocket handkerchief,


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