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Of my whole courfe of love; what drugs, what


What conjuration, and what mighty magic,
(For fuch proceeding I am charg'd withal)
I won his daughter with.

Bra. A maiden never bold;

Of spirit fo ftill and quiet, that her motion
Blush'd at herself; And the,-in spite of nature,
Of years, of country, credit, every thing,-
To fall in love with what she fear'd to look on?
It is a judgment maim'd, and most imperfect,
That will confefs-perfection so could err
Against all rules of nature; and must be driven
To find out practices of cunning hell,
Why this fhould be. I therefore vouch again,
That with fome mixtures powerful o'er the blood,
Or with fome dram conjur'd to this effect,
He wrought upon her.

Duke. To vouch this, is no proof;
Without more certain and more overt test',
Than these thin habits, and poor likelihoods
Of modern seeming, do prefer against him.
1 Sen. But, Othello, fpeak;-

Did you by indirect and forced courses
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections?
Or came it by request, and such fair question
As foul to foul affordeth?

Oth. I do befeech you,

Send for the lady to the Sagittary 2,

And let her speak of me before her father:

If you do find me foul in her report,

The truft, the office, I do hold of you,

Not only take away, but let your sentence
Even fall upon my life.

Duke. Fetch Desdemona hither.

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Wherein I fpake of most disastrous chances,

Of moving accidents, by flood and field;
Of hair-breadth fcapes i' the imminent deadly
Of being taken by the infolent foe,

5 And fold to flavery; of my redemption thence,
And portance in my travel's hiftory:
Wherein of antres 3 vaft, and defarts idle 4,
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch

It was my hint to speak, fuch was the process;
And of the Cannibals that each other eat,
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads
Do grow beneath their fhoulders 5. These things
to hear,

Would Desdemona seriously incline:

But ftill the house affairs would draw her thence;
Which ever as he could with haste dispatch,
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse: Which I observing,
20 Took once a pliant hour; and found good means
To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart,
That I would all my pilgrimage dilate,
Whereof by parcels she had fomething heard,
But not intentively: I did confent;

25 And often did beguile her of her tears,



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When I did speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth fuffer'd. My ftory being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of fighs:
She fwore,-In faith, 'twas ftrange, 'twas paffing

'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful:

She wifh'd, the had not heard it; yet the wish'd
That heaven had made her fuch a man: fhe

thank'd me;

And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,

I fhould but teach him how to tell my story,

And that would woo her. Upon this hint, I fpake:
She lov'd me for the dangers I had past;
And I lov'd her, that he did pity them.
40 This only is the witchcraft I have us'd;
Here comes the lady, let her witness it.

Enter Defdemona, lago, and Attendants.
Duke. I think, this tale would win my daughter


45 Good Brabantio,'

Take up this mangled matter at the best:
Men do their broken weapons rather use,
Than their bare hands.

Bra. I pray you, hear her speak;

If the confefs, that he was half the wooer,

i. e. open proofs, external evidence. 2 This means the fign of the fictitious creature fo called, i. e. an animal compounded of man and horfe, and armed with a bow and quiver. 3 i. c. caves, dens. Dr. Warburton remarks, that " Difcourfes of this nature made the fubject of the politeft converfations, when voyages into, and discoveries of, the new world were all in vogue. So when the Baftard Faulconbridge, in King John, describes the behaviour of upstart greatness, he makes one of the effential circumstances of it to be this kind of table-talk. The fashion then running altogether in this way, it is no wonder a young lady of quality fhould be ftruck with the hiftery of an adventurer." Dr. Johnfon adds, that "Whoever ridicules this account of the progrefs of love, thews his ignorance, not only of history, but of nature and manners. It is no wonder that, in any age, or in any nation, a lady, reclufe, timorous, and delicate, fhould defire to hear of events and fcenes which the could never sec, and should admire the man who had endured dangers, and performed actions, which, however great, were yet magnified by her timidity." 4 i. e. wild, useless, uncultivated.

5 Dr. Jolinfon fays, book of that time."

"Of thefe men there is an account in the interpolated travels of Mandeville, a Intention and attention were once fynonymous.



Deftruction on my head, if my bad blame
Light on the man!-Come hither, gentle mistress;
Do you perceive in all this noble company,
Where most you owe obedience?

Def. My noble father,

I do perceive here a divided duty:

To you I am bound for life, and education; My life, and education, both do learn me How to refpect you; you are the lord of duty,

the place is best known to you: And though we have there a fubstitute of most allow'd fufficiency, yet opinion, a fovereign mistress of effects, throws a more fafe voice on you: you must therefore be 5 content to flubber 4 the glofs of your new fortunes, with this more stubborn and boisterous expedition. Oth. The tyrant custom, moft grave fenators, Hath made the flinty and steel couch of war My thrice-driven 5 bed of down: I do agnize

I am hitherto your daughter: But here's my 10 A natural and prompt alacrity,


And so much duty as my mother shew'd
To you, preferring you before her father,
So much I challenge that I may profess
Due to the Moor, my lord.

Bra. God be with you!-I have done :-
Please it your grace, on to the state affairs;
I had rather to adopt a child, than get it.—
Come hither, Moor:

I here do give thee that with all my heart,
Which, but thou haft already, with all my heart
I would keep from thee.-For your fake, jewel,
I am glad at foul I have no other child;
For thy escape would teach me tyranny,
To hang clogs on them.-I have done, my lord.
Duke. Let me fspeak like yourself; and lay a

Which, as a grife', or step, may help thefe lovers
Into your favour.

When remedies are past, the griefs are ended,
By feeing the worst, which late on hopes depended.
To mourn a mischief that is past and gone,
Is the next way to draw new mischief on.
What cannot be preferv'd when fortune takes,
Patience her injury a mockery makes.

The robb'd, that smiles, steals fomething from the thief;

He robs himself, that spends a bootless grief.


Bra. So let the Turk, of Cyprus us beguile; We lofe it not, fo long as we can smile. He bears the fentence well, that nothing bears But the free comfort which from thence he hears 2; But he bears both the sentence and the forrow, That to pay grief, muft of poor patience borrow. Thefe fentences, to fugar, or to gall, Being strong on both fides, are equivocal: But words are words: I never yet did hear, That the bruis'd heart was pierced through the ear 3. I humbly beseech you, proceed to the affairs of ftate.

Duke. The Turk with a most mighty preparation makes for Cyprus:-Othello, the fortitude of

I find in hardness; and do undertake
This prefent war against the Ottomites.
Moft humbly therefore bending to your state,
I crave fit difpofition for my wife;

15 Due reverence of place 7, and exhibition3;
With fuch accommodation, and befort,
As levels with her breeding.
Duke. If you please,


Be 't at her father's.

Bra. I will not have it fo.
Oth. Nor I.

Def. Nor I; I would not there refide,
To put my father in impatient thoughts,
By being in his eye. Moft gracious duke;
25 To my unfolding lend a gracious ear;
And let me find a charter in your voice 9,
To affift my fimpleness.

Duke. What would you, Defdemona ?

Def. That I did love the Moor to live with him, 30 My down-right violence and storm of fortunes May trumpet to the world; my heart's fubdu'd Even to the very quality of my lord:

I faw Othello's vifage in his mind 10;
And to his honours, and his valiant parts,
35 Did I my foul and fortunes confecrate.
So that, dear lords, if I be left behind,

A moth of peace, and he go to the war,
The rites, for which I love him, are bereft me,
And I a heavy interim shall support

40 By his dear abfence: Let me go with him.

Oth. Your voices, lords :-I do befeech you, let Her will have a free way.

Vouch with me, heaven, I therefore beg it not, To please the palate of my appetite; 45 Nor to comply with heat, (the young affects, In me defunct) and proper fatisfaction; But to be free and bounteous to her mind': And heaven defend 12your good fouls,that you think I will your ferious and great business fcant, 50 For fhe is with me; No, when light-wing'd toys Of feather'd Cupid feel with wanton dulnefs My speculative and active instruments 13,

9 i. e.

1 Grize, from degrees. A grife is a step. 2 Meaning, the moral precepts of confolation, which are liberally bestowed on occafion of the fentence. 3 Dr. Johnson obferves, that the confequence of a bruife is sometimes matter collected, and this can no way be cured without piercing, or letting it out. 4 To flubber here means to obfcure. 5 A driven bed, is a bed for which the feathers are felected, by driving with a fan, which separates the light from the heavy. i. e. acknowledge, confefs, avow. 7 i. e. precedency suitable to her rank. 8 Exbibition is allowance, and here implies revenue. Let your favour privilege me. 10 i. e. The greatness of his character reconciled me to his form, 11 Affects ftands in this paffage not for love, but for paffions, for that by which any thing is affected. I afk it not, says Othello, to please appetite, or fatisfy loofe defires, the paffions of youth which I have now outlived, or for any particular gratification of myself, but merely that I may indulge the wishes of my wife. 12 To defend, is to forbid, from defendre, Fr. 13 All these words mean no more than this: When the pleasures and idle toys of love make me unfit either for feeing the duties of my office, or for the ready performance of them.


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If virtue no delighted beauty lack,
Your fon-in-law is far more fair than black.
Sen. Adieu, brave Moor! ufe Desdemona well.
Bra. Look to her, Moor; have a quick eye
to fee;

She has deceiv'd her father, and may thee.
[Exeunt Duke and Senators.
Oth. My life upon her faith.-Honest Iago,
My Desdemona muft I leave to thee:
I pr'ythee, let thy wife attend on her;
And bring them after in the best advantage 2.-
Come, Desdemona; I have but an hour
Of love, of worldly matter and direction,
To fpend with thee: we muft obey the time.
[Exeunt Othello, and Defdemona.

Rod. Iago,

lago. What fay'ft thou, noble heart? Red. What will I do, think'ft thou?

Iago. Why, go to bed, and fleep.

Red. I will incontinently drown myself. Jago. Well, if thou doft, I shall never love thee after it. Why, thos filly gentleman!

Rod. It is fillinefs to live, when to live is a torment: and then have we a prefcription to die when death is our physician.


shame to be fo fond; but it is not in my virtue tó amend it.

Lago. Virtue? a fig! 'tis in ourfelves, that we are thus, or thus. Our bodies are our gardens ; to the which, our wills are gardeners: fo that if we will plant nettles, or fow lettuce; fet hyffop, and weed up thyme; fupply it with one gender of herbs, or diftract it with many; either have it fteril with idleness, or manur'd with industry; why, the 10 power and corrigible authority of this lies in our wills. If the balance of our lives had not one scale of reason to poise another of sensuality, the blood and bafenefs of our natures would conduct us to moft prepofterous conclufions: But we have rea 15 fon, to cool our raging motions, our carnal ftings, our unbitted lufts; whereof I take this, that you call-love, to be a sector scyon.


Rod. It cannot be.

Iago. It is merely a luft of the blood, and a 20 permiffion of the will. Come, be a man: Drown thyfelf? drown cats, and blind puppies. I have profefs'd me thy friend, and I confefs me knit to thy deferving with cables of perdurable toughness; I could never better steed thee than now. Put money in thy purfe: follow thou these wars; defeat 5 thy favour with an ufurped beard: I fay, put money in thy purse. It cannot be, that Def demona fhould long continue her love to the Moor, -put money in thy purfe;-nor he his to her: it 30 was a violent commencement in her, and thou fhalt fee an answerable fequestration ";-put but money in thy purfe.-Thefe Moors are changeable in their wills;-fill thy purfe with money: the food that to him now is as luscious as locufts, shall 35 be to him fhortly as bitter as coloquintida. She muft change for youth: when she is fated with his body, fhe will find the error of her choice.She muft have change, the muft: therefore put money in thy purse.-If thou wilt needs damn 40 thyfelf, do it a more delicate way than drowning. Make all the money thou canft: If fanctimony and a frail vow, betwixt an erring Barbarian and a fuper-fubtle Venetian, be not too hard for my wits, and all the tribe of hell, thou fhalt enjoy her; 45 therefore make money. A pox of drowning thy. felf! it is clean out of the way: seek thou rather to be hang'd in compaffing thy joy, than to be drown'd and go without her.

Iago. O villainous! I have look'd upon the world for four times feven years: and fince I could 50 diftinguish betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man that knew how to love himself. Ere 1 would fay, I would drown myfelf for the love of a Guinea hen3, I would change my humanity with a baboon.

Rod. Wilt thou be fast to my hopes, if I depend on the iffue?

Iago. Thou art fure of me;-Go, make money: I have told thee often, and I re-tell thee again and again, I hate the Moor: My cause is hearted; thine hath no lefs reafon: Let us be conjunctive 55 in our revenge against him: if thou canst cuckold Rod. What should I do? I confefs, it is my him, thou dost thyself a pleasure, and me a sport.

Delighted, for delighting, or delightful. Shakspeare often ufes the active and paffive participles indifcriminately. 2 i. e. faireft opportunity. 3 A Guinea-ben was anciently the cant term for a prostitute. 4 A fect is what the more modern gardeners call a cutting. 5 To defeat, is to undo, to change. 6 The poet probably here ufes fequeftration for fequel. Sequeftration, however, may mean no more than feparation. 7 The fruit of the locuft-tree is a long black pod, which contains the reeds, among which there is a very sweet luscious juice of much the fame confiftency as fresh honey.


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There are many events in the womb of time, which will be delivered. Traverfe; go; provide thy money. We will have more of this to-morrow. Adieu.

Rod. Where fhall we meet i' the morning?
Jago. At my lodging.

Red. I'll be with thee betimes.

Iago. Go to; farewel.

Do you hear, Roderigo?|

Rod. What fay you? Iago. No more of drowning, do you hear. Rod. I am chang'd. I'll go fell all my land. Lage. Go to; farewel; put money enough in your purfe. [Exit Roderigo. Thus do I ever make my fool my purse: For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane, If I should time expend with such a snipe, But for my sport, and profit. I hate the Moor; And it is thought abroad, that 'twixt my sheets

He has done my office: I know not, if 't be true; But I for mere fufpicion in that kind, Will do, as if for furety. He holds me well; The better fhall my purpose work on him. 5 Caffio's a proper man: Let me fee now; To get his place, and to plume up my will, A double knavery,-How? how!-Let me fee :After fome time, to abufe Othello's ear, That he is too familiar with his wife:10 He hath a person, and a smooth dispose, To be fufpected; fram'd to make women falfe. The Moor is of a free and open nature, That thinks men honeft, that but feem to be fo; And will as tenderly be led by the nose, 15 As affes are.

I have 't;-it is engender'd: Hell and night Muft bring this monstrous birth to the world's [Exit.



The Capital of Cyprus.

A Platform.


Enter Montano, and two Gentlemen.

Mont. W

WHAT from the cape can you difcern at fea? [flood;


Mont. How is this true?

3 Gent. The fhip is here put in, 30 A Veronefe 2: Michael Caffio, Lieutenant to the warlike Moor, Othello, Is come on fhore; the Moor himself's at fea, And is in full commiffion here for Cyprus.

1 Gent. Nothing at all: it is a high-wrought 35 I cannot, 'twixt the heaven and the main, Defcry a fail.


Mont. Methinks, the wind hath spoke aloud at A fuller blaft ne'er shook our battlements: If it hath ruffian'd fo upon the fea, What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them, Can hold the mortice? What fhall we hear of this? 2 Gent. A fegregation of the Turkish fleet; For do but stand upon the foaming shore, The chiding billow feems to pelt the clouds; The wind-shak'd furge, with high and monftrous Seems to caft water on the burning bear, And quench the guards of the ever-fixed pole': I never did like moleftation view

On the enchafed flood.

Mont. If that the Turkish fleet


Be not infhelter'd, and embay'd, they are drown'd;}
It is impoffible they bear it out.

Enter a third Gentleman.

3 Gent. News, lords! our wars are done : The defperate tempeft hath fo bang'd the Turks, That their defignment halts: A noble thip of


Hath feen a grievous wreck and sufferance

On most part of their fleet.

1 Alluding to the star Ar&tophylax.


Ment. I am glad on't; 'tis a worthy governor.
3 Gent. But this fame Caffio,-though he speak
of comfort,

Touching the Turkish lofs,—yet he looks fadly,
And prays the Moor be fafe; for they were parted
With foul and violent tempeft.

Mont. Pray heaven he be;

For I have ferv'd him, and the man commands Like a full foldier. Let's to the fea-fide, ho! As well to fee the veffel that's come in, As to throw out our eyes for brave Othello; 45 Even 'till we make the main, and the aerial blue, An indiftin&t regard.



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2 By a Veronese a fhip of Verona is denoted. 3 Expert and approv'd allowance is put for allow'd and approv'd expertnifs. 4 The meaning, Mr. Steevens thinks, is, Therefore, my hopes, not being deftroy'd by their own excefs, but being reafonable and moderate, are likely to be fulfilled.

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Caf. What noife?

Gent. The town is empty; on the brow o' the fea
Stand ranks of people, and they cry—a fail.

Caf. My hopes do shape him for the governor.
Gent. They do discharge their shot of courtesy; 5
Our friends, at least.
[Guns beard.

Caf. I pray you, fir, go forth,

And give us truth who 'tis that is arrived.


Iago. Sir, would she give you so much of her


As of her tongue she oft bestows on me,
You'd have enough.

Def. Alas, she has no speech.
Iago. In faith, too much;

I find it still, when I have lift to sleep;
Marry, before your ladyship, I grant,
She puts her tongue a little in her heart,

Gent. I fhall.
Mont. But, good lieutenant, is your general 10 And chides with thinking.


Caf. Moft fortunately: he hath atchiev'd a maid
That paragons description, and wild fame;
One that excels the quirks of blazoning pens,
And, in the effential vefture of creation,

Æmil. You have little cause to say so.

Lago. Come on, come on; you are pictures out of doors,

Bells in your parlours, wild cats in your kitchens, 15 Saints in your injuries, devils being offended,

Does bear all excellency'. How now? who has Players in your housewifery, and housewives in put in?

Re-enter Gentleman.

Gent. 'Tis one Iago, ancient to the general.

your beds.

Def. O, fie upon thee, flanderer!

Iago. Nay, it is true, or else I am Turk;

Caf. He has had most favourable and happy 20 You rise to play, and go to bed to work.


Tempests themselves, high seas, and howling winds,
The gutter'd rocks, and congregated fands,—
Traitors enfteep'd to clog the guiltless keel,-
As having fenfe of beauty, do omit
Their mortal natures, letting go fafely by
The divine Desdemona.

Mont. What is she?


Cas. She that I spake of, our great captain's
Left in the conduct of the bold Iago;
Whose footing here anticipates our thoughts,
A fe'nnight's speed.-Great Jove, Othello guard,
And fwell his fail with thine own powerful breath ;|
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship,
Make love's quick pants in Defdemona's arms,
Give renew'd fire to our extinc&ted spirits,
And bring all Cyprus comfort!-O, behold,

Enter Defdemona, Iago, Roderigo, and Æmilia.
The riches of the ship is come on shore!-
Ye men of Cyprus, let her have your knees:
Hail to thee, lady! and the grace of heaven,
Before, behind thee, and on every hand,
Enwheel thee round!

Def. I thank you, valiant Caffio.
What tidings can you tell me of my lord?

Caf. He is not yet arriv'd; nor know I aught
But that he's well, and will be shortly here.

Des. O, but I fear ;-How loft you company?
Caf. The great contention of the fea and skies
Parted our fellowship: But, hark! a fail.
Within.] A fail, a fail!

[Guns beard.

Gent. They give this greeting to the citadel; This likewife is a friend.

Caf. See for the news.- [An attendant goes out. Good ancient, you are welcome ;


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Welcome, 55

[To Emilia.
Let not it gall your patience, good Iago,
That I extend my manners; 'tis my breeding
That gives me this bold fhew of courtesy.

If the be fair and wife,-fairness, and wit,
The one's for ufe, the other ufeth it.
Daf. Well prais'd! How if the be black and


Iago. If the be black, and thereto have a wit, She'll find a white that shall her blackness fit.

Def. Worfe and worse.

mil. How, if fair and foolish?

Iago. She never yet was foolish that was fair; For even her folly help'd her to an heir. Def. These are old fond paradoxes, to make fools laugh i' the alehouse. What miserable praise haft thou for her that's foul and foolish?

Iago. There's none fo foul, and foolish thereunto, But does foul pranks which fair and wife ones do.

Def. O heavy ignorance!-thou praifeft the worst beft. But what praise couldst thou bestow on a deferving woman indeed? one, that, in the authority of her merit, did justly put on the vouch [Kiffes ber. 60 of very malice itself 3 ?

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That is, She excels the praises of invention, and in real (the author seeming to use essential for real) qualities, with which creation has invefted her; bears all excellency. Johnfon fays, To put on the vouch of malice, is to affume a character vouched by the teftimony of malice itfelf.

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