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Ham. Hic & ubique? then we'll shift our ground:-

Ham. How fay you then; would heart of man 10 Come hither, gentlemen,

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Ham. Why, right; you are in the right; And fo, without more circumstance at all, I hold it fit, that we shake hands, and part: You, as your business and defire, shall point you ;— For every man hath business and defire, Such as it is,--and, for my own poor part, Look you, I will go pray.

Hor. These are but wild and whirling words, my lord.

Ham. I am forry they offend you, heartily; Yes 'faith, heartily.

Hor. There's no offence, my lord.

Ham. Yes, by Saint Patrick, but there is, Horatio, And much offence too. Touching this vifion here,It is an honest ghost, that let me tell you: For your defire to know what is between us,



And lay your hands again upon my sword:
Swear by my fword,

Never to speak of this that you have heard.
Ghoft. [beneath.] Swear by his fword.
Ham. Well faid, old mole! can'ft work i' the
earth fo faft?
A worthy pioneer!-Once more remove, good
Hur. O day and night, but this is wondrous
[come 1.
Ham. And therefore as a ftranger give it wel
There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.
But come;


Here, as before, never, so help you mercy! 25 How ftrange or odd foe'er I bear myself,As I, perchance, hereafter shall think meet To put an antick disposition on,—

That you, at fuch times feeing me, never shall, (With arms encumber'd thus; or this head-shake; 30 Or by pronouncing of some doubtful phrase, As, Well, well, we know;—or, We could, an if w would;-or, If we lift to speak ;—or, There be, an if they might

Or fuch ambiguous giving out) denote

O'er-mafter it as you may. And now, good friends, 35 That you know aught of me: This do ye swear,

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So grace and mercy at your most need help you! Swear.

Gboft. [beneath] Swear.

Ham. Reft, reft, perturbed fpirit!-So, gentlemen, 40 With all my love I do commend me to you: And what fo poor a man as Hamlet is

May do, to express his love and friending to you,
God willing, fhall not lack. Let us go in together;
And ftill your fingers on your lips, I pray.

45 The time is out of joint ;-O curfed fpight!
That ever I was born to fet it right !—
Nay, come, let's go together.


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This is the call which falconers use to their hawk in the air when they would have him come down to them. 2 It was common to fwear upon the fword, that is, upon the crofs which the old fwords always had upon the hilt. 3 i. c. receive it to yourself; take it under your own roof; as much as to say, Keep it fecret-alluding to the laws of hospitality. + Danske is the ancient name of Denmark.


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What company, at what expence; and finding,
By this encompaffiment and drift of question,
That they do know my fon, come you more nearer;
Then your particular demands will touch it :
Take you, as 'twere, fome diftant knowledge of him;
As thus, I know bis father, and bis friends,
And, in part, bim,-Do you mark this, Reynaldo?
Rey. Ay, very well, my lord.


(Videlicet, a brothel) or fo forth.---See you now; Your bait of falfhood takes this carp of truth: And thus do we of wisdom and of reach, With windlaces, and with afsays of bias, 5 By indirections find directions out;


Pol. And, in part, bim;-but, you may say,—not
But, if't be be I mean, be's very wild;
Addicted fo and fo;—and there put on him
What forgeries you please; marry, none so rank
As may difhonour him; take heed of that;
But, fir, fuch wanton, wild, and ufual flips,
As are companions noted and most known
To youth and liberty.

Rey. As gaming, my lord.

Pol. Ay, or drinking, fencing, fwearing,
Quarrelling, drabbing :-You may go so far.
Rey. My lord, that would difhonour him.
Pel. 'Faith, no; as you may season it in the charge.
You must not put another scandal on him,
That he is open to incontinency;
That's not my meaning: but breathe his faults fo
That they may feem the taints of liberty;



[quaintly, 25

The flash and out-break of a fiery mind;


A favageness in unreclaimed blood,

Of general affault 2.

Rey. But, my good lord,

Pol. Wherefore should you do this?
Rey. Ay, my lord,

I would know that.

Pol. Marry, fir, here's my drift;
And, I believe, it is a fetch of warrant :
You laying these flight fullies on my son,
As 'twere a thing a little foil'd i' the working,
Mark you, Your party in converse, him you would


Having ever feen, in the prenominate 3 crimes,
The youth, you breathe of, guilty, be affur'd,
He closes with you in this confequence;
Good fir, or fo4; or friend, or gentleman,-
According to the phrafe, or the addition,
Of man, and country.

Rey. Very good, my lord.

[was I

Pol. And then, fir,does he this,---He does---What
About to say? I was about to fay
Something: Where did I leave?

Rey. At, closes in the confequence.

Pol. At, clofes in the confequence,---Ay, marry ;|
He closes with you thus:---I know the gentleman;
I faw him yesterday, or t' other day,

Or then, or then; with such, or fuch; and, as you say,
There was be gaming; there o'ertook in his roufe;
There falling out at tennis: or, perchance,

I faw him enter fuch a boufe of fale,

So, by my former lecture and advice,

Shall you my fon: You have me, have you not?
Rey. My lord, I have.

Pol. God be wi' you; fare you well.

Rey. Good my lord,--

Pol. Obferve his inclination in yourself 5.

Rey. I fhall, my lord.

Pol. And let him ply his musick.

Rey, Well, my lord.

Enter Ophelia.


Pol. Farewel.---How now, Ophelia? what's the


Oph. O, my lord, my lord, I have been fo af-
Pol. With what, in the name of heaven?
Oph. My lord, as I was fewing in my closet,
Lord Hamlet,---with his doublet all unbrac'd;
No hat upon his head; his ftockings foul'd,
Ungarter'd, and down-gyved to his ancle;
Pale as his fhirt; his knees knocking each other;
And with a look fo piteous in purport,
As if he had been loofed out of hell,

To fpeak of horrors,---he comes before me.
Poi. Mad for thy love?

Oph. My lord, I do not know;

30 But, truly, I do fear it.

Pol. What faid he?

Oph. He took me by the wrift, and held me hard;
Then goes he to the length of all his arm;
And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow,

35 He falls to fuch perusal of my face,

As he would draw it. Long ftaid he fo;

At laft,---a little shaking of mine arm,

And thrice his head thus waving up and down,---
He rais'd a figh fo piteous and profound,

40 As it did feem to shatter all his bulk,
And end his being: That done, he lets me go:
And, with his head over his fhoulder turn'd,
He feem'd to find his way without his eyes;
For out o' doors he went without their helps,
45 And, to the laft, bended their light on me.

Pol. Come, go with me; I will go feek the king-
This is the very ecftafy of love;

Whofe violent property foredoes itself,
And leads the will to defperate undertakings,
50 As oft as any paffion under heaven,

That does affli&t our natures. I am forry,--
What, have you given him any hard words of late?
Oph. No, my good lord ; but, as you did command,
I did repel his letters, and deny'd
55 His accefs to me.

Pol. That hath made him mad.

am forry, that with better heed, and judgment, had not quoted him: I fear'd, he did but trifle, 3 i. e. crimes already

1 Savageness, for wildness. 2. e. fuch as youth in general is liable to. named. 4 It is a common mode of colloquial language to ufe, or fo, as a flight intimation of more of the fame, or a like kind, that might be mentioned. 5 i. e. in your own perfon, not by fpies. • Down-gyved means hanging down like the loofe cincture which confines the feiters round the ancles. 7 To foreds is to defroy. To quote here means to reckon, to take an account of,

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And meant to wreck thee; but, befhrew my jealoufy! Pleasant and helpful to him!

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[Exeunt Rofencrantz and Guildenfor.

Queen. Ay, amen!

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King. Welcome, dear Rosencrantz, and Guilden- 15 As it hath us'd to do) that I have found


Moreover that we much did long to fee you,
The need, we have to ufe you, did provoke
Our hafty fending. Something have you heard
Of Hamlet's transformation; so I call it,
Since nor the exterior nor the inward man
Refembles that it was: What it should be,
More than his father's death, that thus hath put him
So much from the understanding of himself,
I cannot dream of: I entreat you both,
That,-being of fo young days brought up with him;
And, fince, fo neighbour'd to his youth and hu-


That you vouchfafe your reft here in our court
Some little time: fo by your companies
To draw him on to pleasures; and to gather,
So much as from occafion you may glean,
Whether aught, to us unknown, afflicts him thus,
That, open'd, lies within our remedy.


The very cause of Hamlet's lunacy.

King. O, fpeak of that; that I do long to hear. Pol. Give firft admittance to the embaffadors; My news fhall be the fruit 5 to that great feaft. King. Thyself do grace to them, and bring them in. [Exit Polenia He tells me, my dear Gertrude, he hath found The head and fource of all your fon's diftemper. Queen. I doubt, it is no other but the main; 25 His father's death, and our o'er-hafty marriage. Re-enter Polonius, with Voltimand, and Cornelius. King, Well, we fhall fift him.-Welcome, my good friends!


30 Say, Voltimand, what from our brother Norway?
Velt. Moft fair return of greetings, and defires.
Upon our firft, he sent out to fupprefs
His nephew's levies; which to him appear'd
To be a preparation 'gainst the Polack;

Queen. Good gentlemen, he hath much talk'd 35 But, better look'd into, he truly found

of you;

And, fure I am, two men there are not living,
To whom he more adheres. If it will pleafe you
To fhew us fo much gentry 2, and good will,
As to expend your time with us a while,
For the fupply and profit of our hope,

Your vifitation fhall receive fuch thanks
As fits a king's remembrance.

Ref. Both your majesties

Might, by the fovereign power you have of us,
Put your dread pleasures more into command
Than to entreaty.

Guil. But we both obey;

And here give up ourselves, in the full bent 3,
To lay our fervice freely at your feet,
To be commanded.

King. Thanks, Rofencrantz, and gentle Guilden-

[crantz :

Queen. Thanks, Guildenftern, and gentle Rofen-
And I beseech you inftantly to vifit

My too much changed fon.-Go, fome of you,
And bring thefe gentlemen where Hamlet is.
Guil. Heavens make our prefence, and our

It was against your highness: Whereat griev'd,➡
That fo his ficknefs, age, and impotence,
Was falfely borne in hand,-fends out arrefts
On Fortinbras; which he, in brief, obeys;
40 Receives rebuke from Norway; and, in fine,
Makes vow before his uncle, never more
To give the affay of arms against your majefty.
Whereon old Norway, overcome with joy,
Gives him threefcore thoufand crowns in annual
fee 7;


And his commiffion, to employ thofe foldiers,
So levied as before, against the Polack:
With an entreaty, herein further shewn,
That it might please you to give quiet pafs
50 Through your dominions for this enterprize;
On fuch regards of fafety, and allowance,
As therein are fet down.

King. It likes us well;
And, at our more confider'd time, we'll read,
55 Anfwer, and think upon this bufinefs.
Mean time,we thank you for your well-took labour:
Go to your reft; at night we'll feaft together:
Moft welcome home!
[Exeunt Volt, and Cor.
Pol. This business is well ended.

1 i. e. This must be made known to the king, for (being kept fecret) the hiding Hamlet's love might occafion more mischief to us from him and the queen, than the uttering or revealing of it will occafion hate and refentment from Hamlet. 2 Gentry, for complaisance. 3 Bent, for endeavour, application. 4 The trail is the course of an animal pursued by the scent. 5 The deffert after the meat. i. e. deceived, inpofed on. Fre in this place fignifies reward, recompence.


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My liege, and madam, to expoftulate
What majesty should be, what duty is,
Why day is day, night night, and time is time,
Were nothing but to waste night, day, and time.
Therefore, fince brevity is the foul of wit,
And tedioufnefs the limbs and outward flourishes,--
I will be brief: Your noble fon is mad:
Mad call I it; for, to define true madness,
What is't, but to be nothing else but mad?
But let that go.

Queen. More matter, with lefs art.

Pol. Madam, I fwear, I ufe no art at all.-
That he is mad, 'tis true: 'tis true, 'tis pity;
And pity 'tis, 'tis true: a foolish figure;
But farewel it, for I will ufe no art.

Mad let us grant him, then: and now remains,
That we find out the cause of this effect;
Or, rather say, the cause of this defect;
For this effect, defective, comes by cause :


What might you think? No, I went round to


And my young mistress thus I did bespeak;
Lord Hamlet is a prince :-out of thy sphere;
This muft not be and then I precepts gave her,
That the fhould lock herfelf from his refort,
Admit no meffengers, receive no tokens.
Which done, the took the fruits of my advice
And he, repulfed, (a short tale to make)

10 Fell into a fadness; then into a fast;
Thence to a watch; thence into a weakness;
Thence to a lightnefs; and, by this declenfion,
Into the madness wherein now he raves,
And all we mourn for.

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Thus it remains, and the remainder thus perpend. 20 When it prov'd otherwise ?

I have a daughter; have, whilst she is mine;
Who, in her duty and obedience, mark,

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King. Not that I know.

Pol. Take this from this, if this be otherwife :
[Pointing to bis bead and shoulder.
If circumftances lead me, I will find
Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed
Within the centre.

King. How may we try it further?

Pol. You know, fometimes he walks four hours together,

Pol. Good madam, stay a while; I will be 30 Here in the lobby.


Doubt thou, the fars are fire;

Doubt, that the fun doth move;

Doubt truth to be a liar;

But never doubt, I love.

Queen. So he does, indeed.

Pol. At fuch a time I'll loofe my daughter to him Be you and I behind an arras then :

Mark the encounter: if he love her not,



And be not from his reafon fallen thereon,
Let me be no affiftant for a state,

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King. As of a man, faithful and honourable.

But keep a farm, and carters.
King. We will try it.

Enter Hamlet, reading.

Queen. But, look, where fadly the poor wretch

comes reading.

Pol. Away, I do befeech you, both away;
I'll board him prefently :-O, give me leave.-
[Exeunt King, and Queen.

How does my good lord Hamlet?
Ham. Well, god-a'-mercy.
Pl. Do you know me, my lord?
Ham. Excellent well;

Pel. I would fain prove fo. But what might 50 You are a fishmonger.

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To expoftulate, for to enquire or difcufs. veyed intelligence between them, and been the confident of their amours, [play'd the defk or table book] or had connived at it, only obferved them in fecret, without acquainting my daughter with my difcovery [given my heart a mute and dumb working]; or, laftly, had been negligent in obferving the intrigue, and overlooked it [oked upon this love with idle fight]; what would you have thought of me? 3 T2 Being

Being a god, kiffing carrion ',-Have you a daugh

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Pol. I have, my lord.

Ham. Let her not walk i' the fun: conception

is a bleffing; but not as your daughter may con- 5 ceive friend, look to't.

Pol. How fay you by that? [Afide.] still harp-
ing on my daughter:-yet he knew me not at
firft; he faid, I was a fifhmonger: He is far gone,
far gone: and, truly, in my youth I fuffer'd much 10
extremity for love; very near this.-I'll fpeak to
him again. What do you read, my lord?
Ham. Words, words, words!

Pol. What is the matter, my lord?
Ham. Between who?


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Ref. Neither, my lord.

Pol. I mean, the matter that you read, my lord. Ham. Slanders, fir: for the fatirical rogue 3 fays here, that old men have grey beards; that their faces are wrinkled; their eyes purging thick amber, and plum-tree gum; and that they have a 20 true; he is a ftrumpet. What news? plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams: All which, fir, though I moft powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honefty to have it thus fet down; for yourself, fir, fhall be as old as I am, if, like a crab, you could go back-25 ward.

Ham. Then you live about her waift, or in the middle of her favours?

Guil. 'Faith, her privates we.

Ham. In the fecret parts of fortune? O, most

Pol. Though this be madness, yet there's method in 't.

Will you walk out of the air, my lord?

Ham. Into my grave?



Pol. Indeed, that is out o' the air.-How pregnant 4 fometimes his replies are! a happiness that often madness hits on, which reason and fanity could not fo profperously be deliver'd of. I will leave him, and fuddenly contrive the means of 35 meeting between him and my daughter.-My honourable lord, I will moft humbly take my leave of you.

Ham. You cannot, fir, take from me any thing that I will more willingly part withal; except my 40 life, except my life, except my life.

Pol. Fare you well, my lord.

Rof. None, my lord; but that the world's grown honest.

Ham. Then is doom's-day near: But your news is not true. Let me question more in particular: What have you, my good friends, deferved at the hands of fortune, that the fends you to prison hither?

Guil. Prifon, my lord!

Ham. Denmark's a prison.
Rof. Then is the world one.

Ham. A goodly one; in which there are many confines, wards, and dungeons; Denmark being one of the worst.

Rof. We think not fo, my lord.

Ham. Why, then 'tis none to you; for there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it fo; to me it is a prifon.

Rof. Why, then your ambition makes it one; 'tis too narrow for your mind.

Ham. O God! I could be bounded in a nut-shell, and count myfelf a king of infinite space; were lit not that I have bad dreams.

1 Dr. Warburton's comment (which Dr. Johnson fays almoft fets the critic on a level with the author) on this paffage is as follows: "The illative particle [for] fhews the fpeaker to be reasoning from fomething he had faid before: what that was we learn in thefe words, Tobe boneft, as this world gas, is to be one picked out of ten thousand. Having faid this, the chain of ideas led him to reflect upon the argument which libertines bring against Providence from the circumstance of abounding evil. In the next fpeech therefore he endeavours to answer that objection, and vindicate Providence, even on a fuppofition of the fact, that almost all men were wicked. His argument in the two lines in question is to this purpose, But why need we wonder at this abounding of evil? For if the fun breed maggots in a dead dog, which though a ged, yet shedding its beat and irfluence upon carrion-Here he stops short, left talking too confequentially the hearer fhould fufpect his madness to be feigned; and fo turns him off from the fubject, by enquiring of his daughter. But the inference which he intended to make, was a very noble one, and to this purpose: If this (says he) be the case, that the effect follows the thing operated upon [carrion] and not the thing operating (a god], why need we wonder, that, the fupreme caufe of all things diffufing its bleffings on mankind, who is, as it were, a dead carrion, dead in original fin, man, inftead of a proper return of duty, fhould breed only corruption and vices? This is the argument at length; and is as noble a one in behalf of Providence as could come from the schools of divinity. But this wonderful man had an art not only of acquainting the audience which what his actors say, but with what they think. The fentiment too is altogether in character; for Hamlet is perpetually moralizing, and his circumftances make this reflection very natural." 2 The meaning, fays Mr. Steevens, feems to be, Conception (i. e. understanding) is a bleffing; but as your daughter may conceive, (i. e. be pregnant) friend, look to't, i. e. have a care of that. 3 By the fatirical rogue he means Juvenal in his Pregnant is ready, dexterous, apt.

tenth fatire.


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