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Take each man's cenfure', but reserve thy judg-|


Coftly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not exprefs'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy:
For the apparel oft proclaims the man;

And they in France, of the best rank and station,
Are most select, and generous chief in that.
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be:
For loan oft lofes both itself and friend;
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
This above all,-To thine ownfelf be true;
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.
Farewel; my blessing season 3 this in thee!


Pol. Ay, fashion you may call it; go to, go to. Oph. And hath given countenance to his speech, my lord,

With almost all the holy vows of heaven.

Pol. Ay, fpringes to catch woodcocks 9. I do

When the blood burns, how prodigal the foul
Lends the tongue vows: These blazes, daughter,
Giving more light than heat,-extinct in both,
10 Even in their promise, as it is a making,-
You must not take for fire. From this time,
Be fomewhat fcanter of your maiden presence;
Set your entreatments 10 at a higher rate,
Than a command to parley. For lord Hamlet,

Laer. Moft humbly do I take my leave, my 15 Believe fo much in him, That he is young;


[tend 4.

Pal. The time invites you; go, your fervants
Laer. Farewel, Ophelia; and remember well
What I have said to you.

Opb. 'Tis in my memory lock'd,
And you yourself shall keep the key of it.
Laer. Farewel.

[Exit Laertes.

Pel. What is't, Ophelia, he hath said to you? Opb. So please you, something touching the lord Hamlet.

Pol. Marry, well bethought:

"Tis told me, he hath very oft of late

Given private time to you; and you yourself
Have of youraudience beenmost free and bounteous:
If it be fo, (as fo 'tis put on me,

And with a larger tether 11 may he walk,
Than may be given you: In few, Ophelia,
Do not believe his vows: for they are brokers;
Not of that dye which their investments shew,
20 But meer implorators of unholy fuits,

Breathing like fanctified and pious bonds,
The better to beguile 12. This is for all,-
I would not, in plain terms, from this time forth,
Have you fo flander any moment's leifure,

25 As to give words or talk with the lord Hamlet.
Look to't, I charge you; come your ways.
Opb. I fhall obey, my lord.


And that in way of caution) I must tell you,
You do not understand yourself so clearly,
As it behoves my daughter, and your honour:
What is between you? give me up the truth.
Opb. He hath, my lord, of late made many 35
Of his affection to me.

Pol. Affection? puh! you speak like a green

Unfifted in fuch perilous circumstance.
Do you believe his tenders, as you call them?
Opb. I do not know, my lord, what I fhould

[baby ;

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Enter Hamlet, Horatio, and Marcellus.

Ham. The air bites fhrewdly; it is very cold.
Hor. It is a nipping and an eager air.
Ham. What hour now?

Hor. I think, it lacks of twelve.

Mar. No, it is ftruck.

Hor. Indeed? I heard it not: it then draws near the season,

40 Wherein the fpirit held his wont to walk.

[Noife of mufic within.

What does this mean, my lord?
Ham. The king doth wake to-night, and takes
his rouse 13,

Pol. Marry, I'll teach you think yourself a That you have ta'en these tenders for true pay, Which are not fterling. Tender yourself more 45 Keeps waffel 14, and the swaggering up-spring 15


Or (not to crack the wind of the poor phrase)
Wronging it thus 7, you'll tender me a fool.
Opb. My lord, he hath importun'd me with love,
In honourable fashion.

1 Cenfure is opinion.

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2 Chief is an adjective used adverbially, a practice common to our author. Chiefly generous. 3 That is, infix it in such a manner as that it never may wear out. 4 i. e. your fervants are waiting for you. 5 The meaning is, that your counfels are as fure of remaining locked up in my memory, as if you yourself carried the key of it. Unfifted, for untried. Untried fignifies either not tempted, or not refined; unfifted, fignifies the latter only, though the fenfe requires the former. 7 That is, if you continue to go on thus wrong, She ufes fabion for manner, and he for a tranfient practice. 9 A proverbial faying. 10 Entreatments here means company, conversation, from the French entrétien. 11 Tether is that string by which an animal, fet to graze in grounds uninclofed, is confined within the proper limits. 12 Do not believe (fays Polonius to his daughter) Hamlet's amorous vows made to you; which pretend religion in them (the better to beguile) like thofe fanctified and pious vows [or bonds] made to beaven. 13 A roufe is a large dofe of liquor, a debauch. Macbeth, A& I. Is That is, the bluftering upstart, according to Dr. Johnson; but Mr. Steevens Lays, that up-fpring was a German dance; and that the fpring was also anciently the name of a tune.

14 See


But, to my mind,-though I am native here,
And to the manner born,-it is a custom
More honour'd in the breach, than the observance.
This heavy-headed revel, east and weft,
Makes us traduc'd, and tax'd of other nations:
They clepe us, drunkards, and with fwinifh phrafe
Soil our addition; and, indeed, it takes
Fromour atchievements, though perform'dat height,
The pith and marrow of our attribute.
So, oft it chances in particular men,

That, for fome vicious mole of nature in them,
As, in their birth, (wherein they are not guilty,
Since nature cannot chuse his origin)
By the o'er-growth of fome complexion',
Oft breaking down the pales and forts of reafon;
Or by fome habit, that too much o'er-leavens
The form of plaufive manners;-that these men,
Carrying, I fay, the stamp of one defect;
Being nature's livery, or fortune's star,-
Their virtues else (be they as pure as grace,
As infinite as man may undergo)
Shall in the general cenfure take corruption
From that particular fault: The dram of base
Doth all the noble substance of worth out 2,
To his own scandal.

Enter Ghoft.

Hor. Look, my lord, it comes!

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¡And for my foul, what can it do to that, Being a thing immortal as itself?

It waves me forth again ;-I'll follow it.

Hor. What, if it tempt you toward the flood, my lord?

Or to the dreadful fummit of the cliff, That beetles o'er his bafe into the fea? And there affume some other horrible form, Which might deprive3 your sovereignty of reafon, 10 And draw you into madness? think of it: The very place puts toys 9 of desperation, Without more motive, into every brain, That looks fo many fathoms to the Tea, And hears it roar beneath.

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Ham. Angels and minifters of grace defend us!
Be thou a spirit of health, or goblin damn'd, [hell,
Bring with thee airs from heaven, or blafts from 30
Be thy intents wicked, or charitable,

Thou com'ft in fuch a questionable shape 3,

That I will speak to thee; I'll call thee, Hamlet,

King, father, royal Dane: O, answer me!

Let me not burst in ignorance! but tell,


Why thy canoniz'd bones, hearfed in death,

Have burst their cearments? why the fepulchre,
Wherein we faw thee quietly in-urn'd,
Hath op'd his ponderous and marble jaws,

To caft thee up again? What may this mean, 40
That thou, dead corfe, again, in complete steel 4,
Revifit'ft thus the glimpfes of the moon,
Making night hideous; and we fools of nature 5
So horridly to shake our difpofition,
With thoughts beyond the reaches of our fouls?
Say, why is this? wherefore? what should we do?
Hor. It beckons you to go away with it,
As if it fome impartment did defire

[Exeunt Gbeft, and Hamle. Hor. He waxes defperate with imagination. Mar. Let's follow; 'tis not fit thus to obey him. Hor. Have after:-To what iffue will this come? Mar. Something is rotten in the state of Den Hor. Heaven will direct it.

Mar. Nay, let's follow him.


{mark. [Exeunt,


A more remote Part of the Platform.

Re-enter Ghost, and Hamlet.

Ham. Whither wilt thou lead me? fpeak, I'l go no further.

Gboft. Mark me.

Ham. I will.

Gboft. My hour is almoft come,

When I to fulphurous and tormenting flames 45 Muft render up myself.

Ham. Alas, poor ghost!

Ghost. Pity me not, but lend thy serious hearing To what I fhall unfold.

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1i.e. humour; as fanguine, melancholy, phlegmatic, &c. 2 The dram of base means the leaft alloy of bafeness or vice. To do a thing out, is to extinguish it, or to efface or obliterate any thing painted or written. 3 i.e. in a shape or form capable of being converfed with. To queftion, certainly, in our author's time fignified to converse. It was the custom of the Danish kings to be buried in that manner. 5 The expreffion is fine, as intimating we were only kept (as formerly, fools in a great family) to make sport for nature, who lay hid only to mock and laugh at us, for our vain fearches into her mysteries. Difpofition, for frame. 7. e. the value of a pin. 8 i, e. take away. Tys

for whims.

10. e. binders, or prevents me.

I could

I could a tale unfold, whose lightest word
Would harrow up thy foul; freeze thy young blood;
Make thy two eyes, like stars, start from their
spheres ;

Thy knotty and combined locks to part,
And each particular hair to stand on end
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine :
But this eternal blazon must not be

To ears of flesh and blood:-Lift, lift, O lift!---
If thou didst ever thy dear father love,

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That, fwift as quick-filver, it courses through
The natural gates and alleys of the body;
And, with a fudden vigour, it doth poffet
And curd, like eager droppings into milk,
5 The thin and wholesome blood: fo did it mine;
And a most instant tetter bark'd about,

Moft lazar-like, with vile and loathsome cruft,
All my fmooth body.

Thus was I, fleeping, by a brother's hand,
10 Of life, of crown, of queen, at once dispatch'd4
Cut off even in the bloffoms of my fin,
Unhoufell'd 5, disappointed 6, unaneal'd7;
No reckoning made, but sent to my account
With all my imperfections on my head:

150 horrible! O horrible! most horrible!
If thou haft nature in thee, bear it not;
Let not the royal bed of Denmark be
A couch for luxury and damned incest.
But, howfoever thou purfu'ft this act,

20 Taint not thy mind, nor let thy foul contrive
Against thy mother aught; leave her to heaven,
And to thofe thorns that in her bosom lodge,
To prick and fting her. Fare thee well at once!
The glow-worm fhews the matin to be near,
And 'gins to pale his uneffectual fire 9:
Adieu, adieu, adieu! remember me.
Ham. O all you hoft of heaven! O earth! What

A ferpent ftung me; fo the whole ear of Den-25
Is by a forged process of my death


Rankly abus'd: but know, thou noble youth,
The ferpent, that did fting thy father's life,
Now wears his 'crown.

Ham. O, my prophetick foul! my uncle?
Gheft. Ay, that incestuous, that adulterate beast,
With witchcraft of his wit, with traiterous gifts,
(Owicked wit, and gifts, that have the power
So to feduce!) won to his fhameful luft
The will of my most seeming-virtuous queen:
O, Hamlet, what a falling-off was there!
From me, whofe love was of that dignity,
That it went hand in hand even with the vow
I made to her in marriage; and to decline
Upon a wretch, whose natural gifts were poor
To thofe of mine!

But virtue, as it never will be mov'd,
Though lewdness court it in a shape of heaven;
So luft, though to a radiant angel link'd,
Will fate itself in a celestial bed,
And prey on garbage.

But, foft! methinks, I fcent the morning air-
Brief let me be :-Sleeping within mine orchard 2,
My cuftom always of the afternoon,
Upon my fecure hour thy uncle stole,
With juice of curfed hebenon 3 in a vial,
And in the porches of mine ears did pour
The leperous diftilment; whofe effe&t
Holds fuch an enmity with blood of man,


And fhall I couple hell?-O fie!-Hold, hold, my
30 And you, my finews, grow not inftant old,
But bear me ftiffly up!-Remember thee?
Ay, thou poor ghoft, while memory holds a feat
In this distracted globe 10. Remember thee?
Yea, from the table of my memory

35 I'll wipe away all trivial fond records,
All faws of books, all forms, all preffures paft,
That youth and obfervation copied there;
And thy commandment all alone shall live
Within the book and volume of my brain,
40 Unmix'd with bafer matter: yes, by heaven.
O moft pernicious woman!

O villain, villain, smiling, damned villain!
My tables,-meet it is, I fet it down,
That one may fmile, and fmile, and be a villain:
45 At least, I am fure, it may be fo in Denmark:


So, uncle, there you are. Now to my word 11; It is, Adieu, adicu! remember me.

I have fworn it.

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1 This fimilitude is extremely beautiful. The word meditation is confecrated, by the myftics, to fignify that stretch and flight of mind which afpires to the enjoyment of the fupreme good. So that Hamlet, confidering with what to compare the swiftnefs of his revenge, chooses two of the most rapid things in nature, the ardency of divine and human paffion, in an enthusiast and a lover. 2 Orchard for garden. 3 That is, benbane. 4 Difpatch'd for bereft. 5 i. e. without the facrament taken; from the old Saxon word for the facrament, bousel. Difat pointed is the fame as unappointed, and may be properly explained unprepared. 7 i. e. unanointed, not having the extreme unction. Lewdness. 9 i. e. fire that is no longer feen when the light of morning approaches. this head confufed with thought.

8 i. e. for 10 i. e. in

Hamlet alludes to the watch-word given every day in the mili

tary fervice, which at this time he fays is, Adicu, adieu, remember me.


Ham. Hillo, ho, ho, boy! come, bird, come '. Enter Horatio, and Marcellus.

Mar. How is 't, my noble lord?

Hor. What news, my lord?

Ham. O wonderful!

Hor. Good my lord, tell it.

Ham. No; you will reveal it.

Hor. Not I, my lord, by heaven.

Mar. Nor I, my lord.

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Ham. Hic & ubique then we'll shift our ground :~

Ham. How fay you then; would heart of man 10 Come hither, gentlemen,

once think it ?

But you'll be fecret,

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Ham. Why, right; you are in the right; And fo, without more circumstance at all, I hold it fit, that we shake hands, and part: You, as your business and defire, fhall point you ;For every man hath business and defire, Such as it is, and, for my own poor part, Look you, I will go pray.

Hor. These are but wild and whirling words, my lord.

Ham. I am forry they offend you, heartily; Yes 'faith, heartily.

Hor. There's no offence, my lord.

Ham. Yes, by Saint Patrick, but there is, Horatio, And much offence too. Touching this vifion here, It is an honeft ghost, that let me tell you: For your defire to know what is between us,



And lay your hands again upon my fword:
Swear by my fword,

Never to fpeak of this that you have heard.

Gheft. [beneath.] Swear by his fword. Ham. Well faid, old mole! can't work i'the earth fo faft? [friends. A worthy pioneer!-Once more remove, good Hur. O day and night, but this is wondrous [come. Ham. And therefore as a stranger give it wel There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. But come ;


Here, as before, never, fo help you mercy! 25 How ftrange or odd foe'er I bear myself,As I, perchance, hereafter shall think meet To put an antick difpofition on,————— That you, at fuch times feeing me, never shall, (With arms encumber'd thus; or this head-shake; 30 Or by pronouncing of some doubtful phrase, As, Well, well, we know ;—or, We could, an if w would-or, If we lift to speak ;—or, There be, an if they might

Or fuch ambiguous giving out) denote

O'er-mafter it as you may. And now, good friends, 35 That you know aught of me: This do ye fwear,

As you are friends, scholars, and soldiers,

Give me one poor request.

Hor. What is 't, my lord? we will.

Ham. Never make known what you have feen


Both. My lord, we will not.

Ham. Nay, but swear it.

Hor. In faith, my lord, not I.

Mar. Nor I, my lord, in faith.

Ham. Upon my fword.

Mar. We have fworn, my lord, already. Ham. Indeed, upon my fword, indeed. Gboft. [beneath] Swear.

So grace and mercy at your most need help you! Swear.

Gboft. [beneath] Swear.

Ham. Reft, reft, perturbed spirit!-So, gentlemen,
40 With all my love I do commend me to you:
And what fo poor a man as Hamlet is
May do, to express his love and friending to you,
God willing, fhall not lack. Let us go in together;
And ftill your fingers on your lips, I pray.

45 The time is out of joint ;-O curfed fpight!
That ever I was born to set it right!—
Nay, come, let's go together.

» [Excunt.

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This is the call which falconers use to their hawk in the air when they would have him come down to them. 2 It was common to fwear upon the fword, that is, upon the cross which the old fwords always had upon the hilt. 3 i. c. receive it to yourself; take it under your own roof; as much as to fay, Keep it fecret-alluding to the laws of hospitality. 4 Danfe is the ancient name of Denmark.




And how, and who, what means, and where they


What company, at what expence; and finding,
By this encompaffment and drift of question,
That they do know my fon, come you more nearer;
Then your particular demands will touch it:
Take you, as 'twere, fome diftant knowledge of him;
As thus, I know bis father, and bis friends,
And, in part, bim,-Do you mark this, Reynaldo?
Rey. Ay, very well, my lord.

|(Videlicet, a brothel) or fo forth.---See you now; Your bait of falfhood takes this carp of truth: And thus do we of wisdom and of reach, With windlaces, and with affays of bias, 5 By indirections find directions out; So, by my former lecture and advice,


Pol. And, in part, bim ;-but, you may fay,—not
But, if 't be be I mean, be's very wild;
Addicted fo and fo;—and there put on him
What forgeries you please; marry, none so rank
As may difhonour him; take heed of that;
But, fir, fuch wanton, wild, and usual slips,
As are companions noted and most known
To youth and liberty.

Rey. As gaming, my lord.

Pol. Ay, or drinking, fencing, swearing,
Quarrelling, drabbing :-You may go so far.
Rey. My lord, that would dishonour him.
Pol. 'Faith, no; as you may feafon it in the charge.
You must not put another fcandal on him,
That he is open to incontinency;
That's not my meaning: but breathe his faults fo
That they may feem the taints of liberty;
The flash and out-break of a fiery mind;

A favageness in unreclaimed blood,
Of general affault 2.

Rey. But, my good lord,

Pol. Wherefore should you do this?
Rey. Ay, my lord,

I would know that.



[quaintly, 25

Pol. Marry, fir, here's my drift ;
And, I believe, it is a fetch of warrant :
You laying these flight fullies on my son,
As 'twere a thing a little foil'd i' the working,
Mark you, Your party in converse, him you would


Having ever feen, in the prenominate 3 crimes,
The youth, you breathe of, guilty, be affur'd,
He closes with you in this confequence;
Good fir, or fo4; or friend, or gentleman,
According to the phrafe, or the addition,
Of man, and country.

Rey. Very good, my lord.

[was I

Pol. And then, fir,does he this,---He does---What
About to say? I was about to fay
Something: Where did I leave?

Rey. At, clofes in the confequence.

Pol. At, clofes in the confequence,---Ay, marry ;
He closes with you thus:---I know the gentleman;
I faw bim yesterday, or t' other day,

Or then, or then; with fuch, or fuch; and, as you fay,
There was be gaming; there o'ertook in his roufe;
There falling out at tennis: or, perchance,

I saw him enter fuch a bouse of fale,

Shall you my fon: You have me, have you not?
Rey. My lord, I have.

Pol. God be wi' you; fare you well.

Rey. Good my lord,--

Pol. Obferve his inclination in yourself 5.

Rey. I fhall, my lord.

Pol. And let him ply his mufick.

Rey, Well, my lord.


Enter Ophelia.


Pol. Farewel.---How now, Ophelia? what's the
Oph. O, my lord, my lord, I have been fo af-
Pol. With what, in the name of heaven?
Oph. My lord, as I was fewing in my closet,
Lord Hamlet,---with his doublet all unbrac'd;
No hat upon his head; his ftockings foul'd,
Ungarter'd, and down-gyved to his ancle
Pale as his fhirt; his knees knocking each other;
And with a look fo piteous in purport,
As if he had been loofed out of hell,
To fpeak of horrors,---he comes before me.
Poi. Mad for thy love?

Oph. My lord, I do not know;

30 But, truly, I do fear it.

Pol. What faid he?

Oph. He took me by the wrift, and held me hard;
Then goes he to the length of all his arm;
And, with his other hand thus o'er his brow,

35 He falls to fuch perufal of my face,

As he would draw it. Long ftaid he fo;

At laft,---a little fhaking of mine arm,

And thrice his head thus waving up and down,---
He rais'd a figh fo piteous and profound,

40 As it did seem to shatter all his bulk,

And end his being: That done, he lets me go:
And, with his head over his fhoulder turn'd,
He feem'd to find his way without his eyes;
For out o' doors he went without their helps,
45 And, to the laft, bended their light on me.
Pol. Come, go with me; I will go feek the king-
This is the very ecstasy of love;

Whofe violent property foredoes itself,
And leads the will to defperate undertakings,
50 As oft as any paffion under heaven,

That does afflict our natures. I am forry,--
What, have you given him any hard words of late?
Oph. No, my good lord; but, as you did command,
I did repel his letters, and deny'd

55 His accefs to me.

Pol. That hath made him mad.

am sorry, that with better heed, and judgment,

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1 Savagenefs, for wildness. 2 i. e. fuch as youth in general is liable to.


3 i. e. crimes already

4 It is a common mode of colloquial language to ufe, or fo, as a flight intimation of more

of the fame, or a like kind, that might be mentioned. 5 i. e. in your own perfon, not by fpies.



Down-gyved means hanging down like the loofe cincture which confines the fetters round the ancles.

To foreda is to defroy. To quote here means to reckon, to take an account of,

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