« PreviousContinue »
Constructed on a Plan,
THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS
Are digested into the Form of Distinct
TREATISES Or SYSTEMS,
The History, Theory, and Practice, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements j
And Full EXPLANATIONS GIFRN Of THE
VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,
WHETHER RELATING TO
Natural and Artificial Objects, or to Matters Ecclesiastical,
Including Elucidations of the most important Topics relative to Religion, Morals,
Manners, and the Oeconomy of Life:
A Description of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, (iff.
throughout the WoaLBj
A General History, Ancient and Modemy of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States j
An Account of the L i v E s of the most Eminent Ferfons in every Nation*
Cumpileifram the writings of the befl Authors, in several languages; the tnofi approve! Dttlioaaritt, as well of general fiimce at of its parti'
tutor branches; tbe Transactions, fournals, and Memoirs, of learned Societies rbotb at borne and abroad: the MS. Lectures of
Emhunt Vrofcffors on different sciences ;. and es variety of Original Mates iahs,f*rni/bcd by ats Extensive Correspondence.
THM THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTMSN VQ-LUMES, GMEATLT IMPROVED.
ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.
ISD0CT1 D1SCANT, ET A MENT ifE Ml N IS S E f EK I T t.
GOBBO (pietro Paolo Cortonese, so called), a celebrated painter of fruit and landscapes, was born at Cortona in 1580, and learned the principles of design from his father ; but was afterwards the disciple of one Cresccntio at Rome, and perfected himself in the most essential parts of his profession, by studying after nature, with judgment and accuracy. His merit soon recommended him to the notice and esteem of the most able judges at Rome; and as he excelled equally in painting fruit and landscape, he found a generous patron in cardinal Borghese, who employed him to adorn his palace. The fruit which he painted had so true and expreflive an imitation of nature, that nothing could possibly be more exact; and by his thorough knowledge of the chiaro-scuro, he gave an extraordinary roundness and relief to every object. But his greatest excellence consisted in his colouring; for in design he was not remarkably superior to others. He died in 1640.
GOBELIN (Giles), a famous French dyer, in the reign of Francis I. discovered a method of dying a beautiful scarlet, and his name has been given ever since to the finest French scarlets. His house, in the suburb of St Marcel at Paris, and the river he made use of, are still called the Gobtlins. An academy for drawing, and a manufactory of fine tapestries, were erected in this quarter in 1666 j for which reason the tapestries are ca!l<rd the Gobelim.
GOBIUS, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes belonging to the order of thoracici. They have two holes between the eyes, four rays in the membrane of the gills, and the belly-sins are united in an oval form. There are eight species, principally distinguished by the number of rays in their fins.
GOBLET, or Gobelet, a kind of drinking cup, or bowl, ordinarily of a round figure, and without either foot or handle. The word is French, gobelet; which Salmasius, and others, derive from the baibarous Latin cvpa. Budcus deduces it from the Greek iwrixxov, ajirt of cup.
GOD, one of the many names of the Supreme Being. See Christianity, Metaphysics, Mokal Philosophy, and Theology.
God is also used in speaking of the false deities of the heathens, many of which were only creatures to which divine honours and worfliip were fuperstitioufly paid.
The Greeks and Latins, it is observable, did not mean by the name God, an all-perfect being, whereof eternity, infinity, omnipresence, &c. were essential at
tributes: with them, the word only implied an excellent and superior nature; and accordingly they give the appellation godi to all beings of a rank or class higher and more perfect than that of men; and especially to those who were inferior agents in the divine administration, all subject to the one Supreme. Thus men themselves, according to their system, might become gods after death; inasmuch as their souls might attain to a degree of excellence superior to what they were capable of in life.
The first divines, father Bossu observes, were the poets : the two functions, though now separated, were originally combined ; or, rather, were one and the same thing.
Now the great variety of attributes in God, that is, the number of relations, capacities, and circumstances, wherein they had occasion to consider him, put these poets, &c. under a necessity of making a partition, and. of separating the divine attributes into several persons; because the weakness of the human mind could not conceive so much power and action in the simplicity of one single divine nacure. Thus the omnipotence of God came to be represented under the person and appellation of Jupiter; the wisdom of God, under that of Minerva ; the justice of God, under that of Juno.
The first idols or false gods that are said to have been adored, were the stars, fun, moon, &c. on account of the li^ht, heat, and other benefits, which we derive from them. Afterwards the earth came to be deified, for furnishing fruits necessary for the subsistence of men and animals ; then fire and water became objects of divine worfliip, for their usefulness to human life. In process of time, and by degrees, gods became multiplied to infinity; and there was scarce any thing but the weakness or caprice of some devotee or other elevated into the rank of deity; things useless or even destructive not excepted. See Mythology. .
GODALMING, a town of England, in the county of Surry, on the river Wey, 35 miles from London. It is a corporation; by whose charter their chief magistrate is a warden chosen yearly, who has 8 brethren his assistants. The parish is divided into 9 tithings. Its river abounds with good fish; and drives a gristmill, two paper-mills, and three corn-mills; over which river a new bridge was begun July 22d 1783. Here is a manufactory of mixed and blue kerseys, also a manufactory of stockings; and the place is also famous for liquorice, and store of peat that burns better than pit-coal: but a woman of this town (Mary Tofts) in 1726 endeavoured to render it infamous, by a pretendA ed
Oodiiard ed delivery of rabbets; by which, however, she for
_,.", some time puzzled some noted physicians, anatomists,
'&e- In 1739, the fmall-pox carried off above 500
persons here in 3 months, which was more than a third
, cf the inhabitants.
GODDARD (Jonathan), an eminent physician and chemist, and one of the first promoters of the Royal Society, was born about the year 1617. He was elected a fellow of the college of physicians in 1646, and appointed reader of the anatomical lecture in that college in 1647. As he took part against Charles I. accepted the wardenship of Merton-college, Oxford, from Oliver Cromwell when chancellor, and sat sole representative of that university in Cromwell's parliament, he was removed from his wardeuship in a manner disgraceful to him by Charks II. He was however then professor of physic at Gresham college, to which he retired, and continued to attend those meetings that gave birth to the Royal Society; upon the first establishment of which, he was nominated one of the council. Being fully persuaded that the preparation of medicines was no less the physician's duty than the prescribing them, he constantly prepared his own; and in 1668 published a treatise recommending his example to general practice. He died of an apoplectic sit in 1674; aud his memory was preserved by the drops that bore his name, otherwise called Gutta Slnglkanx, the secret of which he sold to Charles If. for 5000 1. and which Dr Lister assures us was only the volatile spirit of raw silk rectified with oil of cinnamon or some other essential oil. But he claims more particular regard, if what bishop Seth Ward fays be true, that he was the first Englishman who made that noble astronomical instrument, the telescope. .
GODDESS, a heathen deity of the female sex.
The ancients had almost as many goddesses as gods: such were, Juno the goddess of air, Diana the goddess of woods, &c. and under this character were represented the virtues, graces, and principal advantages of life; truth, justice, piety, liberty, fortune, victory, &c.
It was the peculiar privilege of the goddesses to be represented naked on medals; for it was supposed that the imagination must be awed and restrained by the consideration of the divine character.
GODEAU (Anthony), bishop of Grasse and Vence in Prance, was born at Dreux in 1605. He was a very voluminous writer, both in prose and verse; but his principal works are, 1. An ecclesiastical history, 3 vols. folio, containing the first eight centuries only, as he never finished more. 2. Translation of the Psalms into French verse; which was so well approved, that even those of the reformed religion preferred it to that of Marat. He died in 167J.
GODFATHERS and Godmothers, persons who, at the baptism of infants, answer for their future conduct, and solemnly promise that they will renounce the devil and all his works, and follow a life of piety ai.d virtue; and by this means lay themselves under an indispensable obligation to instruct them, and watch over their conduct.
This custom is of great antiquity in the Christian church; and was probably instituted to prevent children being brought up in idolatry, in cafe tiieir parents died before they arrived at years of discretion.
Tke number -.of godfattars and goJmotheis is re
duced to two, in the church of Rome; and three, in Godfreys
the church of England; but formerly they had as _ J'
.. 1 r*j '' Godstow.
many as they pleated. ,
GODFREY (of Bouillon), prince of Lorrain, a most celebrated crusader, and victorious generah He was chosen geneial of the expedition which the Christians undertook for the recovery of the Holy Land, and fold his dukedom to prepare for the war. He took Jerusalem from the Turks in 1099; but his piety, as historians relate, would not permit him to wear a diadem of gold in the city where his Saviour had been crowned with thorns. The sultan of E<;ypt afterwards sent a terrible army against him; which he defeated, with the (laughter of about loj.oooofthe enemy. He died in 1 160.
GODMAN'CHESTER, a town of Huntingdonshire, 16 miles from Cambridge, and 57 from London, It has a bridge on the Ouse, opposite to Huntingdon; . was formerly a Roman city, by the name of D.irosiponte, where many Roman coins have been often dug up; and according to old writers, in the time of the Saxons it was the fee of a bishop, and had a castle built by one Gorman a Danish king, from which the towa was called Gormanchester. It is reckoned one of the largest villages in England, and is seated in a fertile soil, abounding with corn. It is said that no town in England kept more ploughs at work than this has done. The inhabitants boast they formerly received our kings as they made a progress this way, with nine score ploughs at a time, finely adorned with their trappings,-^ &c. James I. made it a corporation by the name of two baihssi, 12 assistants, and the commonalty of the borough of Godmanchester. Here is a school, called the Free Gram mar- School of queen Elizabeth. -On the west side of the to.vn is a noble though ancient feat of the Earl of Sandwich. Near this place, in the London road between Huntingdon and C.-ixton, is a tree well known to travellers by the name of Bcggar'sBufh.
GODOLPHIN (John), an eminent English civilian, was born in the island of Scilly in 1617, and educated at Oxford. In 1642-3, he was created doctor of civil law; in 1653, he was appointed one of the judges of the admiralty; and at the Restoration, he was made one of his majesty's advocates. He was esteemed as great a master of divinity as of his own faculty ; and published, 1. The holy limbeck. 2. The holy arbour. 3. A view of the admiral's jurisdiction. 4. The orphan's legacy. 5. Repertorium canonicum, &c. He died in 1678.
GODSTOW, a place northwest of Oxford, in * sort of island formed by the divided streams of the Isis after being joined by the Evenlode. It is noted for
catching of iilh and dressing them ; but more so for the ruins of that nunnery which fair Rosamond quitted for the emb;aces of Henry II. The people (how a great hole in the earth here, where they fay is a subterraneous passage, which goes under the river to Woodstock, by which (he used to pass and repafs. Little more remains at present than ragged walls, scattered over a considerable extent of ground. An arched gateway, aud another venerable ruin, part of the tower of the conventual church, are still Handing. Near thi altar in this church fair Rosamond was buried, but the body was afterwards removed by order of a bishop of
Lincoln, the visitor. The only entire part is small, formerly a private chapel. Not many years since a stone coffin, said to have been Rosamond's, who perhaps was removed from the church to this place, was to be seen here. The building has been put to various uses, and at present serves occasionally for a stable.
GODWIN (Francis), successively bishop of Landaff and Hereford, was born in 11567. He was eminent for his learning and abilities; being a good mathematician, an excellent philosopher, a pure Latinist, and an accurate historian. He understood the true theory of the moon's motion a century before it'was generally known. He first started those hints afterwards pursued byBishopWilkins, in his "Secret and swift messenger;" and publislied "A catalogue of the lives of English bishops." He has nevertheless been accused as a great fimoniac, for omitting no opportunity of disposing of preferments io order to provide for his children. He died in 1648.
Godwin (Thomas), a learned English writer born in 1517, was master of the free-school at Abington in Berkshire; where he educated a great many youths, who became eminent both in church and state. His works show him to have been a man of great learning: such as, Hiftoria Romunt antbologia, Synopjis antiquitutum Iftbraicarum, Mvscs & Aaron, Florihgium I lira/icon, life. He died in 1642.
GoDirm, or Goodwin Sands, famous sand-banks off the coast of Kent, lying between the N. and S. Foreland; and as they run parallel with the coast for three leagues together, at about two leagues and a half distant from it, they add to the security of that capacious road, the Downs: for while the land shelters ships with the wind from south-west to north-west only, these sands break all the force of the sea when the wind 19 at east south-east. The most dangerous wind, when blowing hard on the Downs, is the south south-west. These sands occupy the space that was formerly a large tract of low ground belonging toGodwyn earl of Kent, father of King Harold; and which being afterward given to the monastery of St Augultin at Canterbury, the abbot neglecting to keep in repair the wall that defended it from the sea, the whole tract was drowned, according to Salmon, in the year 1100, leaving these sands, upon which so many mips have since been wrecked.
GODWIT, in orinthology. See Scolopai. GOG aud Magog, two names generally joined together in scripture, (Ezck. xxxviii. 2. 3. &c. xxxix. I, 2, &c. Rev. xx. 8.) Moses speaks of Magog the son of Japhet, but fays nothing of Gog, (Gen. x. 2: I. Chr. i. 5.) Gog was prince of Magog, according to Ezekiel. Magog signifies the country or people, and Gog the king of that country. The generality of the ancients made Magog the father of the Seythians and Tartars; and several interpreters discovered many footsteps of their name in the provinces of Great Tar. tavy. Others have been of opinion that the Persians were the descendants of Magog; and some have imagined that the Goths were descended from Gog and Magog; and that the wars d«saribed by Ezekiel, and undertaken by Gog against the saints, are no other than those which the Goths carried on in the fifth age against the Roman empire.
Bochart has placed Gog in the neighbourhood of Caucasus. He derives the name of this celebratedVol VIIL Part I.
mountain from the Hebrew Gog chafan, "the fortress of Gog." He maintains that Prometheus, said to be chained to Caucasus by Jupiter, is Gog, aud no other. c"""3There is a province in Iberia called the Gogarene.
Lastly, the generality believe, .that Gog and Magog, mentioned in Ezekiel and the Revelations, are to be taken in an allegorical fense, for such princes as were enemies to the church and saints. Thus many by Gog in Ezekiel understand Antiochus Epiphanes, the persecutor of those Jews who were firm to their religion; and by the person of the same name in the Revelations, they suppose Antichrist to be meant; the great enemy of the church and faithful. Some have endeavoured to prove that Gog, spoken of in Ezekiel, and Cambyses king of Persia, were one and the fame, person; and that Gog and Magog in the Revelations denote all the enemies of the church, who should be persecutors of it to the consummation of ages.
GOGGLES, in surgery, are instruments used for curing squinting, or that distortion of the eyes which, occasions this disorder. They are short conical tubes, composed of ivory stained black, with a thin plate of the same ivory fixed in the tubes near their anterior extremities. Through the centre of each of these plates is a small circular hole, about the size of the pupil of the eye, for the transmission of the rays of light. These poggles must be continually worn in the daytime, til! the muscles of the eye are brought to act regularly and uniformly, so as to direct the pupil straight forwards; and by these means the cure will be sooneror later effected.
GOGMAGOG-HM.LS, are hills so called; three miles from Cambridge, remarkable for the intrenchintnts and other works cast up there: whence some suppose it was a Roman camp; andothers, that it \v;is the work of the Danes.
GOGUET (Antony-Yves), a French writer, and author of a celebrated work, intitled, L'Originc des. Loix, da Arts, lies Sciences, 13 dc leur Progrcs chcr. Us anciens Peupks, 1758, 3 vols. 4to. His father was an advocate, and he was born at Paris in 1716. He was very unpromising as to abilities, and reckoned even dull in his early years; but his understanding de-veloping itself, he applied to letters, and at longth produced the above work.. The imputation he gainol by it was great: but he enjoyed it a. very show time, dying the same \ ear of the small pox ;. which disorder, it seems, he always dreaded. It is remarkable! that Conrad Fugere, to whom he left his library and his.MSS,. was so deeply affected with the death of his friends' as . to die himself three days after lu'm. The above, work has been translated into English, and published in 3 vols. 8vo.
GOLCONDA, a kingdom of Asia, in the peninfulr. on this side the Ganges. It is bounded on the north by that of Orixa, on the west by that of Ba-lagate, on the south by Bisnagar, and on the cast by the gulph of Bengal. It abounds in corn, rice,. and cattle; but that which renders it most remarkable are the diamond-mines, they being the most considerable in the world: they are usually purchased of the black: merchants, who buy parcels of ground to search-for these precious (tones in. They sometimes fail in meeting with any, aud in others they find immense richts. They have also mines of salt, sine iron for s«nsrd-bladcSj and curious callicees and chintzes. It ■ A 2. ix