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and Spain about Falkland's island.--Spain; the aggreffor, re.
fuses to make adequate satisfaction---trufts toʻthe co-operation
of France disappointed--offers concesions that satisfy the
British court.-- America beconies engre tranquil-Disfontents
still continue in England, London addseljes the king--digi
nified answer of his majesty—noted” rp?y.of. Beckford, the
lord mayor. -Meeting of parliament.---Lord Mansfield's
doctrines on the law of libel--are controverted by lord Cam-
den—Camden challenges the chief justice to a legal disquis-
·tion on the subject=lord Mansfield declines the contest.-
* Prosecution of printers.-Misunderstanding between the two
houses.—Singular confederacy for bribery in the borough of
Shoreham... Opposition censure the terms of satisfaction ad-
mitted from Spain.-Supplies. ---Sesion rises. - Page 53
Ştate of the colonies.- Effects of lord Nortk's conciliatory at-
tempt.--Striking diversity of sentiment and spirit between
New England and other colonies--is not sufficiently regarded
by ministers. Discontents in England begin to subside.--
Meeting of parliament.-- Petition for exemption from subscribe
ing the Thirty-nine Articles. Opposed by one class on grounds
of theological principle by another on political expediency.---
Petition of the disenters.--Haughton's bill for the relief of
the difsenters is passed the house of commons, but thrown out
by the lords.- Clerical nullum tempus bill is rejected.-Law .
for restricting the marriage of the royal family.— Arguments
against it--for it-pased.--East India affairs.-Supplies.
-Sesion rises.-—Death of the princess dowager of Wales..
-Operations between Rusia and Turkey.--Scheme of Fre-
deric and Catharine for partitioning Poland—offer Austria,
a fare—fhe objects to the inequality of the division-her
scruples are vanquished by a larger distribution.- Dismem--
berment of Poland.--Revolution in Sweden.— State of Den-
mark.- Incapacity of the king.--Character, and conduct of the
- A 3
queen.-- Artificis of the queen Dowager.- Struensee.-Ac- cufation and arröff of Matilda.-Remonftrances of the court of Lordoil. Hi Britannic majesty demands and rescues his
Sifosing leasing and affords her an asylum in his German
..: : C H A P. XI. "
America, tranquil in the south, is turbulent in the north.
Massachusets disavows the authorities of the British consti-
tution.-Britain.-Mercantile failures of 1772.- Alex-
ander Fordyce.-Change of mercantile character.— Influence
of accumulation in India. - Stock-jobbing-fictitious credit
extravagant adventure without capital.—High estimation
of lord North for financial skill.-- Affairs of the India com-
pany—its pecuniary embarrassments—conduct of its servants,
and distresses of the natives--reported to the house of commons by
a committee. The company propose a scheme for correcting and
restraining its servants.-Parliament undertakes the task.
Company's petition for a loan~granted on certain conditions.
Coonpany allowed to export tea from Britain duty-free.
Lord North's plan for the government of India—discussed
in parliament-passes into a law.— Inquiry into the conduct
of lord Clive. Distinguished abilities of Messrs. Thurlow
and Wedderburne hewn against and for lord Clive.---The
war with the Caribs.- Increase of half-pay to naval cap-
tains.--Petition of tre disenters—is rejected. Supplies.-
Reduction of the national debt.—Continental affairs.—Com-
pletion of the dismemberment of Poland.-Violent attacks of
Roman catholic powers on their clergy.-America-tran.
quillity, and flourishing commerce.-Britain-discoritent
and licentiousness subside. Increasing trade and prosperity
imputed to the policy of lord North.-The minister now
at the zenith of his fame.
Obječt of the minister in his proposition respecting the export of
tea.-Alarm at Boston.—Discoveryof the governor's letters to
the English ministry.—News arrives in Boston, that ships laden
with tea are on their way.-Riots.—Governor's proclamation
is disregarded.—Ships arrive at Boston.--A mob throws
the cargo into the sea.-Meeting of parliament.-- King's
message respecting the disturbances, at Boston, is discussed in
parliament.- Bill for blocking up the port of Boston.. The
punishment of a whole community for the acts of a part, is
defended by ministers.—The principle and provisions of the
bill are impugned by opposition as unjust and unwife.- Pre-
cedents discussed. Opposition predict, that it will drive the
colonies to confederate revolt. The bill passes into a law.
Mr. Fuller's motion for repealing the duty on tea.-Mr.
Burke's celebrated speech on American taxation.—Coërcive
plan of ministers farther developed.-Bill for changing the
civil government of Massachusets.-Bill for changing the
administration of justice therein.- Quebec bill.- Inquiry into
the state of prisons.-Howard.—Supplies.—Literary pro-
perty ascertained by a decision of the house of peers.-Sellion
closes.—Expectations and apprehensions from the coërcive
measures of the legislature. • Page 142
Continental affairs.-Progress and conclusion of the war bea.
tween Russia and Turkey-terms of peacemotives of Ca-
tharine. ---Poland.-Viezus of Prussia and Austria. -- France.
Death of Louis XV._character,--tool of his favourites,
he did not discern the commencing changes of public opinion.-
Promising beginnings of Louis XVI.-Spain deprives the
inquiftion of its most terrible powers.-- America.-Effects.
of the Boston port bill -- ferment through the provinces -
communicates to other colonies.-Resolutions of the provincial
assemblies--general concert proposed—solemn league and co-
venant.-A general congress meets at Philadelphia-ap.
proves of the conduct of Massachusets, and promises support
declares principles and objects of association.--Declaration of
rights of grievances, and proposed redress.--Petition to the
king.--Address to the people of Britain. – Of Canada.-Re-
· monstrance to general Gage.-- Address to the colonies. -
Meeting breaks up.-General spirit of the colonial proceedings.
-Military preparations.—Maffachusets Baythe great hinge.
of peace and war-contention with the governor-forms a
provincial congress, which assumes the supreme power.
Impresion in Britain from the American disputes.-Diffolution
of parliament.General election.---Leading characters in
the new parliamentMeeting of parliament-king's
Speech-address-indecision of ministers.--Character and
policy of lord North-opinions of his power and effie
ciency.--Petitions presented from America, and American,
merchants, to parliament and the king--dismissed without a
hearing.-Lord Chatham, though loaded with infirmities,
returns to the house his introductory Speech-his plan of
conciliation rejected. -Conquest of America conceived by mi-
nisters to be easy.-- Americans asserted to be all cowards.
Mr. Fox's observations on the inspiring efficacy of liberty.“
Parliament declares Masachusets Bay to be in a state of re-
bellion.--Message from the king, requiring an augmenta-
tion of forces. -Bill for prohibiting the New England
provinces from commerce and fishery. Lord North's plan
of conciliation--apprehended by courtiers to concede too much,
by oppofition to concede too little.--Mr. Fox opposes its in-
consistency.-- Lord North's policy wavering and irresolute.mo
Dexterous retreat to satisfy the supporters of coërcion.--Mr.
Burke's conciliatory plan, on the grounds of expediency—outa
biltency.—Lord Nordicfo the supporters of obediency-out
lines and character--predicts civil and foreign war from
the conduct of ministers-rejected.-Mr. Hartley's concilia.
tory bill-rejected.-Ministers averse to all conciliatory
overtures,—Bill for extending commercial prohibitions. -
Loyalty of New York province-representation from it to the
commons-dismissed unheard. Supplies. --Selon closes.
War unavoidable.Literary advocates for and against
America. - - - Page 211
Critical state of affairs in America-general enthusiasm
guided by prudence. — The provincials learn the reception of
their petitions, and the measures of the new parliament.
Warlike preparations--general Gage attempts to seize stores
-detachment sent to Concord—to Lexington-firft hoftile
conflict between Britain and her colonies-- British retire
an American army raised-second meeting of congress
-spirit of republicanism--New York accedes to the confedea
racy.—War-attempt on Ticonderagon-the Americans in-
veft Boston-battle of Bunker's hill-Americans not cowe
ards, as represented provincials elated with the event
block up Boston-project an expedition into Canada-political
and military reasons.-Washington commander in chief.-
Montgomery heads the army sent to Canada-progress on the
Lakes--neglected fate of the British fortsenters Canada
captures Montreal-march of Arnold across the country
arrives opposite to Quebec-junction with Montgomery
siege of Quebec.-General Carleton's difpofitions for its de-
fence — attempts to storm it-Montgomery killed — Siege
raised.-Proceedings in the south of lord Dunmore in
Virginia.- Scheme for exciting negroes to massacre their
masters — Connelly's project.-Maryland - Carolinas.
Farther proceedings of congress.-Result of 1775. 257