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Britain. Majority. favourable to the ministerial system,

Minister's dexterity in managing parliament.The wisef

opposers of war wave the question of right, and argue from .

expediency.Not a war of ministers or parliament only, but

of the people. Apprehension of Mr. Sayre for high-treason

-inconsistent and defective evidence--the accused is dif-

charged.--Meeting of parliament.The king's speech.

· General view of ministerial and opposition reasonings, mo-

tives, and proceedings.--Employment of Hanoverian troops

in British garrisons.Inquiry into the last campaign.-

Military members of opposition declare the force inadequate.

-Militia-bill.-Examination of Mr. Penn, respečting the

difpofitions and force of the Americans.--His testimony

disregarded by the majority in parliament.Mr. Burke's

conciliatory bill, on the constitutional principle of granting

taxes only by the people or their representativesrejected.-

Lord North's prohibitory bill-passed into a law.-Dif-

ferent departments of Meffrs. Burke and Fox in oppostion.

Petition from Nova Scotia. Discusion of the emplayment

· of Iris troops for the service of the king in America.-

Mr. Fox's proposed inquiry into the ill-success of his ma-

jefty's arms-rejected.--Lord North, desirous of pleasing

- both parties, satisfies neither.-Supposed not entirely to approve

the coërcive System.-- Subsidy to German princes.--Laft ef-

fort of the duke of Grafton for conciliation.- Ministers

offure parliament that another campaign will crush the re-

volt.--- Supplies.Ways and means.-Scotch militia-bill-

rejected. -Session closes. - - Page 293

CHAP. XVII,

Evacuation of Boston. British troops fail to Halifax-objects

of campaign 1776, three; first, recovery of Canada, and
invasion of colonies by the lakes -- secondly, expedition to Car

declaration failed. - Internal proceed the south-frege of

him,

Occupations of Howe during winter-of Washington.--Plan

of the campaign-its late commencement by general Howe

- desultory operations in the Jerseys.-General Howe

moves from winter-quarters--attempts by a fratagem to

bring Washington to battle failing in that expedient, eva.

cuates the Jerseys.-Expedition by sea to Philadelphia.

-Battle of Brandy-wine. Major Fergusson elays a new

fpecies of rifle, invented by himself. Capture of Phila-

delphia.-Battle of German-town.-American fortifications

on the river.-Red Bank and Mud Ifand taken. Ameria

can fleet burnt.--Situation of the Americans at White

Marsh and Valley Forge favourable to an attack.

General Howe's in-actionhe retires early to winter.

quarters.-Conduct of general and troops at Philadelphia.

-Expedition of fir Henry Clinton up the North river.-

Capture of Prescot in Rhode Isand-Northern army,

Burgoyne takes the command.-Carleton, offended with the

appointment, reßgns his employment.-Burgoyne purchafes

the aid of Indian favages~number of his troops.--Expe-

dition of colonel St. Leger.-The general's manifefto. Cap.

ture of Ticonderago and Fort Independence. Destruction

of American gallies.--The army reaches the Hudson.

-Cruelties of the Indians.-Defeat at Bennington

Siege of Standwixraised.-Battle with general Gates

at Stillwater.--Distressed situation of the army-defertion

of the Indians.--Burgoyne retreats.- Battle near Sara-

toga-reduced fate of the army--troops furrounded

convention with the Americans at Saratoga. 416

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CHAP. VII.
Prevalent discontents.--Mr. Wilkes returns from exile-offers

himself candidate for London-rejected-chosen for Middle-
sex-prosecuted at the instance of ministers~tried before lord
Mansfieldsentenced to the king's bench prison-popular in-
vectives against the judge.Riots in St. George's fields.
Wilkes's outlawry reversed.King of Denmark visits Bri-
tain.-Favourite studies of his Britannic majefty.Voyages
of discovery and science.--Capt. Cook.Mr. Banks.-Af-
fairs on the continent.Parties in Poland.Dissidents.-
Interference of Prusia and Rufra.Conduct of Austria-
of France. --Rupture between Rusia and Turkey.Ame-
rican colonies enraged at Mr. Townshend's new impoft.-
Province of Massachusets more active in resistance.- New
combination against British commodities.--Lord Hillsborough
the secretary of state, his letter to the governors of their rea
Spective provinces.-Riots at Boston-England. -Dissatis-
faction and licentiousness.-Wilkes inflames the discontent.-
Supported by the chief citizens of the metropolis.-Lord
Chatham resigns the privy seal. Parties mutually adverse,

concur in opposition to administration. W ISE and liberal as was the policy of our king, cha P.

which sought to govern by virtue and ability instead of a party-confederacy, it had not hitherto 1768. attained the merited success. The royal plan had to Vol. II.

encounter

VIL

В

VII.

CHA P. encounter obstacles which partly arose from parti

u cular incidents and characters, but were chiefly 1768.

owing to general causes.

The long supremacy of the whig combination had conferred on its members, in the public opinion, a prescriptive right to govern. When Pitt adopted the project of Bolingbroke, or more probably fol. lowed the natural course of transcendent talents, he was aware of the authority which the junto had acquired: he well knew that political changes ought to be gradual, and accommodated to the opinions and sentiments of the times. He therefore did not propose entirely to exclude the phalanx; but, without admitting their command, to enjoy their assistance. Even this partial invasion they bore with impatience, and only from the overpowering force of genius did they bear it at all: Pitt's administration afforded strong proofs, that a change of political system must be gradual, and that the projected alteration would be arduous, unless pre-eminent abi. lity guided and invigorated the execution. The earl of Bute attempted a more extensive and rapid change, than befits the progressive variations of human affairs : in seeking a reform agreeable to reason and justice, he failed, by precipitation and the want of superior talents. His personal unpopularity was prejudicial to any scheme which he could undertake, and his successors (long conceived to be his tools) partook of the prevalent hatred, which was farther increased by their internal and colonial mea. sures. The administration of Rockingham courted popularity, but in its weakness and inefficiency de.

· monstrated,

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