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a8o iVoYAGI

I sew nothing in his Country, to which I could resemble them. That, however, I would do my best, and strive to express myself by Similitudes, humbly desiring his Assistance, when I wanted proper Words ; which he was pleased to promise me.

I (aid, my Birth was of honest Parents, man Island called England, which was remote from this Country, as many Days Journey as the strongest of his Honour's Servants could travel in the annual Course of the San. That I was bred a Surgeon, whose Trade it is to cure Wounds and Hurts in the Body, got by Accident or Violence; that my Country was governed by a Female Man, called a Queen. That I kit it to get Riches, whereby I might maintain myself and Family when I should return. That, in my last Voyage, I was Commander of the Ship, arid bad about fifty Yahoos under me, many of which died at Sea, and I was forced to supply them by others, picked out from several Nations. That our Ship was twice in danger of being sunk; the first Time by a great Storm, and the second, by striking against a Rock. Here my Master interposed, by asking me, How I could persuade Strangers out of different Countries to venture with me, after the Losses I had sustained, and the Hazards I had run. I faid, they were Fellows of desperate Fortunes, forced to fly from the Places of their Birth, on Account of their Poverty or their Crimes. Some were undone by Law-suits; other spent all they had ia Drinking, Whoring, and Gaming; others fled for Treason ;' many for Murder, Theft, Poysoning, Robbery, Perjury, Forgery, coining false Money, for committing Rapes or Sodomy; for flying from their Colours, or deserting to the


Enemy, and most of them had broken Prison; none of these durst return to their native Countries fpr sear of being hanged, or of starving in a Jail; and, therefore, were under a Necessity of seeking a Livelihood in other Places.

During this Discourse, my Master was pleased to interrupt me several Times; I had made Use of many Circumlocutions, in describing to. him the Nature of several Crimes, for which most of our Crew had been forced to fly their Country. This Labour took up several Days Conversation, before he was able to comprehend me. He was wholly at a Loss to know what could be the Use or Necessity of practising those Vices. To clear up which, I endeavoured to give him some Ideas of the Desire of Power and Riches; of the terrible Effects of Lust, Intemperance, Malice, and Envy. All this I was forced to desine and describe, by putting Cases, and making Suppositions. After which, like one whose Imagination was struck with something never seen or heard of before, he would lift up his Eyes with Amazement and Indignation. Power, Government, War, Law, Punishment, and a thoufand other Things had no Terms, wherein that Language could express them; which made the Dissiculty almost insuperable to give my Master any Conception of what I meant. But being of an excellent Understanding, much improved by Contemplation and Converse, he at last arrived at a competent Knowledge of what Human Nature, in our Parts of the World, is capable to perform, and desired I would give him some particular Account of that Land, which we call Europe, but especially of my own Country.

CHAP. iSz i/VoYA G E


The Author, at bis Master's Commands, informs him of the State of England. The Causes of of War among the Princes of Europe. The Author begins to explain the English Constitution.

TH E Reader may please to observe, that the following Extract of many Converfations I had with my Master, contains a Summary of the most material Points, which were discoursed at several Times, for above two Years; his Honour often desiring suller Satisfaction, as I farther improved in the Houyhnhnm Tongue. I laid before him, as well as I could, the whole State of Europe; I discoursed of Trade and Manufactures, of Arts and Sciences; and the Answers I gave to all the Questions he made, as they arose upon several Subjects, were a Fund of Conversation, not to be exhausted. But I shall here only set down the Substance of what passed between us concerning my own Country, reducing it into Order as well as I can, without any Regard to Time, or other Circumstances, while I strictly adhere to Truth. My only Concern is, that I shall hardly be able to do Justice to my Master's Arguments and Expressions, which must needs suffer, by my Want of Capacity, as well as by a Translation into our barbarous EngUJh.

In Obedience, therefore, to his Honour's Commands, I related to him the Revolution under the Prince of Orange; the long War with Frame entered into by the faid Prince, and renewed by his Successor the present Queen, wherein the greatest Powers of Christendom were engaged, and which


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still continued: I computed, at his Request, that about a Million of Yahoos might have been killed in the whole Progress of it; and, perhaps, a hundred or more Cities taken, and sive Times as many Ships burnt or funk.

He asked me what were the usual Causes or Motives that made one Country go to War with another. I answered they were innumerable; but I mould only mention a sew of the chief. Sometimes the Ambition of Princes, who never think they have Land or People enough to govern j Sometimes the Corruption of Ministers, who engage their Master in a War, in order to stifle or divert the Clamour of the Subjects against their evil Administration. Difserence in Opinions hath cost many Millions of Lives: For Instance, whether Flejb be Bread, or Bread be flesh; whether the Juice of a certain Berry be Blood or Wine; whether Whistling be a Vice or Virtue; whether it be better to kiss a Post, or throw it into the Fire; what is the best Colour for a Coat, whether Black, White, Red, or Grey; and whether it should be long or Jhort, narrow or wide, dirty or tlean, with many more. Neither are any War* so surious and bloody, or of so long Continuance, as those occasioned by Difference in Opinion, especially if it be in Things indifferent.

Sometimes the Quarrel between two Princes is to decide, which of them shall dispossess a third of his Dominions, where neither of them pretend to any Right. Sometimes one Prince quarrelleth with another, for sear the other should quarrel with him. Sometimes a War is entered upon, because the Enemy is too strong; and sometimes, because he is too weak. Sometimes our Neighbours want the Things which we have, or have

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the Things which we want i and we both sight, till they take ours, or give us theirs. It is a very justisiable Cause of a War, to invade a Country, aster the People have been wasted by Famine, destroyed by Pestilence, or embroiled by Factions among themselves. It is justisiable to enter into War against our nearest Ally, when one of his Towns lies convenient for us, or a Territory of Land, that would render our Dominions round and compleat. If a Prince sends Forces into a Nation, where the People are poor and ignorant, he may lawsully put half of them to Death, and make Slaves of the rest, in order to civilize and reduce them from their barbarous Way of Living. It is a very kingly, honourable, and frequent Practice, when one Prince desires the Assistance of another to secure him against an Invasion, that the Assistant, when he hath driven out the Invader, should seize on the Dominions himself, and kill, imprison, or banish the Prince he came to relieve. Alliance by Blood, or Marriage, is a frequent Cause of War between Princes; and the nearer the Kindred is, the greater is their Disposition to quarrel: Poor Nations are hungry, and rich Nations me proud; and Pride and Hunger will ever be at Variance. For these Reasons, the Trade of a Soldier is held the most honourable of all others: Because a Soldier is a Tahoo hired to kill in cold Blood as many of his own Species, who had never offended him, as possibly he can.

There is, likewise, a Kind of beggarly Princes in Europe, not able to make War by themselves, who hire out their Troops to richer Nations, for so much a Day to each Man; of which they keep Three-fourths to themselves, and it is the Vi; best

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