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(Bibliographical Note.-Letters 73–84 were originally issued in wrappers similar to those described in Vol. XXVIII. p. xxiii., but the imprint was altered at the foot, and reads as follows : “London : Printed for the Author by | Hazell, Watson, and Viney, London and Aylesbury ; ) and to be had of | Mr. George Allen, Sunnyside, Orpington, Kent.”

Except where otherwise stated, the first edition of Letters 73-84 and 85-96 consisted of 2000 copies, and the second of 1000. The title of the Letter was also, except where otherwise stated, added in the Second Edition.

VOL. VII. (1877)

LETTER 73. First Edition (January 1, 1877).–Pages 1-24.
Second Edition (October 1885).
LETTER 74. First Edition (February 1, 1877).- Pages 25-56.
Second Edition (October 1885).

LETTER 75. First Edition (March 1, 1877). - Pages 57-94. A “ cancel" sheet (pp. 57-58, 71-72) was issued with Letter 76, accompanied by a slip dated “Orpington, April 2.". For the mistakes on pp. 71-72, which rendered the substitution of this sheet necessary, see below.

Second Edition (September 1884). „The mistakes above mentioned were corrected,

LETTER 76. First Edition (April 2, 1877).–Pages 95–126.
Second Edition (December 1884).
LETTER 77. First Edition (May 1, 1877).–Pages 127–148.
Second Edition (August 1885).

LETTER 78. First Edition (June 1, 1877).–Pages 149-179. The actual date of publication was later : see Ruskin's statement in § 17 (p. 140).

Second Edition (May 1885).
LETTER 79. First Edition (July 2, 1877).–Pages 181-213.

Second Edition (November 1883). Third Edition (January 1900). 150 copies.

LETTER 80. First Edition (August 1, 1877).–Pages 215–246.
Second Edition (May 1885).
LETTER 81. First Edition (September 1, 1877). — Pages 247–290.
Second Edition (May 1885).
LETTER 82. First Edition (October 1, 1877). —Pages 291–342.
Second Edition (May 1885).

This and some preceding Letters, though each of them dated the first of the several months, were in fact issued later : see Letter 82, § 7 (below, p. 227).

LETTER 83. First Edition (November 1, 1877).–Pages 343–388.
Second Edition (May 1885).

LETTER 84. First Edition (December 1, 1877).- Pages 389-412. At the foot of p. 412 is the imprint “ Hazell, Watson, and Viney, Printers, London and Aylesbury."

Second Edition (March 1885).

Letters 73-84 have never been reprinted collectively in volume form. Volumes supplied by the publisher have been made up from time to time of the separate Letters. The title-page originally issued was as here given (p. 3). That of the volume as now current bears the date “1895” and the words “Third Edition."

NEW SERIES (VOL. VIII., 1878-1884)


With Letter 85 the “New Series" began (see p. 315). The twelve Letters comprising it were originally issued, separately, in buff-coloured paper wrappers. The first six Letters were numbered Letter the First, the Second, and so on. Then the consecutive numbering was adopted;

“Letter 91st (Seventh of New Series)," and so on. Letters 1-3 (85-87 in the collected series) had no title-pages, but a title on the front of the wrapper.

Letters 4-12 (88–96) had title-pages as well. The “ Advertisement” (as before) was printed on p. 4 of each wrapper. The price was 10d. each Letter.

LETTER 85 (New Series, Letter 1). First Edition (January 1878).—The title on the wrapper of this, and of the two succeeding Letters, was :

Fors Clavigera. | Letters to the Workmen and Labourers of Great Britain. | By John Ruskin, LL.D. | New Series. | Letter the First (Second, Third] | January 1st (February 1st, March 1st], 1878 |(Rose.) | London : printed for the author by | Hazell, Watson, & Viney, London & Aylesbury; | and to be had of Mr. George Allen, Sunnyside,

Orpington, Kent. | Price Tenpence. Octavo, pp. 1-35.

Second Edition (March 1885).—This was headed “Letter the 85th," instead of " Second Series, Letter 1.”

Third Edition (January 1896).—400 copies.

LETTER 86 (New Series, Letter 2).—First Edition (February 1, 1878). Pages 37-74.

Second Edition (March 1885).—Renumbered.
Third Edition (January 1896). —350 copies.

LETTER 87 (New Series, Letter 3).- First Edition (March 1, 1878).Pages 75-100.

Second Edition (March 1885).--Renumbered.
Third Edition (January 1896).–350 copies.

At the beginning of this Letter (1st ed.) the following slip was inserted :

Professor Ruskin, who is at present lying seriously ill—from prostration, caused by overwork-will not, until further notice, be able to issue Fors' his medical advisers having ordered absolute rest for some time.' "SUNNYSIDE, ORPINGTON, KENT.

February 26th."

LETTER 88 (New Series, Letter 4).—The remaining Letters were issued with title-pages. Common to them all were the words : "Fors Clavigera. | Letters to the Workmen and Labourers | of Great Britain. | By John Ruskin, LL.D. | (Rose.) | George Allen, Sunnyside, Orpington, Kent.” On Letter 88 the description of the contents, after the author's name, was "New Series. | Letter the Fourth | March 21, 1880." The titles were reproduced on the front of the wrapper, with the addition of the words "Price Tenpence" at the foot. In the case of Letters 4-6 the date was omitted from the wrapper. In the case of Letter 4 only there was in ed. 1 an imprint at the foot of the reverse of the title-page—“Hazell, Watson, and Viney, Printers, London and Aylesbury."

First Edition (March 21, 1880). —Pages 101-126. Page 101 was blank ;
on p. 102 was the quotation from the Orphic Hymn (see here p. 380).

Second Edition (June 1885).-Renumbered.
Third Edition (July 1900).-250 copies.
With this Letter, at the time of its original issue in March 1880, the
following notice (written by Ruskin) was circulated by his publisher as a
"Note” at the end of his list of “Works by Mr. Ruskin":

"The second series of Fors Clavigera, recommencing in the current number, will
be carried forward as the author finds leisure, to the close of the eighth volume;
the complete summary and indices of the whole, forming a smaller nintă volume, will
be issued, with the closing letter, it is hoped within a year of the present date.

"The change in the plan of Love's Meinie, from a limited series of University Lectures to a school book of Ornithology, bas been the chief cause of the delay in the publication of the third lecture on the Chough. This is now in the press—but displaced so as to become the fourth in order;? the intermediate one, on the Ouzel and Dabchick, will be published together with the lecture on Serpents prepared for the London Institution, which will form the seventh number of Deucalion.2 Both these lectures will be ready in April.

"The 'Elements of Prosody' were found by the author much more difficult, but also much more interesting matter to handle than he expected. The book is at last in the press, and may be safely promised, if all go well, for autumn issue in the present year.

"* Mr. Ruskin has always hitherto found bis correspondents under the im-
pression that, when he is able for average literary work, he can also answer any
quantity of letters. He most respectfully and sorrowfully must pray them to
observe that it is precisely when he is in most active general occupation that
he can answer fewest private letters, and this year he proposes to answer-none,
except those on St. George's business. There will be enough news of him, for

any who care to get them, in the occasional numbers of Fors."
The last part of the notice was also lithographed on notepaper, with the
address “ Brantwood, Coniston at the end, and circulated.
LETTER 89 (New Series, Letter 5)

.On the title-page “New Series, I
Letter the Fifth. September 29, 1880."

First Edition (September 29, 1880).—Pages 127–158.

Of this Letter 525 copies were supplied free to Trade Unions, each copy
being stamped “Trades Union Copy | presented by the Author” (see
below, p. 411).

Second Edition (January 1884).—Renumbered.
Third Edition (June 1892).—600 copies.

LETTER 90 (New Series, Letter 6). –On the title-page “New Series. I
Letter the Sixth. I Lost Jewels. | May, 1883.”

See on these matters Vol. XXV. pp. xxxi., xxxii.
2 See now Vol. XXVI. pp. 295 seq.
3 See now Vol. XXXI.


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First Edition (May 1883).–Pages 159–178. This Letter, and the suc. ceeding ones, were entitled from the first.

Second Edition (April 1884).
Third Edition (March 1893). —500 copies.

LETTER 91 (New Series, Letter 7. This, and the remaining Letters were not, however, headed “Second Series "). On the title-page

" Letter the 91st. 1 (Seventh of New Series.) | September, 1883. | Dust of Gold.”

First Edition (September 1883).--Pages 179–191.
Second Edition (August 1885).
Third Edition (January 1900).-250 copies.

LETTER 92 (New Series, Letter 8).-On the title-page "Letter the 92nd. | (Eighth of New Series.) | November 1883. | Ashestiel.”

First Edition (November 1883).- Pages 193–214.
Second Edition (March 1886).

LETTER 93 (New Series, Letter 9).-On the title-page “Letter the 93rd. / (Ninth of New Series.) | Christmas, 1883. / Invocation.” Of this Lotter the first is the only edition. 3000 copies. Pages 215-230.

LETTER 94 (New Series, Letter 10).—On the title-page “Letter the 94th. |(Tenth of New Series.) | March, 1884. | Retrospect.

First Edition (March 1884).–Pages 231-250. 3000 copies.
Second Edition (January 1900). —250 copies.

LETTER 95 (New Series, Letter 11).-On the title-page “Letter the 95th. I (Eleventh of New Series.) | October, 1884. | Fors Infantiæ."

First Edition (October 1884). —Pages 251-281. 3000 copies.
Second Edition (January 1899).-350 copies.

This Letter had a frontispiece, “ Theuth's Earliest Lesson" (here
Plate VII.).

Some portion of $ 21 in this Letter had previously been used in the papers on A Museum or Picture Gallery (1880) : see below, p. 509 n.

LETTER 96 (New Series, Letter 12).-On the title-page "Letter the 96th (Terminal). I (Twelfth of New Series.) Christmas, 1884. Rosy Vale." Pages 283–306. 3000 copies.

Of this Letter the first is the only edition. It had a frontispiece (Plate VIII.).

A slip inserted at the beginning of Letter 96 reads as follows :

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"SUBSCRIBERS TO 'FORS CLAVIGERA' are requested to note that the present Letter (No. 96, · Rosy Vale') completes Volume VIII., and the entire series of the work ; also that a general Index is in preparation, of which due notice of publication and price will be given shortly. "SUNNYSIDE, ORPINGTON, KENT.

Christmas, 1884."

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Letters 85–96 have never been collectively reprinted; but the separate numbers are made up by the publisher into a volume. The title-page, as first supplied, is shown here on p. 305.


For particulars of this edition, and of the Pocket Edition, see Vol. XXVII. pp. C.-ciii. Letters 73–96 occupy vol. iv. The following are

the curtailments, etc., made in it, in addition to the omission of all the “Notes and Correspondence" in Letters 73, 74, 77, 78, 83, 85, 86, and 89.

LETTER 73. The passage in § 1 (“In which seventh year ... my books") is omitted.

LETTER 74. The author's footnote to $ 15 is omitted.

LETTER 75. § 7, fourth line from end, “Mr. Swan has" altered to "there are." The "Notes and Correspondence" are omitted, except $ 21.

LETTER 76. The author's footnote to § 12 is omitted. The "Notes and Correspondence" are given, except $ 22.

LETTER 77. SS 1, 6, the footnotes are omitted. § 8, the footnote is altered into one giving a short explanation of § 16 (“Notes and Correspondence"). LETTER 79.

The passage at the end of § 11 (“For Mr. Whistler's own sake ... public's face") is omitted. In the second edition of the octavo issue, though later than the libel case, it was retained. The “ Notes and Correspondence” are omitted, except that § 14 is given (but not the Accounts).

LETTER 80. Of the “Notes and Correspondence" only SS 14, 15 (omitting the first paragraph), 16, 17, 22 are given.

LETTER 81. § 4, the author's footnote is omitted. $ 10, the last three lines are omitted. The “Notes and Correspondence" are omitted, except that parts of SS 14, 15 are strung together and given, and that the whole of SS 17-20 is given.

LETTER 82. § 22, the last sentence but one is omitted. Of the "Notes and Correspondence" only SS 28, 29, 30, 33, 34 are given. LETTER 86. $ 12 n.,


passage, The following note ..." to the end, is omitted.

LETTER 88. § 1, the passage, “These will be .. the work," is omitted.

LETTER 89. $ 6, the author's footnote is omitted.
LETTER 90. The whole of SS 10-12 is omitted.
LETTER 93. The "Christmas Postscript” ($ 11) is omitted.
LETTER 95. The whole of SS 24-27 is omitted.

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REVIEWS Spectator, April 7 and 14, 1877: articles entitled “Mr. Ruskin's Will” and "Microscopic Extravagance."

Saturday Review, April 14, 1877 : The Confessions of Mr. Ruskin.” Standard, August 22, 1877 (referred to in Letter 81, $ 13; below, p. 207).

Spectator, September 22, 1877. An article entitled “Mr. Ruskin's Unique Dogmatism," quoted and commented upon in Letter 85 (below, pp. 318-322).

Appleton's Journal (New York), July 1878, N.S., vol. 5, pp. 58-65: “Ruskin's Fors Clavigera(an intelligent summary of the book).

Allantic Monthly, July 1878, vol. 42, pp. 39-51. An article by H. E. Scudder on "St. George's Company” (a summary of Fors).

Spectator, March 15 and 22, 1879: “Mr. Ruskin's Society.” “We give this account," wrote the editor, "from a friend of the scheme, as of a certain intellectual interest. We pass no criticism on what may be called a dream of fair living."

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