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LETTERS

TO THE WORKMEN AND LABOURERS

OF GREAT BRITAIN.

BY

JOHN RUSKIN, LL.D.,

HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH, AND SLADE PROFESSOR OF FINE ART.

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CONTENTS OF VOL. VII

(1877)

PAGE 13

LETTER 73 (January) COMMISSARIAT.

(Venice, November 20, 1876.) 1. The seventh year of Fors to close its first series. Plans for a future series. 2. " Clavigera,” as nailing follies to the barn-door. Saying of the Pall Mall Gazette that “the wealth of the world is infinite,” examined.

3, 4. Limitation of the quantity and use of true wealth. 5. Fraud and force hitherto the modes of obtaining land. 6, 7. The newspapers on England's “immense accession of wealth," and their tests of prosperity. 8. The author's suggestions: a registry of inhabitants and incomes in each district : e.g., Sheffield. 9. A peace commissariat. 10. Community of wage-fund; idle persons to be fed, if tolerated. 11. A Duke of Sheffield to be elected. Advantages of fixed salaries beginning to be perceived. 12. Middlemen would not be tolerated, if once visible : retail, and cost, price of beer. 13. Drunkenness, so shocking to the respectable society dining with the brewer at Drayton Park. 14. The need of education. The art of being rightly amused. 15. The Laws of Plato on Music.

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.—16. Affairs of the Company. 17. Affairs of the Master. 18, Letter from "A Methodist Preacher.”

30

LETTER 74 (February) FATHER-LAW

(Venice, Christmas Day, 1876.) 1, 2. St. Ursula sends the author her dianthus; and a friend in England, a sprig of vervain. Classic significance of the vervain: Horace's song for home sacrifice; the Greek dianthus. 3. Use of myths. 4. Gift of a painting of a pitcher of holy water: sacramental significance of Christ's first, and last, miracles. (January 2, 1877.) 5. The Dianthus. 6. Significance of the sculptures on the Fig-tree Angle and Vine Angle of the Ducal Palace. (January 3.) 7, 8. The story of Tobias and his dog. The Dog in mythology. 9. The sacredness of our daily bread. 10, 11. The boy with a basket of rotten figs in front of the Ducal Palace (Letter 20, $ 4). Old

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Venetian laws regulating the sale of fruit. John Bright and the author. A new Corn Law Rhyme taught to the author in St. Mark's Portico. Results of free trade in modern Venetian greengrocery. 12. Ancient “Mother Law” of Venice forbidding middlemen in the sale of melons. (January 5.) 18. Food of the poor the first care of Venetian legislation. 14. The prayer

for daily bread.

15. The Devil's taxes on the food of the poor. 16. “Four little myths” on the Eastern Question,

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.-17. Accounts of the Company: 18. Accounts of the Master : author's absence of mind at Verona. 19. Letter on “Turkish Loans and Bulgarian Atrocities.” 20. Reference to a letter from a Scottish correspondent.

Suratior Fato. God. Tennesot

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(Venice, February 1, 1877.) 1, 2. St. Ursula's message: the ministry of guardian angels; figurative perceptions and real presences.

3. “Cæli Enarrant :” analysis of Psalm xix.; its natural and spiritual astronomy. 4. Comparison of Psalms viii. and xix. Astronomy, ocular and telescopic, compared. 5. The British Public as the centre of the Universe. A vision of the Heavens and Earth without their God. 6. Mental knowledge of the stars, how possible, and how differing from merely instrumental. 7. The real nature of wisdom. What England should have done in the Eastern Question. 8. St. Mark and St. Theodore, the standard-bearers of Venice: the pillars of the Piazzetta. Deep meaning of “Mother Law.” 9. Note by Edward Cheney on the Schools” or Confraternities of Venice, MotherLaw of St. Theodore's School. Legend of St. Theodore and the Dragon. “ Theodore," the Divine life in nature: the saint's prayer to the divine nature in his horse, and conquest of the dragon. (February 2.) 10. Description of St. Ursula's flower in morning light. Death of the author's old Chamouni guide, and of James Hinton. 11. Story of a Venetian gondolier's dog. 12. St. Theodore's dragon, the “Rahab” of the Psalms. 13. Animals as an article of wealth : how to obtain our share of it. 14. How boys should be initiated in natural history; reference to the life of Thomas Edward, the Scotch naturalist. 15. Education of gentlemen by three animal companions and tutors---dog, horse, and eagle. i6. Brotherhood to the beast. Divine life throughout creation. 17. Canal life as a form of "university” education. Steam tram-cars and real live donkey rides.

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.-18. Accounts of the Company. 19. Affairs of the Master. 20, 21. Letter on the system of election in the Church of Scotland. Author's suggestion of “cardinal-elders." 22. Supposed letter from Carlyle on "The Gospel of Dirt.” 23. Letter from Mr. W. Hale White on House-building. 24. A note on spirals: mechanical and natural.

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82

LETTER 76 (April
OUR BATTLE IS IMMORTAL

(Venice, Sunday, March 4, 1877.) A passage from Plato.-1.
Salvation and destruction of States; their causes summed by
Plato. The Divine Life in organic nature; man the possession
of God. 2. “Seas of Death and sunless gulfs of Doubt.” 3.
Tennyson's “Prefatory Sonnet" to the Nineteenth Century, com-
pared with Wordsworth's “ Daffodils." Song for delight the vital
form of poetry. 4. So also art and ironwork; the “ Harmonious
Blacksmith.” Religious laws underlying the active work of St.
George's Guild. 5. More distinctively Christian tone in the
author's recent writings. Fallacy in his art teaching discovered
by the author at Assisi in 1874. 6. His early enthusiasm for
religious painting. His discovery of Tintoret, and admiration for
the non-religious work of Titian. 7. Resolution to do work well
the only true foundation of religion; the true “Religion of
Humanity." The author's erroneous conclusion that the great
worldly painters were in opposition to the sacred painters, and
that the religious artists were weaker than the irreligious. 8.
Impression made on the author's mind by a service at the
Waldensian Chapel at Turin: his conversion from Protestant
insolence. 9. Recognition of the real intellectual strength of
Giotto. 10. The author's “ Catholic” faith : deep and true sense
of the term. 11. The Catholic Epistles. 12. The question of Jude;
and the answer of Jesus, defining the two species of men. 13. The
epistle general of Jude the sum of all the Epistles: imperative
to St. George's Company. 14. Character and failures of Mazzini
and Garibaldi. The days of Kinghood and Priesthood not ended.

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE.-15. Affairs of the Company: provision
of allotments at Sheffield. 16. Affairs of the Master : his discovery of
the inscription on the church of St. James of the Rialto. 17-19. General
statement of his fortune and his disposal of it. 20, 21. His plans for
the future. 22. Letter on William Tyndale's house at Little Sodbury, with
extracts from Faber and Froude on Tyndale's translation of the Bible.

107

LETTER 77 (May)
THE LORD THAT Bought Us .

(Venice, Easter Sunday, 1877.) 1. Education : difficulties of the
School Board therein, on the hypothesis of there being no God.
Irreconcilableness of the Decalogue with modern practices. Dis-
establishment, of many powers besides that of the Church,
approaching. 2. Author's translation of the opening passage of
the Epistle of St. Jude. 3. Importance of using the same
word in English, where it is the same in the original. Notes on
the passage : competition, the “fury” of St. Jude. 4. God as
the only true “Despot"; meaning of the words “Despot"
and "Tyrant.” Instructions to Sheffield shoemakers. 5. Frank

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