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11. (I.) Affairs of the Company.



£ $. d. 628 13 8


Dr. Feb. 115. To Balance 19. Draft at Douglas (per Nr. Ė. Rydings), less is. 6d.,

charges April 3. Per Mr. Swan, left at Museum by a " Sheffield Work

9. Per ditto, from a “Sheffielder,

28 18 6

ing Man

0 2 0 0 2 6

£657 16 8


£ 8. d. 657 16 8

April 16.

By Balance

No details have yet reached me of the men's plan at Sheffield ;? but the purchase of their land may be considered as effected “if the titles are good." No doubt is intimated on this matter; and I think I have already expressed my opinion of the wisdom of requiring a fresh investigation of title on every occasion of the sale of property ;? so that, as my days here in Venice are surcharged with every kind of anger and indignation already, I will not farther speak at present of the state of British Law.

I receive many letters now from amiable and worthy women, who would be glad to help us, but whose circumstances prevent them from actually joining the society.

If they will compare notes with each other, first of all, on the means to be adopted in order to secure the delivery on demand, for due price, over at least some one counter in the nearest county town, of entirely good fabric of linen, woollen, and silk; and consider that task, for the present, their first duty to Heaven and Earth ; and speak of it to their friends when they walk by the way, and when they sit down, and when they

1 (See Letter 76, § 15 (p. 98).]
a 'See Letter 64, Š 22 (Vol. XXVIII. p. 579). ]

rise up, not troubling me about it, but determining among themselves that it shall be done,—that is the first help they can give me, and a very great one it will be. I believe myself that they will find the only way is the slow, but simple and sure one, of teaching any girls they have influence or authority over, to spin and weave; and appointing an honest and religious woman for their merchant. If they find any quicker or better way, they are at liberty to adopt it, so long as any machinery employed in their service is moved by water only. And let them re-read, in connection with the gifts and loans reported in this number of Fors as made to the Sheffield Museum, the end of Fors of September 1874.2

12. (II.) Affairs of the Master.

I have been pleased, and not a little surprised, by the generally indulgent view expressed by the public, as vocal through its daily press, of the way I have broadcast my fortune. But I wish it always to be remembered that even in what I believe to have been rightly distributed, this manner of lavish distribution is not in the least proposed by me as generally exemplary. It has been compelled in my own case, by claims which were accidental and extraordinary; by the fact that all my father's and mother's relations were comparatively poor,--and the still happier fact that they were all deserving; by my being without family of my own; by my possession of knowledge with respect to the arts which rendered it my duty to teach more than to enjoy, and to bestow at least a tithe of what I collected; and finally by what I conceive to be the unhappy conditions of social disorder temporarily existing around me, involving call no less imperative than that of plague or famine for individual exertion quite distinct from the proper course of the ordinary duty of private persons. My readers and Companions must not therefore be surprised, nor accuse me of inconsistency, when they find me as earnestly enforcing the propriety on their part, in most cases, of living much within their incomes, as contentedly exposing the (hitherto) excess of my expenditure above my own.

13. (III.) A paragraph from Galignani, sent me by Fors for her part of cheering comment on the Catholic Epistles :

“A WESLEYAN MAYOR AND A Roman Catholic Bishop. The Roman Catholic Bishop of Liverpool laid on Monday the foundation-stone of a new church at Greenbank, St. Helens. The new building is to accommodate 850 worshippers, and will cost about £10,000. In the evening a banquet was given, and the Mayor of St. Helens, who (the Liverpool Post says) is a member of the Wesleyan community, was present. The Bishop proposed the Mayor's health ; and the Mayor, in acknowledging the compliment, said that it gave him great pleasure to be present, and he rejoiced with them in the success which had attended their efforts that day—a success which had enabled them to lay the foundation-stone of

1 [Deuteronomy vi. 7.)
· Letter 45, $ 19 (Vol. XXVIII. pp. 165-166).]
: (See Letter 76, $$ 17-21 (pp. 99-104).]

another church in the town. He rejoiced because he looked upon the various churches of the town as centres of instruction and centres of influence, which tended to the moral and spiritual welfare of the people. He was not a Roman Catholic, but he rejoiced in every centre of influence for good, whatever might be the tenets of the Church to which those centres belonged. For the welfare of the town which he had the honour of representing, he felt pleasure in being there that evening; and it would be ungrateful of him, with the feelings which he had for every branch of the Church, if he did not wish his Catholic townsmen God-speed. There was still a vast amount of ignorance to be removed, and the churches were the centres around which the moral influence was to be thrown, and which should gather in the outcasts who had hitherto been left to themselves. He hoped that the church, the foundation-stone of which they had just laid, would be raised with all possible speed, and he wished it God's blessing."

14. St. George and St. John Wesley charge me very earnestly to send their united compliments both to the Bishop, and to the Mayor of Liverpool;1 but they both beg to observe that a place may be got to hold 850 people comfortably, for less than ten thousand pounds; and recommend the Mayor and Bishop to build the very plainest shelter for the congregation possible. St. George wishes the Bishop to say mass at an altar consisting of one block of Lancashire mountain limestone, on which no tool has been lifted up; ? and St. John Wesley requests the Mayor to issue orders to the good people of Liverpool to build the walls—since walls are wanted-in pure charity, and with no commission whatever to the architect.3 No design is needed either for churches or sheepfolds—until the wolf is kept well out. But see next article.

15. (IV.) The most perfect illustration of what is meant by “turning the grace of God into fury” 4 was given me here in Venice during the last Carnival. This grace, St. Paul writes to Titus, "hath appeared unto all men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God.” 5 Now the institution of Lent, before Easter, has the special function of reminding us of such grace; and the institution of Carnival before Lent, as to be pardoned by it, is the turning of such grace into fury. I print on the opposite page, as nearly as I can in facsimile, the bill of Venetian entertainments in St. Mark's Place, in front of St. Mark's Church (certainly, next to the square round the Baptistery of Florence, the most sacred earth in Italy), on the 9th February of this year. And I append translation, accurate I think in all particulars

-commending, however, by St. Mark's order, and with his salutation, the careful study of the original to his good servant the Roman Catholic Bishop of Liverpool, to the end that the said prelate may not attach


· [This is an error; Ruskin means the Mayor of St. Helens.] 2 (See Deuteronomy xxvii. 5.)

(Compare Letter 21, § 10 (Vol. XXVII. p. 359).] • (Jude 4. See above, $ 3.] 5 Titus ii. 11-13.]

• (For another reference to this bill, see Memorial Studies of St. Mark's, § 13 (Vol. XXIV. p. 422).]

Delle Streghe



Spettacolo portentoso e che farà venir l'aqua alta dal giubilo del Mare-Duecento discendenti legittime delle Maghe di Macbet, si scaraventeranno dalla loro foresta di Birmingan, e salto satanico precipiteranno sulla Piazza San Marco prendendola d'assalto da vari punti.-Stridendo, urlando, suonando, cantando, e agitando fuochi che illumineranno tutti i vasti dominii di S.M. Allegra prenderanno d'assalto la Sala del Trono, dove daran principio alle lora danze infernali; quindi vi saranno canti e suoni diabolici e la


e combattimento di demonj finchè il fischio di Satana ordinerà la pace intimando

Un Canto


al chiarore di luci fantastiche, fosforiche, da far restar ciechi tutti coloro che sono orbi.

Finalmente la Piazza di S. Marco sarà invasa e completamente illuminata dalle


Perchè il Sabba possa riuscire più completo, si raccomanda a tutti gli spettatori di fischiare durante le fiamme come anime dannate.

Su questa serata che farà stupire e fremere gli elementi, non aggiungiamo dettagli, per lasciar ai felici regnicolo di S. M. Pantalone, gustar vergini gli effetti delle più prodigiose sorprese.

too much importance to church-building, while these things are done in front of St. Mark's.

“Day 5th.-Friday, 9th February.

ditch,leap, ar ditch to stone mund, Haldon formida by Hen sild be barpora killing


in that

Portentous spectacle, and which will make the water high with rejoicing of the Sea.* Two hundred legitimate descendants of the Witches of Macbeth, will hurl themselves out of their forest of Birmingan” (Birnam ?), “and with a Satanic leap will precipitate themselves upon the piazza of St. Mark, taking it by assault on various points, shrieking, howling, piping, singing, and shaking fires which will illuminate all the vast dominions of his Joyful Majesty” (the leader of Carnival), “they will carry by assault the saloon of the Throne, where they will begin their infernal dances, Then there will be diabolic songs and music, and the Great Wrestling and Combat of Demons, until the whistle of Satan shall order peace, intimating a song and infernal ridda' (?) by the glare of fantastic phosphoric lights, enough to make all remain blind who cannot see. Finally, the piazza of St. Mark will be invaded and completely illuminated by the flames of Beelzebub.

“That the Sabbath may succeed more completely, it is recommended to all the spectators to whistle, during the flames, like damned souls.

“ But of this evening, which will astonish the elements, we will add no details, in order to leave the happy subjects of his Majesty Pantaloon to taste the virgin impressions of the most prodigious surprises."

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16. (V.) I reserve comment on the following announcement (in which the italics are mine) until I learn what use the Berwick Urban Sanitary Authority mean to put the walls to, after purchasing them :

“The Walls OF BERWICK. - The Berwick 'ramparts' are for sale. The Government has offered to sell a considerable part of them to the Berwick Urban Sanitary Authority; and at a special meeting of that body on Wednesday it was decided to negotiate for the purchase. From an account given of these ramparts by the Scotsman it seems that when the town was taken in 1296 by Edward I., they consisted only of wooden palisades, erected on the ridge of a narrow and shallow

* “Let the floods clap their hands,” etc.?

[The subject, however, was not resumed. The subsequent history of the walls is given in the following newspaper paragraph :

" The Board of Works recently leased from Berwick Corporation a section of the old fortifications, including the Bell Tower, the large stone fort fronting the sea ; and two surviving fragments of the crumbling Edwardian walls. The ground has been fenced in with metal rails, and for another century the venerable relics of a stirring era in our national history will be preserved to posterity and saved from the ravages of further vandalism.

“The Berwick Historic Monuments Association, with Sir Edward Grey as president, has also been formed for the preservation of the Elizabethan ramparts, and is now engaged in opening out the flankers of the bastions, and clearing away the accumulated rubbish that has marred and obscured them for a long period. These flankers are eight in number, and may be described as open quadrangular courts of masonry measuring about 30 ft. by 90 ft., extending between the curtains and the wings of the bastions, while the fourth side is open towards the main ditch” (Daily Chronicle, August 24, 1906).]

? (Psalms xcviii. 8.]

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