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June 23, 1834.]

Harbor Bill.

(H. OF R

ed, was able to put them all in the wrong; and yet, when that every southern name would here be enlisted on the called upon, he refused to show them what was right side of the constitution. Thirty thousand dollars a year had now been expended, [Mr. W. said much more, which it was impossible to refor ten years, upon the continuance of these surveys; and port; for no sooner had he alluded to the presidential his colleague was perfectly right in saying that no tongue question, than a sound pervaded the hall like that of a could tell the amount which would be required to finish hive disturbed, and much of what he afterwards said the works already surveyed. The gentleman had frankly was drowned and lost in the hum of private conversation.] admitted that many of these surveys had been made for Mr. CLAYTON now rose and said that the men of the objects which nobody dreamed of carrying into effect. South had been reproached with forsaking their colors. No doubt it was so; and no doubt it would continue to be If such a reproach was in any degree merited, he trusted so, until the system should be put down. There never it would be wiped off that day. He was well aware that would be wanting representatives on that floor, who their course had been complained of, as too rash and would find it to their interest to tickle their constituents precipitate; and they have been told that, if they would with the straw of some promised work of internal im- but wait, they might obtain all their objects peaceably provement. When such representative returned to his and without violence. He now called upon gentlemen, district, and was asked by his constituents whether the who had held this language, to come forward to their aid, work was to go on, he would have this ready reply: No or no more to reproach them on the subject of southern appropriation has yet passed, but I have got an order for remedies. Of those remedies gentlemen might think as the survey. The survey would be made accordingly, and they pleased, but, as sure as God was in heaven, they that would be the last that ever was heard of the promised would again be resorted to, if it was attempted to fix this work. The survey, however, had done its office; it had system upon the South. Gentlemen, who had talked to secured the member his seat in Congress; and some cen- them so eloquently about patience, and peace, and union, turies hence, perhaps, the improvement might be made, and who had held ont prospects of speedy release, were and might prove very useful to our remote posterity. now there; they stood with him on that floor. I call upon

But it was on the constitutional ground that Mr. W. you, cried Mr. C., to redeem your plecige. Now is the must enter his protest against the whole system, in all its day, and now is the hour. I warn you that the South parts. He knew that it was defended on the ground that never will support this system nor endure it. We told you these works were national in their character, and that so respecting the tariff, and we have carried that object. this rendered them constitutional. This, to borrow a We tell you so respecting internal improvements, and this phrase from his friend behind him, (Mr. VANDERPOEL,] object also we shall carry. I say to those who hear me, was "all humbug." It was just like what was said about put down this system by your votes; if not, we shall put a judicious tariff. It meant "every thing by turns, and it down in some other way. nothing long.” The whole system, as actually conducted, Mr. BEARDSLEY said that it seemed that the queswas nothing but a great scheme of log-rolling. It was tion now before the House was not only to be a question essentially unequal." It never could be impartial in its of nullification, but also a test question on the presidencharacter; and such were its native tendencies, that it|cy. The friends of the administration must, it seemed, must inevitably become a system of corruption; a matter prepare to meet the whole opposition, rank and file. It of bribe and purchase throughout. The whole thing was was to be a test question as to the next presidency: so said unconstitutional. And this annual appropriation for sur- the honorable gentleman from Virginia. It was to be veys was the nucleus round which the entire mass was an opportunity for all who were against the administraaccumulated; the germinating point and principle from tion, to come out and show themselves; and, of course, which the whole took its start, and went on continually those who were in its favor, must do the same. extending and increasing. The process reminded him a system which had not only met the sanction of the Senate very much of that system of robbery which was carried for the last four years, but of the President also. Yes, on by lotteries. A man would buy a ticket, and would of the President. He knew that the President had put perhaps draw one-fifth or one-fourth of the amount he his veto on certain local objects. And that veto had had paid in; encouraged by this success, he was led to Mr. B.'s hearty approbation. But the President had reinvest, and thus went on until he had spent his whole signed this same item for surveys every year since bis fortune. Thus, an appropriation would be made, in the first coming into office. He had approved an appropriafirst instance, for a road or a harbor. The Department tion, in the very same words, last year, and now gentlewould be sure to spend the whole of this appropriation, men were called upon to vote upon this appropriation as and something more besides. The year following the a test question. His colleagues had been invoked to put House would be asked to provide for the excess, under down the system, and it had been fulminated from the the name of arrears, and at the same time were told that South, that, if they refused to do so, it should be put they must appropriate a little more, or else all they had down by nullification. Now, it happened that, on this given would be lost. The House gave accordingly, and question, the last administration had been at least as deep next year the same story was told again. And thus the in the mud as the present adıninistration was in the system was perpetuated.

mire. And he really could not have believed that, even Gentlemen bad called this a test question. Agreed: let by the eloquence of the gentleman from Virginia and it be a test question. It was a favorable juncture to make the gentleman from Georgia, this matter could ever have it a test question. There were candidates for the presi- been wrought up into a test question on the next presidency from all quarters of the Union, and many of their dential election. Such, however, was the warning given, friends relied upon this system of corruption to secure and they must look to it. If the vote should fail, the their claims. Let gentlemen now show their colors. This present administration must go down. He should be was the time for the South to act. He knew that it was very sorry, but he could not help it. Such was the as. held by many to be perfectly ridiculous to take the pect in which the maiter must be viewed. And if so, it naked constitutional ground. He did not think so. He would seem, in the votes of the House thus far, that the hoped the South would always take that ground. But be present administration had lost the public confidence, that as it might, he for one would take it, if none else and must go down; and that the administration which was did. He wanted to see how gentlemen would move. to follow it would be opposed to the system of internal Men of New York, cried Mr. W., how will you go? Will improvements. He did not exactly know how the nulliyou join Virginia on this question? Men of Ohio, what fying gentlemen had voted on this occasion. The yeas gay you? He need not call upon the South; he was surel and nays, however, by which the item had formerly been

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Harbor Bill.

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rejected, would show. Those who had voted the other in, the tariff* must again be brought to its support. The way must, he supposed, be reckoned as in favor of in compromise which had been arranged was to be broken ternal improvements, blended with the tariff. At all in upon. In that case, nullification could and would be events, gentlemen had insisted on making this a test ques- applied. The South had abated one public nuisance, and tion, and the vote would presently show what was to be the when they had consented to the compromise, they had character of the next administration. This was the gen- been assured that another would be taken away. The tlemen's own ground. They had themselves chosen it, tariff had been put down, and they were promised that and no doubt they would abide by it. For himself, he internal improvements should be abandoned. Now, should have the hardihood to vote for the appropriation however, there appeared to be an intention to retain in the face of all the formidable denunciations which had and to re-enact it. Mr. J. asked the House to pause, and been uttered.

not to drive to extremity a portion of the population of Mr. JONES, of Georgia, said that he was not surprised this country, who were sufficiently strong to protect that the question now to be decided should have been themselves. The Government had been made to feel considered as a test question by the gentleman from New that the power of a State was adequate and sufficient to York, (Mr. BEARDSLEY.] if he was not mistaken, he prevent oppression, when it should become too heavy to had had the pleasure, only two days before, of voting be borne. He concluded by expressing his hope that with that gentleman against this appropriation, and it gentlemen, in giving their vote upon this item of the bill, seemed somewhat strange to him that the gentleman would do so, uninfluenced by any thing else it contained. should so soon have turned completely about. What Mr. WISE said that he rose for the purpose of making could have produced the change? The gentleman, it an explanation, which, indeed, had in part been already appeared, had understood the gentleman from Virginia given by the gentleman from Georgia, (Mr. Jones.] He opposite, [Mr. W188,] as making this a test question in would say to the gentleman from New York, (Mr. BEARDSregard to the next President. Now, Mr. J. Tad not so LET,] no tricks upon travellers. He had, to be sure, understood him, but had supposed that, in calling it a test given a turn to the debate which would present it in the question, he had had reference alone and exclusively to the form of a test question. But he had no idea of making system of carrying on internal improvements by the Gen- it a test, as between the present administration and the eral Government. He had certainly supposed that, on present opposition. The gentleman from New York had the present occasion, he bad the gentleman from New expressed surprise that it should be so considered. If York with him; for the gentleman had voted down that gentleman would make his disclaimer, Mr. W. would both the 30,000 dollar item in the original bill and the bow assent. He must, however, be permitted to say 29,000 dollar amendment. But, since then, “a change that he greatly doubted whether such a thought had not had come over the spirit of his dream;" and, sure enough, entered that gentleman's mind long before to-day. They the change had happened in the night time: for in one had bad the latitudinarian, and the friends of a certain night the gentleman had been converted from a decided candidate, upon the saw. To get rid of the difficulty, opponent into a warm advocate of this measure.

As to the gentleman had thrown a tub to the whale. It might the gentlemen from Virginia, from Pennsylvania, from be presumed that the gentleman was opposed to the Indiana, and from New York, he supposed they had system of internal improvement, for he had voted to refound out the measure to be proper, by force and virtue ject this annual appropriation of 30,000 dollars. But, of the argument of log-rolling. It was presumable that no sooner had that motion succeeded, than the whole some gentlemen had said to certain other gentlemen, if hive rose upon the gentleman, and put down his New you will vote for our surveys, we will vote for your Os- York harbors. And then the gentleman was obliged to wego harbor. But, Mr. J. would ask whether that was club with his opponents, and get a reconsideration. The a fit and worthy principle for this House to act upon. gentleman had thought it pretty plain before, but it was Was it worthy of a representative on that floor to hold plainer now. For his own part, he, in his simplicity, had language like this? "I do not believe that this appro- been talking to some gentlemen in the lobby, and, as a priation is right, and, on that ground, I voted two days southern man, had been chuckling over the hope; but since to lay it on the table. But, if you will give up your the gentleman to whom he had been speaking had asobjection to the bill, I will give up mine. And if A, B, sured him that he did not understand the matter, and that and C, will do the same, we will carry a reconsideration, the real question was, which of the two divisions of the and get the bill up again.” He admitted that such an ar- House, the national republicans or the New Yorkers, gument was strongly addressed to individual interests, but should take the responsibility of defeating the bill. Mr. he asked whether it was not, after all, mere bargain and w. was now quite sure that in this he was not mistaken; sale.

and he ventured to prophesy that the gentleman from It was said, however, that this appropriation was in- New York (Mr. BEARDSLEY] would not get his Oswego tended merely to carry into effect an existing law. He harbor unless the House should insert this item for surshould briefly examine that question.

veys, which would be equivalent to establishing the prinMr. J. here quoted the law of 1824, and insisted that ciple of internal improvements. The gentleman, therethe appropriation there made was for the purpose of car- fore, should not succeed in biding himself behind a currying into effect the whole of the objects specified in the tain, and making it appear that this was a test question law, and that no farther appropriation was implied by the between the administration and the opposition. For, the law, or could be justified under it. He scouted the though the gentleman was strongly in favor of the adminidea of giving the law any other interpretation. He un- istration, he will find that, on this question, the opposition derstood that a part of this appropriation was to pay for will vote with him. services already rendered, and insisted that the appropria In the union for this system of plunder there were tion ought to be confined to that object alone.

“ white spirits and black, blue spirits and gray," and the tleman from Vermont, however, (Mr. H. EVERETT,] had motto was “mingle, mingle, mingle; you that mingle let out the true reason why this item was so strenuously may.” It had been said by some, that they did not know insisted upon. It was the key-stone to the whole system, how Virginia stood in this matter. Mr. W. wanted to and the retaining of it went to show that it was intended see what portion of Virginia, and of the South, were to keep up the system. Mr. J. did not know how to ap- friends to this system, and who were opposed to it. In proach such an enactment with nullification, or he would that respect it was a test question, and should be made a with pleasure do it. It must be obvious to all, that, if test question in all that part of the Union south of the the system of internal improvements was to be persevered Potomac.

The gen

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Harbor Bill.

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Пle

Mr. BYNUM was sorry that this reference to the North 400,000 dollars, New York above 100,000 dollars, Georand South had been introduced. He did not believe, nor gia 25,000 dollars, while 30,000 dollars had been approdid the South believe, that the question had any thing to priated for a river in North Carolina and Virginia. do with the presidency. He certainly should not vote did not complain of these acts of appropriation; he entireupon it on any such grounds. He considered it both as ly approved of them all; but he insisted that the House a question of expediency and as a constitutional question. ought to regard with the like favor other claims which A gentleman from Georgia [Mr. Jones] had told the were equally just. He said, however, that he was willing House that the South would nullify the system of internal to reduce the amount to 25,000 dollars, instead of the improvement. Now, though Mr. B. was as much opposed original sum proposed; and he modified bis motion accordto the system as that gentleman or any other gentleman ingly. He then demanded the yeas and nays; but the could be, he hoped the South would attempt no such House refused to order them. thing. He trusted, indeed, that, as a question of econ Mr. MERCER said that the House had appropriated omy, the whole South would now act as one man in ex- 10,000 dollars to the survey of this river, which amount pressing their disapprobation of the measure; and he had been expended below Nashville. He had origincalled upon all the friends of an economical Government, ally been opposed to the appropriation, but the House and all friends of the constitution, whether in Georgia or in had overruled him; and, as the work had now been comOhio, to unite with him in voting it down at once. menced, he should not offer any opposition to the pres

Mr. BEARDSLEY said he had been aware of the ap- ent amendment. parent effort to identify this appropriation for surveys Mr. BEATY further explained, and warmly advocated with the entire system of internal improvement. The his amendment. gentleman from Vermont [Mr. EVERETT) and the gentle Mr. HUBBARD observed that the proposition had man from Maine (Mr. SMITH) had concurred in that view, never been submitted to the Committee of Ways and and all the friends of the American system had taken the Mcans. same ground. Mr. B. could not so regard it. He did Mr. FILLMORE asked if there had been any survey not consider it as connected with the system of internal and estimate? improvement, whether in the larger or more restricted Mr. BEATY replied and explained. A survey had interpretation of that phrase. If it was, then where did been made of the river as far as Nashville, and an estithe present administration stand? For the President had mate of $30,000 submitted: he desired to extend the imcertainly four times signed acts containing this very item. provement up the river to the head of steamboat navigaWhat was known as the system of internal improvement tion. was connected with works of a local nature; but this ap. The yeas and nays were now ordered; and, being propriation referred to national objects only. The friends taken, stood: Yeas 85, nays 95. So the amendment was of the larger American system would have this item to be rejected. a part of that system. Mr. B. insisted that it was not. Mr. ASHLEY now moved to insert an appropriation He should stand by the administration, nor should he de- of $25,000 for the improvemeut of the harbor of St. sist from voting for this item because gentiemen in the Louis, Missouri

. He said that he had offered a similar opposition might vote for it as a part of the general sys- amendment when the bill had been in Committee of tem. It was true that he had at first voted to keep this the Whole; but it had not, at that time, been generally item out of the bill; but he did not at that time under- understood. He now repeated the statement he had then stand the bill, having but slightly examined it. Nor did made. The harbor bad been surveyed, and the engineers he at that time know that a part of the money was to pay bad reported in favor of the improvement. Ile need not for services actually rendered. As to the suggestions of remind the House that St. Louis was one of the most imthe gentleman from Georgia, (Mr. Jones,] he had nothing portant points in the whole West. Yet its harbor was in to say. The gentleman could make what comments he danger of being destroyed by a sand bar which was conpleased on Mr. B.'s course. But when Mr. B. should stantly accumulating, and which, if not arrested, must find it necessary, on one day, to vote that, from his own soon fill it up entirely. The Legislature of the State, as personal examination of the case, A B was entitled to a well as the oorporation of tlie city itself, bad memorialized seat on that floor, and on the very next day to declare Congress on the subject, setting forth its importance and that he did not know, and that it was impossible to tell, urgent necessity. The survey had been laid before the whether A B or X Y was entitled to the seat, he should War Department. The superintendent of the improve. then consider himself as in a better situation to be catement of the Mississippi, Mr. Shreve, had personally exchised by the gentlemani.

amined the nature of the obstruction, and was in favor of Cries for the question were now loud and unceasing; the plan for its removal. The Committee on Roads and and it was at length put, on adopting the amendment Canals had also examined the plan, and reported favor. moved by Mr. MERCER, appropriating 29,000 dollars for ably upon it to the House. Mi. d. said he held in lois the continuance of surveys, and decided in the affirmative, hand, and would send to the Clerk's table, the memorial by yeas and nays, as follows: Yeas 103, nays 87. of the city, and the letter of the superintendent, which

So the amendment was agreed to, and inserted in the he desired might be read. bill.

(Cries of no! no! and much confusion.) Mr. MARSHALL thereupon withdrew his motion to Mr. A. said, as the House seemed indisposed to hear lay the bill on the table.

the papers read, and it was late in the day, he would not Mr. BEATY now moved to insert 50,000 dollars for insist, but would content himself with asking for the yeas the improvement of the navigation of the Cumberland and nays. They were ordered. river above Nashville, as far as to the liead of steamboat Mr. POLK stated to the House that the present bill navigation.

was intended to comprise works already commenced, and Dr. HAWES made some suggestion to Mr. B., which these only. There was another bill reported from the was not heard.

Committee on Roads and Canals, which contained new Mr. BEATY said that the river below Naslıville had works for the improvement of harbors, &c. The item already been examined. The object of the present mo- now proposed by the honorable member from Missouri tion was to extend the examination, and complete it, to [Mr. As LEY) was contained in that bill, which was now the highest point of steamboat navigation. Mr. B. plead. in Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union. ed with earnestness in favor of his favorite measure; and He did not wish to see the present bill loaded with a class reminded the House that Pennsylvania bad got overlof objects intended for another bill, and its passage there.

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Harbor Bill.

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by pul in jeopardy. He was actuated by no particular ( United States. He would except none.

In the late war opposition to the present measure, which, for aught he they had sent forth with alacrity a band of warriors to deknew, might be very useful and necessary. But he went fend the people of the South. Should the Northern on the general ground he had just stated, in evidence of States ever undertake to oppress the South, the Southwhich he would advert to the fact that he had voted rons might rely upon their aid; and if, on the other hand, against the appropriation for the Cumberland road, though the nullifiers should grow cantankerous, these were the that road passed his own door.

people who would be prompt to put them down. He deMr. ASHLEY considered the remarks of the gentle- manded the yeas and nays upon the amendment. man from Tennessee as very uncandid and unfair. No Mr. POLK wanted to be informed whether this Green gentleman in the House, who knew any thing of the situ- river in the gentleman's amendment was the little stream ation of the harbor of St. Louis, would say that there that ran past the village of Bowling Green? If it was the could be a more meritorious object in the country. The same he referred to, it was a “river” about two feet deep people of that part of the Union expected this appropri- in the summer time. ation, to enable them to save their harbor from ruin. In Amidst the laugh occasioned by this remark, the other bill the improvement of the Missouri river was Mr. HAWES rose to explain. He said that Green inserted, but not the removal of the sand bar from this river did run past the town of Bowling Green; and he barbor. It was most necessary to the trade of the whole trusted the people of Bowling Green and Mumfordsville river. St. Louis was a port of entry, and an immense would not have reason to regret that it ran by their business was and must be done there. Yet all goods had abodes. The gentleman might have crossed the river at now to be transported, at a great expense, down to the a very dry season, when the waters were low; but the arsenal below the town, and even there the obstruction engineers had reported the average depth of the stream would soon be formed, unless its progress should be stop- at 22 feet. ped. The harbor would be destroyed in the course of a Mr. HARDIN went into a long constitutional argument few months, if Government refused to interfere.

in opposition to the amendment. He stated, however, The vote was now taken, and resulted as follows: Yeas that, after the junction of Green and Big Barren rivers, 72, nays 96. So the amendment proposed by Mr. Ash- they formed quite a considerable stream. LEY was rejected.

Mr. CHILTON said he should not have said a word but Mr. HAWES moved an amendment appropriating for the remarks of his colleague. He stated that by far $25,000 to the improvement of the navigation of Green the greater part of the commerce on those streams was river and Big Barren river, in the State of Kentucky. not below, but above their junction. This commerce was He warned the House that he was not going to make a of great importance to the interior of Kentucky. A por speech“ for Buncombe:" and if he had not the best tion of the streams ran within his own district. He felt, cause that ever had been brought upon that floor, and however, no great zeal on the subject of the amendment. the best constituents within the wide limits of the United He was no enemy to a judicious and well-regulated sys. States

tem of internal improvements. On the contrary, he had [Mr. SUTHERLAND. Except mine.]

fought the battles of the system against its most deterNo, sir, I cannot except his, or any other man's. mined opponents. But when he found that his State, Well, sir, the United States engineers were once order- which had strenuously defended the system, was to be reed to survey these rivers, and they performed the task fused all participation in its benefits, while others who had to the best of their knowledge. And wbat do you think always opposed and reviled it were sharing all its advan. was the result? Why, sir, when these learned gentle- tages, his ardor was greatly cooled. And he should now men returned to this city for the purpose of preparing enter the lists of opposition against all squandering of the their report, not one of them could understand his own public money; and should continue to oppose until he notes! And, in conseqence of this, the Department should see a disposition to do equal justice to all the States. were unable to lay a report and draught of the survey be- He perceived very distinctly that it had been decreed, by fore the House. There was no want of money and no the present dynasty, that Kentucky was not to receive one want of time spent in the survey; and certainly there was farthing. no want of ignorance on the part of those wbo made it. Mr TOMPKINS now rose and addressed the Chair They had notes, it seemed, of some sort; but no man as follows: conld understand his own. But for this state of things, Mr. Speaker: My constituents are deeply interested in we should have had a survey and map long before now. the navigation of both the rivers mentioned in the amendWell, sir, the people of Kentucky, not having confi- ment, and I, of course, feel much solicitude for its success; dence in the engineers of the United States, employed yet, after what has been said by two of my colleagues one by their own funds; and they obtained a competent (Mr. Hawes and Mr. Chilton) in favor of the appropriand skilful officer from the State of Pennsylvania. Heation, I should not, perhaps, at this late hour of the day, could understand his notes, and made a report to the have thought it necessary to detain the House by any Kentucky Legislature. In that report he declares that remarks of mine, if the importance of Big Barren as well the waters of Green river, at their high stage, are navi- as Green river, above their junction, had been sufficientgable for steamboats, and might be so during the whole ly appreciated by gentlemen. of the former, especially, season, if these obstacles, occurring in different parts of my colleagues, who displayed so much zeal in behalf of the stream, were removed. The stream was 150 miles in Green river, seemed to know or care but little; and the length, and the United States engineers stated its average honorable member from Tennessee tauntingly inquired of depth at 22 feet. It would cost only $75,000 to remove the gentieman who introduced this amendment, whether the obstructions. The State had already appropriated Big Barren river was knee deep at Bowling Green, in the $50,000, and they looked to Congress with the confi- summer season? Sir, I can inform that gentleman, if he dent bope of obtaining the remaining $25,000. Mr. H. does not already know the fact, that the stream which be hoped there would be no objection to this small amount. represents as so insignificant, has already been navigated He wished, he said, that every gentleman who then heard by steamboats of considerable burden, in spite of the obhim was on the banks of that river. He was well assu- structions which it is the object of this amendment to re. red, if they once could see the spot, they would be so move; and the people of Bowling Green and the adja: transported at the scene that they would be ready to sub- cent country have be thus occasionally supplied, to scribe the money as their own free gist. The banks of some extent, with salt, sugar, and other heavy articles, that stream were inhabited by the best population in the which they are usually obliged to have transported in

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wagons, at more than double the expense, from Louisville. saving in the expense of importing the commodities The navigation of Big Barren river, therefore, is not less which the planters bring back in return for their crops, important than that of Green river itself; and my col- such as salt, sugar, and other articles necessary for the league, who last addressed the House, said truly that the consumption of their families. From this view of the largest portion of the articles exported on these rivers is subject, I think it may be safely averred that the people produced above their junction; and that the improvement whose trade is dependent on these rivers will actually of the navigation above the mouth of Big Barren is, there save, in two or three years, by the reduction of the exfore, not less for the interest of the country than below. pense of the transportation of their property, which must Sir, Green river, which unites with Big Barren river follow the introduction of steamboats, a sum equal to the about one hundred and fifty miles from the Ohio, is deci. entire cost of improving the navigation of Green river, up dedly the most important navigable stream in Kentucky, to its junction with Big Barren, if the estimate of that whether we consider the facility with which it may be cost, to which I shall presently advert, be correct, as I improved and rendered safe for the passage of steamboals, believe it is. or the quantity and value of the property which must be Mr. Speaker, it has been objected to this, as well as to transported through its channel to a market. When I say other similar propositions, that the rivers proposed to be it is the most important river in Kentucky, I will, of improved have not been surveyed by engineers acting course, be understood as referring to those which have their under the authority of this Government; and that there navigable course exclusively within the limits of the State; has been no estimate submitted of the expenditure neand of these, I repeat, it is decidedly the most important, cessary to accomplish the work; and I understand, from without excepting that which gives name to the State. some remarks that fell from the honorable chairman of The principal agricultural product of the country is tobac. the Committee on Roads and Canals, that his assent must be co, of which a large quantity is annually produced and withheld from appropriations, in all cases where these ob. exported, and of such a quality as to bave obtained al- jections exist. I know sir, that these preliminary steps ready for the Green river tobacco a reputation little infe- bave usually been required; but they surely ought not to rior, if not quite equal, to that of James river, in Virginia. be considered indispensable. It has not been the pracof this article, according to information received by tice of this House so to consider them. On the contrary, me, of the correctness of which I have no doubt, there is Congress has, if I mistake not, frequently made approannually raised, in the county of Barren, where I reside, priations for objects of internal improvement, on inforabout 2,000 hhds.; in the adjoining county of Green, just- mation derived from sources other than reports from the ly referred to, by my colleague who represents it, as cel- Engineer department. It has been usual to require a survey ebrated for the excellent quality of its crops, 1,800 hhds.; and report from the War Department, that the utility of the and in Warren, another adjoining county, 1,500 hdds. proposed improvement, and the practicability of accomBut, without being more particular, I will say that, in plishing it at a reasonable expense, may be seen; but if twelve or thirteen counties, situated above and a short we can by any other means get information on these points distance below the junction of Big Barren and Green riv. that ought to he relied on, I presume it is a matter of little ers, the average annual production of this article is be. consequence from what quarter it may be derived. It tween nine and ten thousand hogsheads, the value of is true, sir, we have, in the present case, no report of a which may be estimated at nearly $400,000; and the other survey or estimate of expenditure formerly made out by surplus products of the country, consisting of live stock, the Department; but, as my colleague, (Mr. Hawes,] Indian corn, pork, beef, and other articles of minor im- who offered the amendment, has stated, a survey of portance, will probably amount to an equal sum. And let Big Barren and Green rivers bas, in fact, been made by it be remembered that the quantity of all these produc- engineers acting under the orders of the Secretary of tions is continually increasing; for, as yet, not one-half of War, but a report was unfortunately prevented by the the good lands on the waters of Big Barren and Green dispersion of the officers engaged in the work, immedirivers have been brought into cultivation. Mr. Speaker, ately after it was finished, to different military posts situthe farmers and planters of that country are dependent ated at a considerable distance from each other, and on their rivers exclusively for the transportation of all this from the seat of Government. Such, at least, is the inproperty to New Orleans, the only market accessible to formation I have received. them; and, according to the present uncertain mode of The result of the examination made by these engineers conveyance, in heavy Aat-bottomed boats, the freight was, as I have understood from good authority, every alone will amount to not less than twenty per cent. on the way favorable to the object now proposed; and their value of their property, to say nothing of the disappoint- views and opinions correspond substantially with those of ments suffered, and the losses sustained, by the accidents a distinguished engineer, afterwards employed under the and delays unavoidable in this species of navigation. I authority of the Legislature of Kentucky, and who, in have stated the value of the tobacco annually exported at pursuance of his engagement, made an examination and nearly 400,000 dollars, and all other articles together at survey of Green river, and a particular estimate of the about an equal sum. But, estimating the aggregate value expenditures necessary to remove the several obstructions of all the produce annually exported on the river from the to its navigation. The report of this gentleman, and counties mentioned, at 700,000 dollars, (which is certainly another engineer with whom he was associated, has al. moderate,) the freight, according to the rate stated, would ready been referred to by my colleague; and a report of amount to the sum of 140,000 annually. This is an enor- the commissioners appointed by the Kentucky Legislature mous tax on the labor of the husbandman; which, on the to superintend the work is also in 'my possession. It introduction of steamboat navigation, would be reduced may be proper here to státe, that the engineer to whom I at least one-half. For I understand that the freight paid have alluded is a distinguished citizen of Pennsylvania, on a hogshead of tobacco, shipped from Louisville to New whose eminent qualifications are, no doubt, well known to Orleans, is only four dollars; whereas the planter is oblig- many honorable members of this House; and the comed to pay nine, and sometimes ten, dollars per hogshead missioners are respectable, intelligent, and enterprising from the neighborhood where I reside. And it is rea- citizens, residing in the immediate vicinity of the river, sonable to presume there is an equal difference in the some of them having intimate and experimental acquaintfreight of other articles exported. But the reduction of ance with its navigation, and all of them well qualified to the expense of exportation would be but part of the ben. discharge the duties assigned to them. efits the people would derive from the improvement of Sir, it does seem to me that the reports of these engitheir rivers. There would be a farther and important neers and commissioners, all of them respectable, compe.

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