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veral rich donations : and he particu- far from being agreeable to his sublarly raised two magnificent ol elisks in jeets, who rather chofe to live in a the temple of the Sun at Heliopolis. Itate of anarchy, for five generations,

After this King we meet with no than to venture upon another choice thing in the Egyptian history worth our of a King. regard, till the reign of Amasis, or A At length Cetes, whom the Greeks mojis, many ages after him. This ty- call Proteus, a Memphite of obscure birth, rant is recorded to have forced his sub- was elected King of Egypt. The Priests jects, with the utmost violence and in- gave him out for one ikilied in the weajustice to their persons and possessions, ther, or a Magician ; and pretended to call in a foreign power, Actisaries, he could assume any shape or form King of Ethiopia ; by whose assistance he pleased, even that of fire. Hence they drove him from the throne. How comes the fable of Proteus, among the ever, Amosis is allowed to have abo. poets ; which was grounded upon a lished the inhuman custom of facrificing custom among the Egyptians (perhaps men to Juno at Heliopolis, and instead of introduced by Proteus) who were used them to have substituted waxen images. to adorn and distinguith the heads of They were examined, and sealed like their Kings, with the representations pure calves; and called Typhonians. of animals or vegetables, or even with Three of them were burnt in a day, burning incense, as so many ensigns of and their alhes scattered abroad, so as royalty, to strike the beholders with to be suen no more ; and this publickly dread and fuperftition. In his time every year, during the Dog-days, at the Paris, or Alexander, was driven by a city of Idithya. See Vol. VI. P. 97, 205. storm on the coasts of Egypt, and there

S. Dit A&tisanes succeed him? landed with Helen, whom he was car

7. Afisanes did succeed him, united rying from Greece to Troy. But when Egypt to Ethiopia, and bore his ad- he heard the persidious breach of hofvancenicnt with great prudence, mo- pitality, committed by this young man, deration, and affection towards his new he seized him, his mistress, and his subje&ts. At his accession to the throne, companions, with all the riches he had Egypt was sadly peitered with thieves brought away with him from Greece: and robbers, whom he was determined As for Helen, and her husband's effects, to root out of his dominions, and there- he detained them, promising to restore fore ordered a general search to be both, as he did, to the injured party, made after them : and every one that when demanded : but he commanded could not clear himself of the charge, Paris and his companions to depart out after a fair trial, was condemned to of his dominions in three days, upon have their noses cut off, and to be ba- pain of being treated as enemies. nished to the remotest part of the de

His fon and fucceffor Rham; finitus, sert between Syria and Egypt; where who, treading in his father's steps, ruled he built them a town, which was cal. Egypt in justice and mercy, and was a led Rhinocolura, from the disfigurement conitant observer of good order, is the of its infamous inhabitants. This part same as the poets pretend descended : was so barren, that it scarce afforded alive into the infernal regions to play any one necessary of life : for the few at dice with Ceres, and was by her wells and ponds, found within its presented with a goiden bowl, at his bounds, were brackish, bitter, and departure. But the nation, after his unpleasant to the palate.

death, was miserably oppressed with Upon the death of Actisanes the E- the impieties, and cruelties, and injufgyptians chose one Mendes, or Marus, tice of his successors, till Mycerinus, or their King; of whom we have nothing Cherinus, mounted the throne, who more to fay, than that he built a fa- distinguished himself for works of piety, mous fepulchral labyrinth. But, it is justice, and mercy. He opened the apprehended, his administration was temples, restored the facrifices; and if a


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complaint, at any time, was made to march towards Pelufium, with a design him of a hard sentence pronounced to invade Egypt. Upon which this in matter of property, he would satis- King assembled a body of artificers, fy the party aggrieved, to the amount shopkeepers, and labourers; and haof the loss, out of his own treasure. ving animated this unexperienced mulBut while he was thus intent upon the titude with an opinion that he was, in happiness of his people, being told by this manner, acting by the advice of the oracle at Butus, that his days should an oracle, marched with the utmost be few, and that he had but six years expedition to Pelufium. And so it more to live ; he wanting the comfort happened, that, the very next night of the Christian faith, of a future state after his arrival in that city, an infinite of happiness in consequence of the number of field-sats entered the enegood we do in this life; was greatly mies camp, and gnawed their quivers, troubled, and accused his Gods with bow-strings, and shield-Itraps to pieces : ingratitude, for requiting his piety and so that the enemy was obliged to rehumanity with the rigidness of his sen- tire with precipitation, without coming tence, when he had seen the ungodly to blows, agreeable to that of 2 Kings live in prosperity for fifty or fixty years xix. 32. together; and gave himself up to all This disgust of the military order, manner of jollity, revelling, pleasures tho' it was not attended with an, exand excess, during the remaining part traordinary effects for the present, of his life.

providence having fought for the ES. Was there not a King of Egypt gyptians at Pelufium, excited such divinamed Sabbaco ?

lions in the kingdom, That we find T. Sabbaco was King of Ethiopia,

Egypt rent and divided

among twelve and, breaking into Egypt with a power- competitors, after the death of Seful army, drove King Anysis from the thon, who entered into the Atriciest government, and once more annexed association for the public welfare. But Egypt to the crown of Ethiopia. He this lasted only fifteen years, when was much extolled for his mercy, cle- Psammitichus, of the tribe of Sais, bemency, and policy. And, to excuse ing envied by the rest, and forced to his invasion of a neighbouring king- defend his property by force of arms, dom, it is said, That he did it only in which he had increased with commerce obedience to a heavenly vision, which to Greece and Phænicia, called in the assured him he should hold the kinge assistance of foreign powers, dethroned dom of Egypt fifty years : and That, the eleven Kings, his associates, and when that number of years was seized on the whole kingdom to him. expired, he voluntarily abdicated the self. fame, and retired into Ethiopia. He is From this time (the year of the flood thouglat to be the So in scripture, and 1678, before Christ 670) the history to have entered into league with Hofea, of Egypt begins to clear up from

King of Samaria, against Shalmannaf- that impenetrable mist, with which · Jar, King of Allyria. At his abdica- it has been hitherto covered. For, tion, Anysis, still living in the fens, from this revolution foreigners, espewhere he had Aed for thelter, resumed cially the Grecians, being permitted to the government.

settle in Egypt, they have given us a Sethin, the Priest cf Vulcan, fuc- true, I may add, an exacł history of ceeded him on the throne, and not that nation. Pfammitichus, tho' he only negleEted the military class, but could not be accused of injustice, cruso injuriously treated them, and diveít. elty, or impiety towards their Gods, ed them of their privileges and lands, but had deserved well both of the state that they refused to defend him and and the priesthood, was at last deserted their country against the attempts of by his own subjects, who, to the numSonnacherib, King of Afria, in full ber of 200,000 armed men, marched

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off in a body, dissatisfied with the pe- entered Jerusalem in a peaceable man. culiar regard he always paid to fo- ner, and made Eliakim, whose name reigners in his army. The King used he changed into Jehoiakim, King of all the argutaents, that plausible ex- Judah, on condition of paying a tribute cuses and fair promises could advance, of 100 talents of silver, and one talent to reduce them to obedience, and en of gold. But Nebuchadnezzar, having gage them to desist from their resolu- erected the Babylonian upon the ruins tion; but they rejected all, and settled of the Assyrian monarchy, forced him, on the confines of Ethiopia.

after a stout resistance, and terrible However, this wise King was not flaughter, to yield up all these acquilong at a stand how to repair this loss. fitions. It is supposed, that his warHe opened his ports for all strangers, like genius would not have let him contrary to the reserved maxims of his put up with this affront, had not death predecessors; and strengthened himself cut him off

, and put an end to his inwith foreign alliances; being persuad- tentions : for it is certain, that, after ed that commerce would soon fill both this defeat, he entered into a conhis country and his cosfers.

federacy with Jehoiakim, and made He reigned fifty-four years, and was preparations for renewing the war succeeded by his fon Nechus, whom with the Babylonians. the fripture calls Pharoah Necho. His fon Pfummis fucceeded to the Who, pursuing his father's plan of crown of Egypt, but he was soon tapolicy, became a powerful Prince ken away in an expedition against the both by sea and land. He attempted Ethiopians, and left the thronę to his to cut a canal from the Nile to the

fon Apries. Red fea, which was left unfinished. But, Apries, who is called Pharaoh O. turning his thoughts to warlike enter- phra, in holy writ, was great and prizes, he built a fleet of gallies in the prosperous at the first, but grew infoMediterranean sea; and another in the lent and miserable towards the concluftreights of the Arabian gulph. And fion of his reign. He was complimenthe carried his improvement in naviga- ed, on his accession to the throne, by tion to such a height, that his failors, Zedekiah, King of Judab, and entered who, by his direction, proceeded up- into an offensive and defenfive league on a discovery of the African coasts, with him againit the King of Babylon. departed out of the Red fea, through But after Zedekiah had broke with the streights of Babel-mandel, steered Nebuchadnezzar and drawn him with down the Eastern shores of Afric, a powerful army before Jerusalem, A. doubled the Cape of Good-Hope, coasted pries deserted the cause, withdrew into up northwards, and entered the Me his own territories, and left his ally to diterranean, through the freights of the merciless rage of their enemies, in Gibraltar, and so returned into Egypt, contempt of the most folemn engagein the course of three years, upwards ments. For which we read his dread.

thousand before the like ful doom in Ezekiel xxix. 8,-12. voyage was attempted by the modern XXX. 13. Jer. xliv. 30. navigators.

For a while he triumphed over the He also gained many laurels by Tyrians, Sidonians, and Cypriots; but land : He weakened the declining mo at last the wrath of God overtook him, Sarchy of Hijria; and defeated Yo- and punished his perfidy with a violent fiah and his army, as they opposed death in this manner. He had engaged his march to the liege of Carchemish, to protect the Lybians against the viowhich he took, and reduced Syria to lence of the Crereans : But, being dehis obedience. In his return home, he feated by them with a great slaughter, seized Jehochaz, who, upon the death the few, who escaped, suspecting their of Josiah, sain in battle, had assumed King of a design to have them all de. the royal dignity ; put him in chains, ftroyed, that he might the better ty.


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rannize over the remainder of his sub. wash the feet of his guests, to be caftinjects without controul, not only de- to the image of a God, and set up in the serted their colours, but stirred up al- most frequented part of the city. To most an universal defection; so that his which the Egyptians presently paid due crown was in danger. Apries sent one reverence and honour. He chen called who was in great esteem with the peo.. an assembly of the Egyptians, and ac. ple, and, as he thought, his own quainted them, • That the God, they friend, named Amafis, to appease them. now worshipped, was made of the verBut, initead of reconciling them with • fel which had served for the meanett Apries, he accepted of their offer of the • uses; that his own case was the fame; crown, and prepared to make war up formerly he had been a mean person; on his Sovereign. Apries then dir. but, being now cheir King, he expecpatched onę Patarbimis, the most con • ted and required to be honoured and fiderable of all the Egyptians, to the obeyed as such." rebel

camp, with orders, to bring A Amongit his works are reckoned mafas to him alive. But, he returning the great temple of Ilus at Memphis; without being able to execute his a colossus of 75 feet long, lying on its orders, Apries commanded his nose and back; and on the same balas, before the ears to be cut off

. Which insolent and temple of Vulçan, two tatues, each tyrannical behaviour compleated his twenty feet high, cut out of one fone, ruin. For this was no sooner known, and fanding on each side of the than all his loyal subjects, deserted, and great one. But what is modi to be acro joined Amasis; who, finding himself in mired, he removed a house, all of one a capacity, gave him and his army of stone, to the temple of Minerva aç foreigners battle near Memphis, defeated Sais, whose dimensions were 21 cubits him, took him prisoner, confined him in front, 14 deep, and 8 high, from in the palace of Sais, and at lait, by out to out, and 18 cubits, 12 and the continual petition of his enraged 5, within people, delivered him into their hands, He reigned 44 years, and left his who fought his life, Jer. xliv. 30, who Kingdom to his lon Pfammenitus, reaftrangled him publickly.

dy to be overthrown and conquered by Nibuchadnezzar laid hold of this Cambyses, King of Persia ; who was juncture of affairs ; and, during these making great preparations for an in. inteftine broils and divifions, marched vasion at the time of Amasis's death, directly into Evypt, made a great, having, a little before, obliged the slaughter of the Egyptians

, put many of Cypriots to pay him tribute ; and who them in irons, and conquered the whole may be said to be the first conqueror of country ; which made amends to his Cyprus. army, who had just raised the fiege of Pfammenitus was scarce feated on the Tyre, without success, after a thirteen throne, when Cambyses appeared with years attempt against that city. See a powerful army on the borders of EEzekiel xxix. 18, 19. But it does not gypt, and took the ftrong town of Peo appear that Nebuchadnezzar chose to lusium by the following ftratagem : He add Egypt to his other dominions, be- placed in the front of his army, a great ing content with the immense booty number of cats, dogs, and other ani. he carried off to Babylon,

mals, that were deemed sacred by the Amasis, left now without a compe. Egyptians ; and then attacked the city tor for the throne, soon perceived that by storm, and took it without oppofihis subjects began to repent of having tion; the garrison, which consisted enraised him to be their Sovereign, on ac tirely of Egyptians, not daring, through count of the meanness of his extraction, a superstitious fear, to throw a dart which they thought was not deserving or shoot an arrow that way, of the respect due to a King · he order should kill some of those animal deities. ed a golden cistern, whole use was to By this time Pojammenitus had raised

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a numerous army, and marched to executed for every one of those they
stop the further progress of the Per- had Nain. All which Psammenitus suf-
fians. Upon which ensued a bloody fered with no further signs of sorrow,
battle; but, before the two armies en than above related. The Perfian con-
gaged, the Greeks, who served as auxi- queror however seemed disposed to save
liaries under Pfammenitus, brought the the King's life, and ordered him to be
children of Phares, their treacherous removed to Sufa, and treated with
countrymen, and killed them in the marks of royalty ; insomuch as to
sight of their father, and, in the fight discover an inclination to restore him
of the two armies, drank their blood ; to the government, under certain con-
which barbarity lo enraged the Per- ditions. But Pfammenitus abused his
fans, that they fell upon the Egyptian liberty so highly, by his artifices to
army with such fury, that they soon raise an insurrection among the con-
put them to flight, and cut the greatest quered people of Egypt, that he was
part of them to pieces. The remain- condemned at last to drink bull's
der fled to Memphis, who there, being blood till he died ; with whom expired
followed by a Persian herald, sent in the antient fplendor and glory of E-
a ship of Mytilene, from the conque- gypt.
ror, destroyed the ship, tore the inno. S. How long did Egypt continue an-
cent herald and all the ship's crew to der the dominion of the Persians ?
pieces, and carried their mangled limbs T. Not only the ignominy cast upon
in triumph through the city. But the royal and the chief families of E.
Cambyses soon after obliged them to gypt, and the execution already men-
surrender, which compleated the ruin tioned ; but the inhuman invasion of
of Egypt.

the tomb of Amasis, whose body the
Ten days after the surrender of Perfians dug up, cruelly mangled and
Memphis, Pfammenitus and the chief burnt : the impiety of slaying their
of the Egyptian Nobility were sent God Apis, and the ignominious scour-
ignominiously into the suburbs of ging of the Egyptian Priests, made such
that city, to act a part in one of the dreadful impressions upon the minds of
molt dismal tragedies that can be con- the whole nation, that they ever after
ceived. For, the King being fixed in bore an irreconcileable averfion for their
a proper place, he saw his daughter new Governors, which prompted them
coming along in the habit of a poor continually to meditate and seek re-
Have, with a pitcher to fetch water venge, and to take off the intolerable
from the river, and followed by the yoke of their oppreffors, till they
daughters of the greatest families in broke out into an open revolt in the
Egypt, all in the same miserable garb, reign of Darius Hydaspes; which how-
with pitchers in their hands also ; each ever served only to confirm their bon-
drenched in tears, and bemoaning their dage, and increase their misery; for,
own and parents unhappy condition. holding out againit Darius, his son
This fight drew tears from the eyes of all Xerxes, in his fecond year, f.isced them
their fathers, except Pfammenitus, who, to submit to harder subjection, under
ready to sink under his grief, only calt the government of his brother Achæme-
his eyes towards the ground, and there
fixed them. These were followed by But the more severity they suffered,
the son of Psammenirus, and two thou- the more were they exasperated; so that
fand of the Egyptian young Noblemen, in the fifth year of Artaxerxes Longima-
all with bits in their mouths, and hal- nus, who succeeded his father Xerxes, they
ters round their necks, led to execution, revolted again, called in the Athenians
to expiate the murder of the Persian to their aflittance, and tendered their
herald, and the Mitylenean failors ; throne to Inarus, King of Lybia, and
Cambyfes having ordered ten Egyp- son to Psammenitus. Inarus, affifted by
tians of the first rank to be publickly the Athenian fleet of 200 fail, then ly-


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