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abstract Adam Smith appears become bourgeois bourgeois society bullion buyer capital capitalist circulation of commodities circulation of money commodity owner concrete category constitutes consumption culation currency David Ricardo determined distribution duction economists English exchange value existence expressed fact function gold and silver gold as money hand hoarding ideal individual latter material means of payment means of purchase measure of value medium of circulation metamorphosis modities money in circulation natural ounce of gold owners of commodities political economy pounds sterling precious metals prices of commodities process of circulation process of exchange proportion quantity of gold quantity of labor-time quantity of money realized relations of production represent Ricardo seller shillings social labor sphere of circulation standard of price tion token of value universal equivalent universal labor-time use-value value of commodities value of gold value of money wealth yard of linen
Page 11 - The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society— the real foundation, on which rise legal and political superstructures and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production in material life determines the general character of the social, political, and spiritual processes of life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but, on the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousness.
Page 268 - Man is in the most literal sense of the word a zoon politikon, not only a social animal, but an animal which can develop into an individual only in society.
Page 12 - No social order ever disappears before all the productive forces for which there is room in it have been developed; and new higher relations of production never appear before the material conditions of their existence have matured in the womb of the old society itself.
Page 11 - In the social production which men carry on they enter into definite relations that are indispensable and independent of their will; these relations of production correspond to a definite stage of development of their material powers of production. The sum total of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society — the real foundation, on which rise legal and political superstructures and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.
Page 12 - In considering such transformations the distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic, or philosophic — in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.
Page 12 - With the change of the economic foundation the entire immense superstructure is more or less rapidly transformed. In considering such transformations a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic — in short ideological forms in which men become conscious...
Page 12 - At a certain stage of their development, the material productive forces of society come in conflict with the existing relations of production, or — what is but a legal expression for the same thing — with the property relations within which they have been at work hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an epoch of social revolution. With the change of the economic foundation the entire immense superstructure is more or...
Page 246 - England, in consequence of a bad harvest, would come under the case. . . of a country having been deprived of a part of its commodities, and therefore requiring a diminished amount of circulating medium. The currency which was before equal to her payments would now become superabundant and relatively cheap...
Page 13 - Therefore mankind always sets itself only such tasks as it can solve; since, looking at the matter more closely, it will always be found that the task itself arises only when the material conditions for its solution already exist or are at least in the process of formation.