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THE

QUARTERLY REVIEW.

W.

No. 442, Part 1.- DECEMBER, 1914.

Art. 1.-ADMINISTRATION OF THE ANGLO-EGYPTIAN

SUDAN.

1. The Journals of Major-General Gordon at Khartoum.

London : Kegan Paul, 1885. 2. England and the Sudan. By Yacoub Pasha Artin.

London: Macmillan, 1911. 3. Modern Egypt. By the Earl of Cromer. London:

Macmillan, 1908. 4. Letters from the Sudan. By E. F. Knight. London:

Macmillan, 1897. 5. The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. By Count Gleichen.

London: Harrison, 1905. 6. The Expansion of Egypt. By A. Silva White. London:

Methuen, 1899. 7. Reports on the Finance, Administration, and Condition

of the Sudan. London: Waterlow, 1913. 8. Reports by H.M.'s Agent and Consul General on the Finances, Administration and Condition of Egypt and the Sudan. London: Harrison, 1913. (Cd. 7358.]

[ The Convention made between the British Government and the Government of the Khedive on January 19, 1899, lays down that the administration of the Sudan is to be vested in a Governor-General, who is appointed by Khedivial decree on British recommendation, and who cannot be removed save by Khedivial edict issued with British consent. Moreover, to render the Sudan absolutely free from Egyptian interference, no Egyptian law, ordinance or ministerial arrête applies in the Sudan unless by the Governor-General's proclamation.

Turkish or Egyptian Governors-General held power Vol. 222.-No. 442,

B

in the Sudan from the year 1825, but for the most part the holders of that office ruled for a very brief period. The first British Governor-General of the Sudan was General Gordon, who acted for barely fifteen months, and died at his post; after an interval of thirteen years, during which period the country was ruled by the Mahdists, there came a second British Governor-General, Lord Kitchener, who was also Sirdar of the Egyptian Army. It is interesting to recall Gordon's remarks in his •Journals' (Nov. 1884) in connexion with the appointment of Lord Kitchener as Governor-General. Writing fifteen years before the event, Gordon said :• If Kitchener would take the place, he would be the best man to put in as Governor-General.' Since Lord Kitchener became British Agent in Egypt, he has followed the policy of his predecessor in office, Lord Cromer, in leaving the Governor-General of the Sudan very largely to his own discretion, a discretion which has never yet failed to prove sound and statesmanlike. While possessing the power of supervision, the British Agent at Cairo has wisely refrained from exercising it, except in the form of suggestions, the aim of both Lord Kitchener and Sir F. Reginald Wingate having been from the commencement to decentralise as far as possible, and to leave to the responsible men upon the spot the control and the details of administration.

The Central Administration consists of the GovernorGeneral, his Council and the Provincial Governors. The two former for all official purposes reside in Khartoum, and have the control of the entire Sudan under their supervision. The pay of no official exceeds 15001. per annum, this being the salary of the Governor-General, who, however, as Sirdar of the Egyptian Army, receives a substantial addition to this sum.

The total expenses of the offices of the Governor-General and his Council are well under 10,0001. per annum. The Governor-General is assisted by the Inspector-General, the Civil Secretary, the Financial Secretary, the Director of Intelligence, the Legal Secretary, the Medical Director-General, the Directors of Railways and Steamers, the Director of Agriculture, the Director of Posts and Telegraphs, the Director of Public Works, the Director of Customs and the Director of Education. There are sub-departments

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