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bath by a precedent command, and is now appointed by the Lord thy God to be a day of holy rest; therefore in it thou shalt not do any work, thou; nor thy son, nor thy daughter, &c. And as each fabbath was to conlist only of one day, so when they had rested that one day, then they were to begin their reckoning for a second fabbath, by working fix days as they had done before, and then to keep the day that follow'd as a fabbath to God. This seems to be the full sense of this branch of the commandment, in which is shewn, that it is one day in seven, and not the seventh day from the creation, which is appointed for a fabbath, or day of holy rest, by the Lord our God; because the fabbath day is here called the seventh day, not with regard to the creation, but in distinction from, and in opposition to the fix days of labour that preceded it. His · Verse 11. For in fix days the Lord make heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day; wherefore the Lord blessed the fabbath day, and hallowed it. In this last branch of the command is shewed, first, the space of time in which God performed the work of creation, viz. fix days, and that he rested, or ceased to create on the seventh; secondly, the divine conduct, in this particular, is here assigned as a reason why God appointed the seventh day, or the seventh part of time to be a fabbath, or a day of holy rest unto his people, rather than the fixth, or the eighth, or any other part which time was equally capable of being divided into; God worked fix days,
or six of those parts of time called days, and rested the seventh. And as time was thus divided into seven parts, by the divine conduct ; so man is required by this command to imitate his Maker in this particular, by working fix of those parts of time called days, and to keep the seventh as a sabbath
ne leventh as a fabbath to God. For in fix days the Lord made heaven and earth, the fea, and all that in them is, and rested the feventh day; wherefore the Lord blessed the fabbath day, and hallowed it. It being this last branch of the command, in which the fabbatarians chief strength seems to lie, it requires a more particular and minute examination. The seventh day, with regard to the fix days on which God performed the work of creation, was only that one fingle day which immediately followed, on which day God ceased to create, and therefore on it he is said to rest. But then, this is not the very day which God is here said to bless and hallow, because that was blessed and hallowed, if I may fo speak, by God's resting on it, as aforesaid, And if that was the case, then to bless and hallow that day, would be to make the thing, and the reason for doing that thing, the fame, which is greatly absurd. Neither could that fingle day be appointed for a day of holy rest to God's people the Jews, because that day had been past many ages before the Israelites had a being. Neither was it any other one single day, which God is here faid to bless and hallow, because no such fingle day is here pointed out, and because, if that had been the
cafe, then there would have been but one hngle fabbath day thro' all ages of the world ; but this is a point which, I think, is not contended for, nor indeed the former. Now if the day which is here faid to be hallowed, was not the single seventh day on which God ceased to create, nor yet any other one single day, and yet it was a seventh day, or the feventh day; then, I think, it must have been the seventh part of time, or one day in seven which was so hallowed; because there is no other a seventh day, or the seventh day, which such hallowing is applicable to. So that the appointing the seventh day for a fabbath, was no other, nor no more, than appointing the seventh part of time, a reckoning for which must begin at some particular time for a first day, and a second, and so on to a seventh, (with regard to which reckoning this command is perfectly filent,) and which feventh day was the first fabbath; at the end of which a reckoning began for a second; and so one sabbath or seventh day followed another, by an arithmetical progression from time to time. This is farther evident, from the words themselves of this last branch of the command. For in fix days the Lord made heaven and earth, the fea, and all that in them is, and rested the leventh day; wherefore the Lord blesed, (not the seventh day which is here referred to, but the fabbath day, and ballowed it. God blessed the Jabbath day, that is, the seventh part of time, which he had appointed for a fabbath by a prea cedent command, and hallowed it; that is, the
time which he had before appointed to be a day of rest, he here required should be applied to kóly or religious uses; the Lord blessed the fabbath day, and hallowed it. And as the fabbath day had been appointed to be kept, by a precedent command; fo, God had before required the Israelites to begin their reckoning for it, from their first gathering of the manna.
But tho' God's working fix days, and resting the seventh, is here assigned as a reason why he appointed the seventh part of time, rather than any other, to be the fabbath: yet, I think, it may be fairly presumed this was not the only
reason why he did so. . God commanded the · Israelites to till their land fix years, and to let it rest the seventh. And tho’ the reason for fo doing is not expressed; yet, I think, it may fairly be presumed, viz. because this best answered the purposes which such a rest was intended to serve: For tho' the arable land in Canaan was so good, as that it would bear tilling several years successively, yet it was not so good, as to bear it always without any rest; and therefore one year in seven was appointed for it, because that proportion, probably, best answered the purpose of tillage to them. Šo in like manner, God appointed the seventh part of time for a fabbath, not only because he had performed the work of creation in fox days, and rested the seventh; but also, and more especially, because, such a proportion of time, probably, best answered the purpose of that institution': For as the return of a fabbath every feventh day was sufficient, (when kept as . it ought,) to preserve in mens minds a just
sense of God and their duty, and to answer every other valuable purpose, which the keeping of a fabbath was intended to serve; so its returning no quicker, rendred the labouring part of mankind capable of making a suitable and proper provision for life, by which means the keeping a fabbath was not injurious to them in their worldly affairs.
VIII. The obligation which christians, considered as christians, are under to keep the ten commandments, does not arise from God's having required the Jews to keep them, who were likewise required to keep tħe ceremonial law; but it arises from those commands being founded in reason; and from christians being required to keep them by Christ their Master; and from his declaring obedience to them to be the ground of God's favour. If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments, Mat. xix. 17. And as the Jewish dispensation was temporary, and intended to last but till Christ had introduced another, and better in its stead; so when he had introduced another, then that may very justly be said to have ceased, or to have been at an end, and Christ, by a figure of speech, may be said to have nailed it to his cross, as it ended at his death. And as the Mofaick dispensation ended at the death of Chrift; fo the Christian began at his resurre&tion. At which time, the Christians were at liberty to begin their reckoning for a sabbath, from the beginning of that new and better dispensation they were then entered into, (which according