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thing different from that, which you tell us, we should have of it. *

Once more ; when the apostle says, 2 Cor. v. 15, We thus judge, that if one died (UTE) for all, then were all dead, or liable to death ; it is plain, that the word

* For the farther clearing of what is said above ; permit me to subjoin a word or two in this place. Had you told us, that the apostle here leads our thoughts to that benevolent disposition of mind, which inclines a per son (who sees another fallen into the water; sees also, that if he is not assisted by him, he must perish ; and knows farther, that in order to save him, he must lose his own life) in such circumstances to lay down his life for him ; and had you then told us, that such is the

sentiment we should have of Christ's dying for us ;' you would have led us, so far as I can perceive, to entertain such a sentiment concerning it as is agreeable to the real case : for it is evident, as has been already liinted, that our Lord died for us, not when barely in danger, but when actually condemned to die ; and that he did not merely venture his life for our sakes, but did actually lay it down, as what he knew was the appointed ground or condition of our being saved, or that, without which we should not have been saved. But tlve sentiment which you would have us to entertain of his death, as it is very different from this ; being such as we have of a person, who only ventures his life to save another, who is in danger ; so I cannot but say, that it seems to me the rather to fall short of what we ought to conceive of it, as it is no other than what, I suppose, all Christians have of the apostles of Christ, and indeed of all such as have hazarded their lives in order to be useful to others.

UTES must necessarily signify something more than for the sake of, upon the account of, or what is meant by any other phrase of the like import : because otherwise, the apostle's conclusion would not be just : for a person may be easily conceived to -die for the sake, upon the account, &c. of another, without supposing that other to be liable to death : whereas, suppose the apostle to mean here, that Christ died in the stead of all, or, which is the same, in such a manner as by his death to save them from death ; and his conclusion will appear to be just : because Christ's dying for all in such a sense, necessarily implies (what the apostle manifestly intended to suggest) that all were before liable to death. * We may therefore conclude, and especially as no other sense, so far as I can find, can consistently be put upon the words, that the apostle meant by Christ's dying for all, no less than his dying in their stead.t

See Christ the Mediator, p. 23. | However, it may not be amiss to take some notice of what you suggest towards the close of your note upon Rom. v. 7, as a proof, that UTES does not signify instead of another. "As Christ (you there observe) is

As to what you next observe in the same paragraph, that neither ‘doth the preposition avto imply that sense (instead of) in those • texts, Mat. xx. 28, autpov KVTI TOAW, a ' ransom for many. 1 Tim. ii. 6, AVTihutPov UTES TAUTWV, a ransom for all. Though for my own part, I know not any Greek words, which would have more strongly conveyed to us the notion of Christ's dying in our stead, than what are here used ; yet

said (746XEL UTES nuwv) to suffer for us ; so like, wise we are said (TUOXEIV UTES AUT') to suffer for him, Phil. i. 29. For unto you it is given on the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to * suffer (UTES AUT8) for him.' But this, if it proves any thing to your purpose, will prove too much, viz. that some Christians have suffered in such a manner, and with such an effect for Christ, as he has suffered for us : but if this is, as, I presume, it is, what you will not say; then it is plain, that something different may be meant by Christ's suffering for us, than can be intended by our suffering for him : and that therefore UTER, when applied to him (for ought appears to the contrary from this passage) may sig. nify in the stead of ; though when applied to us, it cannot signify so much. And, indeed, the case seems to be this : as the preposition UTEQ sometimes signifies for the sake of, or upon the account of, and sometimes in the stead of; we can no more infer from our being said to suffer for Christ, i.e. for his sake, or upon his account, that he suffered upon our account only; than we can infer from his being said to suffer for us, i.e. so as to save us thereby from death, that some Christians have suffered in such a manner for him.

it seems to me unnecessary to stay to shew (how easily soever it might be done) that sthey imply that sense : since, though you shave referred us in the margin (with what view, I know not) to Dr. Whitby's note upon the last quoted place, 1 Tim. ii. 6, you have yet been far from answering, in my opinion, what he has there said to that purpose. And I esteem it the less necessary to consider the force of the word avTI; because, when you explain our Lord's giving himself a ransom for all, by his re- deeming them from death, or atoning for

those lives which we had forfeited, i.e. in other words, by his laying down his life for us, that he might thereby, as by a ransom or atonement, preserve us from death ; you seem to me to allow in effect, though you do not choose to allow it in so many words, that Christ died in our stead : for what more can a person be supposed to do for another by dying in his stead, than strange to some, that you, sir, who allow, that Christ by his death hath redeemed or saved us from death, should yet deny, that he died in our stead. But the case, I imagine, is this ; you are sensible, that if it be granted, that Christ died in our stead, his death must then be considered as effecting our redemption, or making atonement for us, even abstracting from the consideration of that righteousness or goodness, which he shewed in dying for us, and by which alone, as you suppose, he redeemed us from death. And, indeed, it must be acknowledged, that if Christ died in our stead, this consequence, which, I suppose, you apprehend, will follow from it: it may

thereby to redeem or save him from ; death?* So that it may, perhaps, seem

* It will be allowed, I presume, to be a supposable case, that one man may die in the stead of another : let us then put the case. Now, what is it he does, who is supposed to die in another's stead ? No one can imagine, that he assumes the other's person, and so suffers : this, if it were possible, would be inconsistent with what is supposedl, viz. that he dies in the other's stead : nor can it be thought, that he becomes as conscious of the other's guilt, as if he himself had committed the crimes for which he suffers ; or that he suffers with as much inward remorse, as the other might be supposed to suffer with ; supposing he had suffered for his crimes himself : because the consciousness of guilt, and the feeling remorse, strictly speaking, must necessarily be confined to the person of the criminal. What then is it that he does, who dies in another's stead ? nothing more, so far as I can discover, than lay down his life, that by so doing he may save him from death. The application I need not make.

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