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compassion, and without tormenting it. Let us
And to the hatchet yield thy husbandman,
Who finish'd autumn, and the spring began? consider, that it is in its own nature cruelty to put a living creature to death; we at least de What more advance can mortals make in sin stroy a soul that has sense and perception.'— In So near perfection, who with blood begin?
Deaf to the calf that lies beneath the knife, the life of Cato the Censor, he takes occasion,
Looks up, and from her butcher begs her life : from the severe disposition of that man, to dis. Deaf to the harmless kid, that ere he dies, course in this manner: 'It ought to be esteem
All methods to procure thy mercy tries, ed a happiness to mankind, that our humanity
And imitates in vain the children's cries. Dryden has a wider sphere to exert itself in than bare justice. It is no more than the obligation of
Perhaps that voice or cry so nearly resemour very birth to practise equity to our own bling the human, with which Providence has kind; but humanity may be extended through endued so many different animals, might pur. the whole order of creatures, even to the mean. posely be given them to move our pity, and est. Such actions of charity are the overflow. prevent those cruelties we are too apt to inflict ings of a mild good-nature on all below us. It on our fellow-creatures. is certainly the part of a well-natured man to
There is a passage in the book of Jonas, take care of his horses and dogs, not only in when God declares his unwillingness to destroy expectation of their labour while they are foals Nineveh, where methinks that compassion of and whelps, but even when their old age has the Creator, which extends to the meanest rank made them incapable of service.'
of his creatures, is expressed with wonderful History tells us of a wise and polite nation,
tenderness. -Should I not spare Nineveh, that rejected a person of the first quality, who that great city, wherein are more than six score
and also much cattle?' stood for a judiciary office, only because he had thousand persons been observed in his youth to take pleasure in And we have in Deuteronomy a precept of great tearing and murdering of birds. And of another good-nature of this sort, with a blessing in form that expelled a man out of the senate, for dash- annexed to it, in those words: “If thou shalt ing a bird against the ground which had taken find a bird's nest in the way, thou shalt not shelter in his bosom. Every one knows how re. take the dam with the young: But thou shalt markable the Turks are for their humanity in in any wise let the dam go; that it may be well this kind. I remember an Arabian author, who with thee, and that thou may’st prolong thy has written a treatise to show, how far a man,
days.' supposed to have subsisted in a desert island,
To conclude, there is certainly a degree of without any instruction, or so much as the sight gratitude owing to those animals that serve us. of any other man, may, by the pure light of na. As for such as are mortal or noxious, we have a ture, attain the knowledge of philosophy and right to destroy them; and for those that are virtue. One of the first things he makes him neither of advantage or prejudice to us, the observe is, that universal benevolence of nature
common enjoyment of life is what I cannot in the protection and preservation of its crea.
think we ought to deprive them of. tures. In imitation of which the first act of vir.
This whole matter, with regard to each of tue he thinks his self-taught philosopher would these considerations, is set in a very agrecable of course fall into is, to relieve and assist all the light in one of the Persian fables of Pilpay, with animals about him in their wants and distresses which I shall end this paper. Ovid has some very tender and pathetic lines
A traveller passing through a thicket, and applicable to this occasion:
seeing a few sparks of a fire, which some passen.
gers had kindled as they went that way before, Quid meruistis, oves, placidum pecus, inque tegendos made up to it. On a sudden the sparks caught hold Natum homines, pleno quæ fertis in ubere nectar? of a bush in the midst of which lay an adder, Mollia quæ nobis vestras velamina lanas Præbetis; vitaque magis quam morte juvatis.
and set it in flames. The adder entreated the Quid meruere boves, animal sine fraude dolisque,
traveller's assistance, who tying a bag to the Innocium, simplex, natum tolerare labores ? end of his staff, reached it, and drew him out: Immemor est demum, nec frugum munere dignus, he then bid him go where he pleased, but never Qui potuit, curvi dempto modo pondere aratri, Ruricolam mactare suum
Met. Lib. xv. 116.
more be hurtful to men, since he owed his life
to a man's compassion. The adder, however, Quam male consuevit, quam se parat ille cruori
prepared to sting him, and when he expostuImpius humano, vituli qui guttura cultro Rumpit, et immotas præbet mugitibus aures!
lated how unjust it was to retaliate good with Aut qui vagitus similes puerilibus hædum
evil, • I shall do no more,' said the adder, 'than Edentem jugulare potest !
Ib. ver. 463.
what you men practise every day, whose custom
it is to requite benefits with ingratitude. If you The sheep was sacrific'd on no pretence, But meek and unresisting innocence.
cannot deny this truth, let us refer it to the first A patient, useful creature, born to bear
we meet.” The man consented, and seeing a The warm and woolly fleece, that cloth'd her murder: tree, put the question to it, in what manner a And daily to give down the milk she bred, A tribute for the grass on which she fed.
good turn was to be recompensed ? •If you Living, both food and raiment she supplies,
mean according to the usage of men,' replied And is of least advantage when she dies.
the tree, .by its contrary: I have been standHow did the toiling ox his death deserve;
ing here these hundred years to protect them A downright simple drudge, and born to serve ? O tyrant! with what justice canst thou hope
from the scorching sun, and in requital they The promise of the year, a plenteous crop;
have cut down my branches, and are going to When thou destroy'st thy lab'ring steer, who tilld,
saw my body into planks.' Upon this, the adder And plough'd with pains, thy else ungrateful field! From his yet reeking neck to draw the yoke,
insulting the man, he appealed to a second evi. That neek, with which the surly clods he broke : dence, which was granted, and immediately
they met a cow. The same demand was made, | minds, insensibly wear out, and they come te and much the same answer given, that among be influenced by the nearer examples of a dege men it was certainly so. I know it,' said the nerate age. cow, by woful experience; for I have served In the morning of life, when the soul firs a man this long time with milk, butter, and makes her entrance into the world, all thing cheese, and brought him besides a calf every look fresh and gay; their novelty surprises year; but now I am old, he turns me into this and every little glitter or gaudy colour trans pasture with design to sell me to a butcher, who ports the stranger. But by degrees the sense will shortly make an end of me. The traveller grows callous, and we lose that exquisite relish upon this stood confounded, but desired, of of trifles by the time our minds should be sup courtesy, one trial more, to be finally judged posed ripe for rational entertainments. I can by the next beast they should meet. This hap- not make this reflection without being touched pened to be the fox, who, upon hearing the story with a commiseration of that species called in all its circumstances, could not be persuaded beaux, the happiness of those men necessarily it was possible for the adder to enter in so nar. terminating with their childhood ; who, from a row a bag. The adder, to convince him, went want of knowing other pursuits, continue a fond in again; when the fox told the man he had ness for the delights of that age, after the relish now his enemy in his power, and with that he of them is decayed. fastened the bag, and crushed him to pieces. Providence hath with a bountiful hand press
pared variety of pleasures for the various stagekiri
of life. It behoves us not to be wanting tero No. 62.] Friday, May 22, 1713. ourselves, in forwarding the intention of nature.
by the culture of our minds, and a due prepara' O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint!
tion of each faculty for the enjoyment of thoses Virg. Georg. ii. 458.
objects it is capable of being affected with. Too happy, if they knew their happy state.
As our parts open and display by gentle des
grees, we rise from the gratifications of sensend Upon the late election of king's scholars, my to relish those of the mind. In the scale of ze curiosity drew me to Westminster school. The pleasure, the lowest are sensual delights, which d sight of a place where I had not been for many are succeeded by the more enlarged views and el years, revived in my thoughts the tender images gay portraitures of a lively imagination ; and of my childhood, which by a great length of these give way to the sublimer pleasures time had contracted a softness that rendered reason, which discover the causes and designs, them inexpressibly agreeable. As it is usual the frame, connexion, and symmetry of things with me to draw a secret unenvied pleasure and fills the mind with the contemplation of from a thousand incidents overlooked by other intellectual beauty, order, and truth. inen, I threw myself into a short transport, Hence I regard our public schools and uniforgetting my age, and fancying myself a versities, not only as nurseries of men for the school-boy,
service of the church and state, but also as This imagination was strongly favoured by places designed to teach mankind the most the presence of so many young boys, in whose refined luxury, to raise the mind to its due looks were legible the sprightly passions of that perfection, and give it a taste for those enterage, which raised in me a sort of sympathy. tainments which afford the highest transport, Warm blood thrilled through every vein; the without the grossness or remorse that attend faded memory of those enjoyments that once vulgar enjoyments. gave me pleasure put on more lively colours, In those blessed retreats men enjoy the and a thousand gay amusements filled my mind. sweets of solitude, and yet converse with the
It was not without regret, that I was for greatest genii that have appeared in every age, saken by this waking dream. The cheapness wander through the delightful mazes of every of puerile delights, the guiltless joy they leave art and science, and as they gradually enlarge upon the mind, the blooming hopes that lift up their sphere of knowledge, at once rejoice in the soul in the ascent of life, the pleasure that their present possessions, and are animated by attends the gradual opening of the imagination, the boundless prospect of future discoveries. and the dawn of reason, made me think most There, a generous emulation, a noble thirst of men found that stage the most agreeable part of fame, a love of truth and honourable regards, their journey
reign in minds as yet untainted from the world. When men come to riper years, the innocent There, the stock of learning transmitted down diversions which exalted the spirits and pro- from the ancients, is preserved, and receives a duced health of body, indolence of mind, and daily increase ; and it is thence propagated by refreshing slumbers, are too often exchanged men, who, having finished their studies, go into for criminal delights, which fill the soul with the world, and spread that general knowledge anguish, and the body with disease. The grate and good taste throughout the land, which is so ful employment of admiring and raising them. distant from the barbarism of its ancient inhaselves to an imitation of the polite style, beautiful bitants, or the fierce genius of its invaders. images, and noble sentiments of ancient authors, And as it is evident that our literature is owing is abandoned for law-latin, the lucubrations of to the schools and universities, so it cannot be our paltry news-mongers, and that swarm of denied that these are owing to our religion. vile pamphlets, which corrupt our taste, and It was chiefly, if not altogether, upon reliinfest the public. The ideas of virtue which gious considerations that princes, as well as the characters of heroes had imprinted on their private persons, have erected colleges, and
assigned liberal endowments to students and reflections upon the letter I writ to you, publishprofessors. Upon the same account they meet ed in yours of the twelfth instant. The sentence with encouragement and protection from all upon which he spends most of his invectives, Christian states, as being esteemed a necessary is this, “ I will give myself no manner of liberty means to have the sacred oracles and primitive to make guesses at him, if I may say him, for traditions of Christianity preserved and under though sometimes I have been told by familiar stood. And it is well known, that after a long friends, that they saw me such a time talking night of ignorance and superstition, the re to the Examiner: others who have rallied me formation of the church and that of learning upon the sins of my youth, tell me it is credibly began together, and made proportionable ad reported that I have formerly lain with the vances, the latter having been the effect of the Examiner." former, which of course engaged men in the Now, Mr. Ironside, what was there in all study of the learned languages, and of anti- this but saying, “I cannot tell what to do in quity
There has been named for this Or, if a free-thinker is ignorant of these facts, paper, one for whom I have a value, and another he may be convinced from the manifest reason whom I cannot but neglect ?” I have named of the thing. Is it not plain that our skill in no man, but if there be any gentleman who literature is owing to the knowledge of Greek wrongfully lies under the imputation of being and Latin, which, that they are still preserved or assisting the Examiner, he would do well to among us, can be ascribed only to a religious do himself justice, under his own hand, in the regard? What else should be the cause why eye of the world. As to the exasperated misthe youth of Christendom, above the rest of tress, the Examiner demands in her behalf, a mankind, are educated in the painful study of “reparation for offended innocence.”. This is those dead languages; and that religious so- pleasant language, when spoken of this person; cieties should peculiarly be employed in acquir. he wants to have me unsay what he makes me ing that sort of knowledge, and teaching it to to have said before. I declare then it was a others ?
false report, which was spread concerning me And it is more than probable, that in case and a lady, sometimes reputed the author of the our free-thinkers could once achieve their glo- Examiner; and I can now make her no repararious design of sinking the credit of the Chris- tion, but in begging her pardon, that I never tian religion, and causing those revenues to be lay with her. withdrawn which their wiser forefathers had • I speak all this only in regard to the Exa. appointed to the support and encouragement of miner's offended innocence, and will make no its teachers, in a little time the Shaster would reply as to what relates merely to myself. I be as intelligible as the Greek Testament; and have said before, “he is welcome from hence. we, who want that spirit and curiosity which forward, to treat me as he pleases.” But the distinguished the ancient Grecians, would by bit of Greek, which I entreat you to put at the degrees relapse into the same state of barbarism front of to-morrow's paper, speaks all my sense which overspread the northern nations, before on this occasion. It is a speech put in the they were enlightened by Christianity. mouth of Ajax, who is engaged in the dark :
Some perhaps, from the ill-tendency and vile He cries out to Jupiter, "Give me but daytaste which appear in their writings, may sus- light, let me but see my foe, and let him destroy pect that the free-thinkers are carrying on a me if he can." malicious design against the belles lettres : for * But when he repeats his story of the “gemy part, I rather conceive them as unthinking neral for life,” I cannot hear him with so much wretches, of short views and narrow capacities, patience. He may insinuate what he pleases who are not able to penetrate into the causes to the ministry of me; but I am sure I could or consequences of things.
not, if I would, by detraction, do them more injury than he does by his ill-placed, ignorant, nauseous flattery. One of them, whose talent
is address, and skill in the world, he calls Cato; Saturday, May 23, 1713.
another, whose praise is conversation-wit and Ζευ πατερ, αλλα συ ρυσαι υπ' αερος υιας Αχαιων,
a taste of pleasures, is also Cato. Ποιησον, δ' αιθρην, δος δ' οφθαλμοισιν ιδεσθαι, thing in nature be more out of character, or 'Εν δε φαει και ολεσσον.
Hom. Il. xvii. 645.
more expose those whom he would recommend
to the raillery of his adversaries, than comparO King ! O Father! hear my humble prayer : ing these to Cato? But gentlemen of their Dispel this cloud, the light of heaven restore, Give me to see, and Ajax asks no more:
eminence are to be treated with respect, and If Greece must perish, we thy will obey,
not to suffer because a sycophant has applaudBut let us perish in the face of day!
ed them in a wrong place.
"As much as he says I am in defiance with I am obliged, for many reasons, to insert this those in present power, I will lay before them first letter, though it takes me out of my way, one point that would do them more honour than on a Saturday ; but the ribaldry of
any one circumstance in their whole adminissome part of that will be abundantly made up tration; which is, to show their resentment of by the quotation in the second.
the Examiner's nauseous applause of them.
selves, and licentious calumny of their prede• To Nestor Ironside, Esquire.
Till they do themselves that justice, • Friday, May 22, 1713.
men of sense will believe they are pleased with *SiB, -The Examiner of this day consists of the adulation of a prostitute, who heaps upen
them injudicious applauses, for which he makes ruins we bring upon ourselves; and lastly, it way by random abuses upon those who are in fills our hearts with distrust, and fear, and present possession of all that is laudable. I am, shame; for we shall never be able to persuade sir, your most humble servant,
ourselves fully, that there is no difference be *RICHARD STEELE.' tween good and evil; that there is no God, or none
that concerns himself at the actions of this life : • To Mr. Ironside.
and if we cannot, we can never rid ourselves of "Sir,-A mind so well qualified as your's, must the pangs and stings of a troubled conscience receive every day large improvements, when we shall never be able to establish a peace and exercised upon such truths which are the glory calm in our bosoms; and so enjoy our pleasure of our natures; such as those which lead us to with a clear and uninterrupted freedom. But an endless happiness in our life succeeding this. if we could persuade ourselves into the utmost I herewith send you Dr. Lucas's Practical height of atheism, yet still we shall be under Christianity, for your serious perusal. If you these two strange inconveniences : 1st. That have already read it, I desire you would give it life of sin will be still irregular and disorderly, to one of your friends who has not. I think and therefore troublesome : 2d. That we shall you cannot recommend it better than in insert- have dismantled our souls of their greatest ing by way of specimen these passages which strength, disarmed them of that faith which I point to you, as follows:-
only can support them under the afflictions of “That I have, in this state I am now in, a this present life.”' - soul as well as a body, whose interest concerns me, is a truth my sense sufficiently discovers : For I feel joys and sorrows, which do not make
No. 64.] their abode in the organs of the body, but in the
Monday, May 25, 1713. inmost recesses of the mind; pains and plea -Levium spectacula rer'ım. sures which sense is too gross and heavy to
Yirg. Georg. iv. 3. partake of, as the peace or trouble of conscience
Trifles set out to show. in the reflection upon good or evil actions, the I AM told by several persons whom I have delight or vexation of the mind, in the contem- taken into my ward, that it is to their great plation of, or a fruitless inquiry after, excellent damage I have digressed so much of late from and important truths.
the natural course of my precautions. They “ And since I have such a soul capable of have addressed and petitioned me with appelliappiness or misery, it naturally follows, that lations and titles, which admonish me to be it were sottish and unreasonable to lose this that sort of patron which they want me to be, soul for the gain of the whole world. For my as follows. soul is I myself, and if that be miserable, I must needs be so. Outward circumstances of To Nestor Ironside, Esq. Patron of the Indus. fortune may give the world occasion to think
trious. me happy, but they can never make me so. The humble petition of John Long bottom, Shall I call myself happy, if discontent and
Charles Lilly, Bat. Pidgeon, and J. Norwood, sorrow eat out the life and spirit of my soul ? if lusts and passions riot and mutiny in my bo
capital artificers, most humbly showeth, som ? if my sins scatter an uneasy shame all That your petitioners behold with great over me, and my guilt appals and frights me? sorrow, your honour employing your important What avails it me, that my rooms are stately, moments in remedying matters which nothing my tables full, my attendants numerous, and but time can cure, and which do not so imme. my attire gaudy, if all this while my very being diately, or at least so professedly, appertain to pines and languishes away? These indeed are your office, as do the concerns of us your peti
. rich and pleasant things, but I nevertheless am tioners, and other handicraft persons, who excel a poor and miserable man. Therefore I con- in their different and respective dexterities. clude, that whatever this thing be I call a soul, • That as all mechanics are employed in acthough it were a perishing, dying thing, and commodating the dwellings, clothing the perwould not outlive the body, yet it were my wis- sons, or preparing the diet of mankind, your dom and interest to prefer its content and satis- petitioners ought to be placed first in your guarfaction before all the world, unless I could dianship, as being useful in a degree superior choose to be miserable, and delight to be un to all other workmen, and as being wholly con happy.
versant in clearing and adorning the head of “This very consideration, supposing the un- man. certainty of another world, would yet strongly •That the said Longbottom, above all the rest engage me to the service of religion ; for all it of mankind, is skilful in taking off that horrid aims at, is to banish sin out of the world, which excrescence on the chins of all males, and castis the source and original of all the troubles ing, by the touch of his hand, a cheerfulness that disquiet the mind; 1st. Sin in its very es. where that excrescence grew; an art known sonce, is nothing else but disordered, distem only to this your artificer. pered passions, affections foolish and preposter "That Charles Lilly prepares snuff and perous in their choice, or wild and extravagant in fumes which refresh the brain in those that their proportion, which our own experience suf- have too much for their quiet, and gladdens it ficiently convinces us to be painful and uneasy. in those who have too little to know their want 20. It engages us in desperate hazards, wearies of it. us with daily toils, and often buries us in the • That Bat. Pidgeon cuts the luxuriant locks
growing from the upper part of the head, in so means "no certain person ;" that the "How-d'yeurtful a manner, with regard to the visage, that calls," “ some people," a certain set of men," ne makes the ringlets, falling by the temples, " there are folks now-a-days," and things are conspire with the brows and lashes of the eye, come to that pass,” are words that shall concern
heighten the expressions of modesty and in nobody after the present Monday in Whitsun. imations of good-will, which are most infallibly week, 1713. zommunicated by ocular glances.
"That it is baseness to offend any person, • That J. Norwood forms periwigs with re- except the offender exposes himself to that perpect to particular persons and visages, on the son's examination; that no woman is defamed ame plan that Bat. Pidgeon corrects natural by any man, without he names her name ; that hair; that he has a strict regard to the climate "exasperated mistress," "false fair,” and the like, under which his customer was born, before he shall from the said Whitsun-Monday, signify iretends to cover his head ; that no part of his no more than Cloe, Corinna, or Mrs. How-d'ye. vig is composed of hair which grew above call; that your petitioner, being an old maid, wenty miles from the buyer's place of nativity; may be joined in marriage to John-a-Nokes, or, hat the very neck-lock grew in the same coun. in case of his being resolved upon celibacy, to y, and all the hair to the face in the very parish Tom Long, the carrier, and your petitioner where he was born.
shall ever pray, &c.' "That these your cephalic operators humbly
• To Nestor Ironside, Esquire Intreat your more frequent attention to the meshanic arts, and that you would place your · The humble petition of Hugh Pounce, of Grubpetitioners at the head of the family of the cos
street, showeth, netics, and your petitioners shall ever pray, &c.'
• That in your first paper you have touched To Nestor Ironside, Esq. Guardian of Good upon the affinity between all arts which concern Fame.
the good of society, and professed that you * The memorial of Esau Ringwood, showeth,
should promote a good understanding between
them. That though nymphs and shepherds, son • That your petitioner is skilful in the art and nets and complaints, are no more to be seen or mystery of writing verses or distichs. heard in the forests and chases of Great Britain,
"That your petitioner does not write for vain. yet are not the huntsmen who now frequent the glory, but for the use of society. woods so barbarous as represented in the Guar •That, like the art of painting upon glass, the dian of the twenty-first instant; that the knife more durable work of writing upon iron is al. is not presented to the lady of quality by the most lost. huntsman to cut the throat of the deer : but
• That your petitioner is retained as poet to after he is killed, that instrument is given her, the Ironmongers company. as the animal is now become food, in token that • Your petitioner therefore humbly desires
lour labour, joy, and exultation in the pursuit, you would protect him in the sole making of were excited from the sole hope of making the posies for knives, and all manner of learning to stag an offering to her table ; that your honour be wrought on iron, and your petitioner shall has detracted from the humanity of sportsmen ever pray.' in this representation; that they demand you would retract your error, and distinguish Bri.
"To the Guardian. tons from Scythians. *P. S. Repent, and eat venison.'
"Sir,- Though every body has been talking
or writing on the subject of Cato, ever since the * To Nestor Ironside, Esquire, Avenger of world was obliged with that tragedy, there has Detraction.
not, methinks, been an examination of it, which "The humble petition of Susan How-d'ye-call, sufficiently shows the skill of the author merely most humbly showeth,
as a poet. There are peculiar graces which *That your petitioner is mentioned at all vi- ordinary readers ought to be instructed how to sits, with an account of facts done by her, of artificial expressions in well adapted similies :
admire; among others, I am charmed with his speeches she has made, and of journeys she has there is no part of writing in which it is more taken, to all which circumstances your peti- difficult to succeed, for on sublime occasions it tioner is wholly a stranger; that in every family requires at once the utmost strength of the imain Great Britain, glasses and cups are broken, gination, and the severest correction of the and utensils displaced, and all these faults laid judgment. Thus Syphax, when he is forming upon Mrs. How-d'ye-call; that your petitioner to himself the sudden and unexpected destruchas applied to counsel, upon these grievances; tion which is to befall the man he hates, ex
your petitioner is advised, that her case is the same with that of John-a-Styles, and that presses himself in an image which none but she is abused only by way of form; your peti
a Numidian could have a lively sense of; but tioner therefore most humbly prays, that in be- yet, if the author had ranged over all the obhalf of herself
, and all others defamed under the jects upon the face of the earth, he could not term of Mr. or Mrs. How-d'ye-call, you will
have found a representation of a disaster so
great, so sudden, and so dreadful as this: grant her and them the following concessions : that no reproach shall take place where the "So where our wide Numidian wastes extend, person has not an opportunity of defending
Sudden th' impetuous hurricanes descend, bimself; that the phrase of a “certain person,'
Wheel through the air, in circling eddies play,