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nished the youth her house. What is not in the distinguish that they were poetry; and there. power of love! the charioteer, attended by his fore, with an innocent confusion in her face, she faithful friend, the younger brother, got out the told me I might read them if I pleased, and so other morning a little earlier than ordinary, and withdrew. By the hand, at first sight, I could having made a sudden friendship with a lad of not guess whether they came from a beau or a their own age, by the force of ten shillings, who lady ; but having put on my spectacles, and pe. drove a hackney coach, the elder brother took rused them carefully, I found by some peculiar his post in the coach-box, where he could act modes in spelling, and a certain negligence in with a great deal of skill and dexterity, and grammar, that it was a female sonnet. I have waited at the corner of the street where his mis. since learned, that she hath a correspondent in tress lived, in hopes of carrying her off under the country, who is as bookish as herself; that that disguise. The whole day was spent in-ex- they write to one another by the names of As. pectation of an opportunity ; but in many parts trea and Dorinda, and are mightily admired for of it he had kind looks from a distant window, their easy lines. As I should be loth to have a which was answered by a brandish of his whip, poetess in our family, and yet am unwilling and a compass taken to drive round and show harshly to cross the bent of a young lady's his activity, and readiness to convey her where genius, I chose rather to throw together some she should command him. Upon the approach thoughts upon that kind of poetry which is disof the evening, a note was thrown into his coach tinguished by the name of easy, than to risk by a porter, to acquaint him that his mistress the fame of Mrs. Cornelia's friend, by exposing and her mother should take coach exactly at her work to public view. seven o'clock;, but that the mother was to be I have said in a foregoing paper, that every set down, and the daughter to go further, and thought which is agreeable to nature, and ex. call again. The happy minute came at last, pressed in a language suitable to it, is written when our hack had the happiness to take in his with ease : which I offered in answer to those expected fare, attended by her mother, and the who ask for ease in all kinds of poetry; and it young lady with whom he had first met her. is so far true, as it states the notion of easy The mother was set down in the Strand, and her writing in general, as that is opposed to what daughter ordered to call on her when she came is forced or affected. But as there is an easy from her cousin's, an hour afterwards. The mo. mien, and easy dress, peculiarly so called; si ther was not so unskilful as not to have instruct. there is an easy sort of poetry. In order to ed her daughter whom to send for, and how to write easily, it is necessary, in the first place, behave herself when her lover should urge her to think easily. Now, according to different

We yet know no further particulars, subjects, men think differently; anger, fury, but that my young master was married that and the rough passions, awaken strong thoughts; night at Knightsbridge, in the presence of his glory, grandeur, power, raise great thoughts; brother and two or three other persons; and that love, melancholy, solitude, and whatever gently just before the ceremony he took his brother touches the soul, inspire easy thoughts. aside, and asked him to marry the other young Of the thoughts suggested by these gentle woman. Now, sir, I will not harangue upon subjects, there are some which may be set off this adventure, but only observe, that if the edu- by style and ornament. Others there are, which cation of this compound creature had been more the more simply they are conceived, and the careful as to his rational part, the animal life more clearly they are expressed, give the soul in him had not, perhaps, been so forward, but proportionably the more pleasing emotions. he might have waited longer before he was a The figures of style added to them serve only husband. However, as the whole town will, in to hide a beauty, however gracefully they are a day or two, know the names, persons, and put on, and are thrown away like paint upon a other circumstances, I think this properly lies fine complexion. But here, not only liveliness before your guardianship to consider, for the ad. of fancy is requisite to exhibit a great variety monition of others; but my young master's fate of images, but also niceness of judgment to is irrevocable. I am, sir, your most humble cull out those, which, without the advantage of servant.'

foreign art, will shine by their own intrinsic beauty. By these means, whatsoever seems to

demand labour being rejected, that only which No. 15.] Saturday, March 28, 1713.

appears to be easy and natural will come in,

and so art will be hid by art, which is the per-sibi quivis,

fection of easy writing. Speret idem, sudet multum, frustraque laboret,

I will suppose an author to be really possessed Ausus idem

with the passion which he writes upon, and

then we shall see how he would acquit himself. All men will try, and hope to write as well, And (not without much pains) be undeceived.

This I take to be the safest way to form a Roscommon. judgment of him, since if he be not truly

Choved, he must at least work up his imagina. I CAME yesterday into the parlour, where I tion as near as possible, to resemble reality. I found Mrs. Cornelia, my lady's third daughter, choose to instance in love, which is observed to all alone, reading a paper, which, as I after- have produced the most finished performances wards found, contained a copy of verses upon in this kind. A lover will be full of sincerity, love and friendship. She, I believe, apprehended that he may be believed by his mistress; he that I had glanced my eye upon the paper, and will, therefore, think simply; he will express by the order and disposition of the lines might himself perspicuously, that he may not perplex

Hor. Ars Poet. 240.

I.

her; he will, therefore, write unaffectedly. Deep air and manner were genteel and easy, and his reflections are made by a head undisturbed ; and wit agreeable. The ladies in complaisance to points of wit and fancy are the work of a heart | him turned the discourse to poetry. This soon at ease; these two dangers then, into which gave him an occasion of producing two new poets are apt to run, are effectually removed out songs to the company; which, he said, he would of the lover's way. The selecting proper cir- venture to recommend as complete perform. cumstances, and placing them in agreeable ances. The first, continued he, is by a gentle. lights, are the finest secrets of all poetry; but man of an unrivalled reputation in every kind the recollection of little circumstances, is the of writing ; and the second by a lady who does lover's sole meditation, and relating them plea- me the honour to be in love with me, because I santly the business of his life. Accordingly we am 'not handsome. Mrs. Annabella upon this find that the most celebrated authors of this (who never lets slip an occasion of doing rank excel in love-verses. Out of ten thousand sprightly things,) gives a twitch to the paper instances I shall name one, which I think the with a finger and a thumb, and snatches it out most delicate and tender I ever saw.

of the gentleman's hands: then casting her eye To myself I sigh often, without knowing why:

over it with a seeming impatience, she read us And when absent from Phyllis, methinks I could die.' the songs: and in a very obliging manner de

A man who hath ever been in love will be sired the gentleman would let her have a copy touched at the reading of these lines; and every of them, together with his judgment upon one, who now feels that passion, actually feels songs in general; that I may be able, said she, that they are true.

to judge of gallantries of this nature, if ever it From what I have advanced, it appears how should be my fortune to have a poetical lover. difficult it is to write easily. But when easy

The gentleman complied; and accordingly Mrs. writings fall into the hands of an ordinary Annabella, the very next morning, when she reader, they appear to him so natural and un.

was at her toilet, had the following packet de. laboured, that he immediately resolves to write, livered to her by a spruce valet de chambre. and fancies that all he hath to do is to take no

THE FIRST SONG. pains. Thus he thinks, indeed simply, but the thoughts, not being chosen with judgment, are

On Belvidera's bosom lying, not beautiful: he, it is true, expresses himself Wishing, panting, sighing, dying, plainly, but flatly withal. Again, if a man of The cold regardless maid to move, vivacity takes it in his head to write this way,

With unavailing prayers I sue;

•You first have taught me how to love, what self-denial must he undergo, when bright

Ah teach me to be happy too! points of wit occur to his fancy! How difficult

II. will he find it to reject florid phrases, and pretty

But she, alas! unkindly wise, embellishments of style! So true it is, that To all my sighs and tears replies, simplicity of all things is the hardest to be co. ''Tis every prudent maid's concern pied, and ease to be acquired with the greatest

Her lover's fondness to improve;

If to be happy you shall learn, labour. Our family knows very well how ill

You quickly would forget to love.' lady Flame looked, when she imitated Mrs. Jane in a plain black suit. And I remember,

THE SECOND SONG. when Frank Courtly was saying the other day, that any man might write easy, I only asked Boast not, mistaken swain, thy art him, if he thought it possible that squire Haw.

To please my partial eyes;

The charms that have subdued my heart, thorn should ever come into a room as he did ?

Another may despise. He made me a very handsome bow, and answered, with a smile, Mr. Ironside, you have

Thy face is to my humour made, convinced me.'

Another it may fright:
I shall conclude this paper by observing that Perhaps, by some fond wlim betrayed,

In oddness I delight, pastoral poetry, which is the most considerable

III. kind of easy writing, hath the oftenest been attempted with ill success, of any sort whatso Vain youth, to your confusion know,

'Tis to my love's excess I shall, therefore, in a little time, com

You all your fancied beauties owe, municate my thoughts upon that subject to the Which fade as that grows less. public.

IV.
For your own sake, if not for mine,

You should preserve my fire :

Since you, my swain, no more will shine,
No. 16.)
Monday, March 30, 1713.

When I no more admire.

V.
-Ne forte pudori

By me, indeed, you are allow'd
Sit tibi, musa lyra solers, et cantor Apollo.

The wonder of your kind:
Hor. Ars Poet. 406

But be not of my judgment proud,
Blush not to patronise the muse's skill.

Whom love has rendered blind.

To Mrs. Annabella Lizard. Two mornings ago a gentleman came in to my lady Lizard's tea-table, who is distinguished • Madam,—To let you see how absolute your in town by the good taste he is known to have commands are over me, and to convince of in polite writings, especially such as relate to the opinion I have of your good sense, I shall,

love and gallantry. The figure of the man had without any preamble of compliments, give you 24 something odd and grotesque in it, though his my thoughts upon song-writing, in the same

I.

II.

ever.

you

No. 17.]

order as they have occurred to me, only allow, one does not require the lyric numbers, and 19 me, in my own defence to say, that I do not usually employed upon satirical occasions , remember ever to have met with any piece of whereas, the business of the other, for the most criticism upon this subject; so that if I err, or part, is to express (as my lord Roscommon transseem singular in my opinions, you will be the lates it from Horace) more at liberty to differ from them, since I do “Love's pleasing cares, and the free joys of wine." not pretend to support them by any authority. • I shall conclude what I have to say upon

• In all ages, and in every nation where poetry this subject, by observing, that the French do has been in fashion, the tribe of sonnetteers very often confound the song and the epigram, have been very numerous. Every pert young and take the one reciprocally for the other. An fellow that has a moving fancy, and the least instance of which I shall give you in a remarkjingle of verse in his head, sets up for a writer able epigram which passes current abroad for of songs, and resolves to immortalize his bottle an excellent song. or his mistress. What a world of insipid pro

“Tu parles mal par-tout de moi, ductions in this kind have we been pestered

Je die du bien par-tout de toi ; with since the revolution, to go no higher! This,

Quel malheur est le notre ? no doubt, proceeds in a great measure from not

L'on ne croit ni l'un ni l'autre.” forming a right judgment of the nature of these · For the satisfaction of such of your friends little compositions. It is true they do not re as may not understand the original, I shall ven. quire an elevation of thought, nor any extraor. ture to translate it after my fashion, so as to dinàry capacity, nor an extensive knowledge; keep strictly the turn of thought, at the expense but then they demand great regularity, and the of losing something in the poetry and versificautmost nicety; and exact purity of style, with tion. the most easy and flowing numbers; an elegant

“Thou speakest always ill of me,

I speak always well of thee; and unaffected turn of wit, with one uniform

But spite of all our noise and pother, and simple design. Greater works cannot well

The world believes nor one nor 'tother.' be without some inequalities and oversights, and · Thus, madam, I have endeavoured to come they are in them pardonable; but a song loses ply with your commands ; not out of vanity of ar all its lustre if it be not polished with the erecting myself into a critic, but out of an ear greatest accuracy. The smallest blemish in it, nest desire of being thought, upon all occasions, like a flaw in a jewel, takes off the whole value

your most obedient servant.' of it. A song is, as it were, a little image in enamel, that requires all the nice touches of the pencil, a gloss and a smoothness, with those delicate finishing strokes, which would be su

Tuesday, March 31, 1713. perfluous and thrown away upon larger figures,

-Minimumque libidine peccant.-Juv. Sat. vi. 134 where the strength and boldness of a masterly hand gives all the grace.

Lust is the smallest sin they own. Dryden. Since you may have recourse to the French If it were possible to bear up against the and English translations, you will not accuse force of ridicule, which fashion has brought me of pedantry, when I tell you that Sappho, upon people for acknowledging a veneration for Anacreon, and Horace in some of his shorter the most sacred things, a man might say that lyrics, are the completest models for little odes the time we now are in, is set apart for humili. or sonnets. You will find them generally pur. ation ; and all our actions should, at present, suing a single thought in their songs, which is more particularly tend that way. I remember driven to a point, without those interruptions about thirty years ago an eminent divine, who and deviations so frequent in the modern writers was also most exactly well-bred, told his conof this order. To do justice to the French, there gregation at Whitehall

, that if they did not is no living language that abounds so much in vouchsafe to give their lives a new turn, they good songs. The genius of the people, and the must certainly go to a place which he did not idiom of their tongue, seems adapted to compo- think fit to name in that courtly audience. It sitions of this sort. Our writers generally is with me as with that gentleman. I would, crowd into one song, materials enough for seve- if possible, represent the errors of life, especially ral; and so they starve every thought, by en- those arising from what we call gallantry, in deavouring to nurse up more than one at a time. such a manner as the people of pleasure may They give you a string of imperfect sonnets, read me. In this case, I must not be rough to instead of one finished piece, which is a fault gentlemen and Tadies, but speak of sin. as a gen. Mr. Waller (whose beauties cannot be too much tleman.. It might not perhaps be amiss, if, admired) sometimes falls into. But, of all our therefore, I should call my present precaution, countrymen, none are more defective in their A Criticism upon Fornication ; fand, by represongs, through a redundancy of wit, than Dr. senting the unjust taste they have who affect Donne and Mr. Cowley. In them, one point of that way of pleasure, bring a distaste upon it wit flashes so fast upon another, that the read among all those who are judicious in their saer's attention is dazzled by the continual spark. tisfactions. I will be bold then to lay down for ling of their imagination ; you find a new design a rule, that he who follows this kind of gratifistarted almost in every line, and you come to cation, gives up much greater delight by pur. the end without the satisfaction of seeing any suing it, that he can possibly enjoy from it. As one of them executed.

to the common women and the stews, there is • A song should be conducted like an'epigram; no one but will allow this assertion at first sight; and the only difference between them is, that I but if it will appear, that they who deal with

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their words and actions in the constraint of all of them. When he came home, his lackey met

those of the sex who are less profligate, descend noble pleasures which flow from honour and to greater basenesses than if they frequented virtue. Happy are they, who, from the visitbrothels, it should, methinks, bring this iniquity ation of sickness, or any other accident, are under some discountenance. The rake who, awakened from a course which leads to an in. without sense of character or decency, wallows sensibility of the greatest enjoyments in human and ranges in common houses, is guilty no far. life. ther than of prostituting himself, and exposing A French author, giving an account of a very his health to diseases: but the man of gallantry agreeable man, in whose character he mingles cannot pursue his pleasures without treachery good qualities and infirmities, rather than vices to some man he ought to love, and ing and virtues, tells the following story : despicable the woman he admires. To live in Our knight,' says he, ‘was pretty much ad. a continual deceit; to reflect upon the disho. dicted to the most fashionable of all faults. He nour you do some husband, father, or brother, had a loose rogue for a lackey, not a little in his who does not deserve this of you, and whom favour, though he had no other name for him you would destroy did you know they did the when he spoke of him but “the rascal,” or, to him, like towards you, are circumstances which pall but “sirrah.” One morning when he was dress. the appetite, and give a man of any sense of ing, “Sirrah,” says he,“ be sure you bring home honour very painful mortification. What more this evening a pretty wench.” The fellow was a need be said against a gentteman's delight, than. person of diligence and capacity, and had for that he himself thinks himself a base man in some time addressed himself to a decayed old pursuing it, when it is thoroughly considered, gentlewoman, who had a young maiden to her he gives up his very being as a man of integrity daughter, beauteous as an angel, not yet sixteen who commences gallant? Let him or her who years of age. The mother's extreme poverty, and is guilty this way but weigh the matter a little, the insinuations of this artful lackey concerning and the criminal will find that those whom they the soft disposition and generosity of his master, most esteemed, are of a sudden become the most made her consent to deliver up her daughter. But disagreeable companions : nay, their good qua. many were the entreaties and representations of lities are grown odious and painful. It is said, the mother to gain her child's consent to an ac. people who have the plague, have a delight in tion, which she said she abhorred, at the same communicating the infection : in like manner, time she exhorted her to it; “but child,” says the sense of shame, which is never wholly over- she, “ can you see your mother die for hunger ?” come, inclines the guilty this way to contribute The virgin argued no longer, but bursting into to the destruction of others. And women are tears, said she would go any where. The lackey pleased to introduce more women into the same conveyed her with great obsequiousness and se. condition, though they can have no other satis. crecy to his master's lodging, and placed her in faction from it, than that the infamy is shared a commodious apartment till he came home. among greater numbers, which they Aatter The knight, who knew his man never failed of themselves eases the burden of each particular bringing in his prey, indulged his genius at a person.

banquet, and was in high humour at an enter. It is a most melancholy consideration, that tainment with ladies, expecting to be received for momentary sensations of joy, obtained by in the evening by one as agreeable as the best stealth, men are forced into a

general and ordi- | him with a saucy and joyful familiarity, crying nary occurrences of life. Irts an impossibility out, “She is as handsome as an angel, (for there in this case to be faithful to one person, without is no other simile on these occasions, but the being false to all the rest of the world. The gay tender fool has wept till her eyes are swelled and figures in which poetical men of loose morals bloated : for she is a maid and a gentlewoman.” bave placed this kind of stealth, are but feeble With that, he conducted his master to the room consolations, when a man is inclined to soliloquy where she was, and retired. The knight, when or meditation upon his past life; flashes of wit. he saw her bathed in tears, said in some sur. can promote joy, but they cannot allay grief. prise, “Don't you know, young woman, why

Disease, sickness, and misfortune, are what you are brought hither ?" The unhappy maid all men living are liable to: it is therefore ridi- fell on her knees, and with many interruptions culous and mad to pursue, instead of shunning, of sighs and tears, said to him “I know, alas! what must add to our anguish under disease, too well why I am brought hither; my mother, sickness, or misfortune. It is possible there may to get bread for her and myself, has sent me to be those whose blood are too warm to admit of do what you pleased ; but would it would please these compunctions; if there are such, I am sure Heaven I could die, before I am added to the they are laying up store for them : but I have number of those miserable wretches who live better hopes of those who have not yet erased without honour!” With this reflection, she the impressions and advantages of a good edu. wept anew, and beat her bosom. The knight, cation and fortune ; they may be assured, 'that stepping back from her, said, “I am not so whoever wholly give themselves up to lust, will abandoned as to hurt your innocence against find it the least fault they are guilty of.'

Irreconcilable hatred to those they have in. • The novelty of the accident surprised him jured, mean shifts to cover their offences, envy into virtue; and, covering the young maid with and malice to the innocent, and a general sacri. a cloak, he led her to a relation's house, to fice of all that is good-natured or praiseworthy whose care he recommended her for that night. when it interrupts them, will possess all their The next morning he sent for her mother, and faculties, and make them utter strangers to the asked her if her daughter was a maide? The

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mother assured him, that when she delivered guid impressions upon the mind. But how disher to his servant, she was a stranger to man. tant soever the time of our death may be, since “Are not you then,” replied the knight, “a it is certain that we must die, it is necessary to i wicked woman to contrive the debauchery of allot some portion of our life to consider the end your own child ?” She held down her face with of it; and it is highly convenient to fix some fear and shame, and in her confusion uttered stated times to meditate upon the final period of some broken words concerning her poverty. our existence here. The principle of self-love, "Far be it,” said the gentleman, " that you as we are men, will make us inquire, what is uit should relieve yourself from want by a much like to become of us after our dissolution; and : greater evil: your daughter is a fine young our conscience, as we are Christians, will inform creature; do you know of none that ever spoke us, that according to the good or evil of our ac. : of her for a wife ?" The mother answered, tions here, we shall be translated to the man " There is an honest man in our neighbourhood sions of eternal bliss or misery. When this is that loves her, who has often said he would seriously weighed, we must think it madness to marry her with two hundred pounds.” The be unprepared against the black moment: but knight ordered his man to reckon out that sum, when we reflect that perhaps that black moment with an addition of fifty to buy the bride clothes may be to-night, how watchful ought we to be! and fifty more as a help to her mother.'

I was wonderfully affected with a discourse I appeal to all the gallants in the town, whe- I had lately with a clergyman of my acquaintther possessing all the beauties in Great Britain ance upon this head, which was to this effect : could give half the pleasure as this young gen. The consideration,' said the good man, that tleman had in the reflection of having relieved my being is precarious, moved me many years a miserable parent from guilt and poverty, an ago, to make a resolution, which I have diliinnocent virgin from public shame, and bestow. gently kept, and to which I owe the greatest 12 ing a virtuous wife upon an honest man ? satisfaction that a mortal man can enjoy. f

As all men who are guilty this way have not Every night before I address myself in private la fortunes or opportunities for making such atone. to my Creator, I lay my hand upon my heart, re ments for their vices, yet all men may do what and ask myself, whether if God should re- it is certainly in their power at this good season. quire my soul of me this night, I could hope for For my part, I do not care how ridiculous the mercy from him? The bitter agonies I undermention of it may be, provided I hear it has went in this my first acquaintance with myself any good consequence upon the wretched, that were so far from throwing me into despair of I recommend the most abandoned and misera. that mercy which is over all God's works, that ble of mankind to the charity of all in prosper. they rather proved motives to greater circumous conditions under the same guilt with those spection in my future conduct. The oftener I wretches. The Look hospital in Kent street exercised myself in meditations of this kind, Southwark, for men; that in Kingsland for wo- the less was my anxiety; and by making the men, is a receptacle for all sufferers mangled thoughts of death familiar, what was at first by this iniquity. Penitents should in their own so terrible and shocking, is become the sweetest hearts take upon them all the shame and sor- of my enjoyments. These contemplations have row they have escaped; and it would become indeed made me serious, but not sullen ; nay, them to make an oblation for their crimes, by they are so far from having soured my temper, charity to those upon whom vice appears in that as I have a mind perfectly composed, and that utmost misery and deformity, which they a secret spring of joy in my heart, so my conthemselves are free from by their better for. versation is pleasant, and my countenance, setune, rather than greater innocence. It would rene; I taste all the innocent satisfactions of quicken our compassion in this case, if we life pure and sincere; I have no share in plea. considered there may be objects there, who sures that leave a sting behind them, nor am I would now move horror and loathing, that we cheated with that kind of mirth, “ in the midst have once embraced with transport: and as we of which there is heaviness.”' are men of honour (for I must not speak as we Of all the professions of men, a soldier's, are Christians) let us not desert our friends for chiefly, should put him upon this religious vigi. the loss of their noses.

lance. His duty exposes him to such hazards, that the evil which to men in other stations

may seem far distant, to him is instant, and No. 18.] Wednesday, April 1, 1713.

ever before his eyes. The consideration, that

what men in a martial life purchase is gained -Animæque capaces

with danger and labour, and must perhaps be

Lucan. parted with very speedily, is the cause of much Souls undismayed by death.

licence and riot. As moreover it is necessary

to keep up the spirits of those who are to enThe prospect of death is so gloomy and discounter the most terrible dangers, offences of mal, that if it were constantly before our eyes this nature meet with great indulgence. But it would embitter all the sweets of life. The there is a courage better founded than this gracious Author of our being hath therefore so animal fury. The secret assurance, that all formed us, that we are capable of many pleasing is right within, that if he falls in battle, he will sensations and reflections, and meet with so the more speedily be crowned with true glory, many amusements and solicitudes, as divert our will add strength to a warrior's arm, and intrethoughts from dwelling upon an evil, which, by i pidity to his heart. reason of its seeming distance, makes but lan. One of the most successful stratagems where

Mortis

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