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with suitable abilities. These are gentlemen key will be kept in my own custody, to receive whom I have often invited to this trial of wit, such papers as are dropped into it. Whatever and who have several of them acquitted them the lion swallows I shall digest for the use of selves to my private emolument; as well as to the public. This head requires some time to their own reputation. My paper among the finish, the workman being resolved to give it republic of letters is the Ulysses's bow, in several masterly touches, and to represent it as which every man of wit or learning may try ravenous as possible. It will be set up in Buthis strength. One who does not care to write ton's coffee-house in Covent-garden,* who is a book without being sure of his abilities, may directed to show the way to the lion's head, and see by this means if his parts and talents are to to instruct any young author how to convey his the public taste.
works into the mouth of it with safety and seThis I take to be of great advantage to men crecy. of the best sense, who are always diffident of their private judgment, until it receives a sanction from the public. *Provoco ad populum,''I appeal to the people,' was the usual saying of
Saturday, July 4, 1713. a very excellent dramatic poet, when he had any dispute with particular persons about the Justum et tenacem propositi virum, justness and regularity of his productions. It
Non civium ardor prava jubentium,
Non vultus instantis tyranni is but a melancholy comfort for an author to be
Mente quatit solida ; neque auster satisfied that he has written up to the rules of Dux inquieti turbidus Adriæ, art, when he finds he has no admirers in
Nec fulminantis magna Jovis manus : the world besides himself. Common modesty
Si fractus illabatur orbis,
Impavidum ferient ruinæ. Hor. Lib. 3 Od. jji. J. should, on this occasion, make a man suspect
PARAPHRASED. his own judgment, and that he misapplies the rules of his art, when he finds himself singular The man resolv'd and steady to his trust,
Inflexible to ill, and obstinately just, in the applause which he bestows upon his own
May the rude rabble's insolence despise, writings.
Their senseless clamours, and tumultuous cries; The public is always even with an author The tyrant's fierceness he beguiles, who has not a just deference for them. The
And the stern brow, and the harsh voice defics
And with superior greatness smiles. contempt is reciprocal. I laugh at every one,' said an old cynic, who laughs at me. Do
Not the rough whirlwind, that deforms
Adria's black gulph, and vexes it with storms, you so,' replied the philosopher; .then let me
The stubborn virtue of his soul can move ; tell you, you live the merriest life of any man Not the red arm of angry Jove, in Athens.'
That flings the thunder from the sky, It is not, therefore, the least use of this my
And gives it rage to roar, and strength to fly. paper, that it gives a timorous writer, and such Should the whole frame of nature round him break,
In ruin and confusion hurld, is every good one, an opportunity of putting
He unconcern'd would hear the mighty crack, his abilities to the proof, and of sounding the And stand secure amidst a falling world. Anon. public before he launches into it. For this rea. son I look upon my paper as a kind of nursery THERE is no virtue so truly great and godlike for authors, and question not but some who as justice. Most of the other virtues are the have made a good figure here, will hereafter virtues of created beings, or accommodated to flourish under their own names in more long our nature as we are men. Justice is that which and elaborate works.
is practised by God himself, and to be practised After having thus far enlarged upon this par. in its perfection by none but him. Omniscience ticular, I have one favour to beg of the candid and omnipotence are requisite for the full exerand courteous reader, that when he meets with tion of it. The one to discover every degree of any thing in this paper which may appear a uprightness or iniquity in thoughts, words, and little dull and heavy (though I hope this will actions; the other, to measure out and impart not be often) he will believe it is the work of suitable rewards and punishments. some other person, and not of Nestor Ironside. As to be perfectly just is an attribute in the
I have, I know not how, been drawn into divine nature, to be so to the utmost of our tattle of myself, more majorum, almost the abilities is the glory of a man. Such a one, length of a whole Guardian ; I shall, therefore, who has the public administration in his hands, fill up the remaining part of it with what still acts like the representative of his maker, in re. relates to my own person and my correspond compensing the virtuous, and punishing the ents. Now, I would have them all know, that offender. By the extirpating of a criminal he on the twentieth instant it is my intention to averts the judgments of heaven, when ready to erect a lion's head in imitation of those I have fall upon an impious people; or, as my friend deseribed in Venice, through which all the pri. Cato expresses it much better, in a sentiment vate intelligence of that commonwealth is said conformable to his character. to pass. This head is to open a most wide and voracious mouth, which shall take in such
When by just vengeance impious mortals perish,
The gods behold their punishment with pleasure, letters and papers as are conveyed to me by And lay the uplifted thunderbolt aside.' my correspondents, it being my resolution to have a particular regard to all such matters as * The lion's head, formerly at Button's coffee-house, come to my hands through the mouth of the was preserved many years at the Shakspeare tavern in hon.
Covent-garden; the master of the tavern becoming a
bankrupt, it was sold among his effects, Nov. 8, 1804, for There will be under it a box, of which the 171. 10s.
When a nation once loses its regard to jus- | mediately executed, and the corpse laid ont tice; when they do not look upon it as some upon the floor by the emperor's command. He thing venerable, holy, and inviolable ; when then bid every one light his flambeau, and stand any of them dare presume to lessen, affront, or about the dead body. The sultan approaching terrify those who have the distribution of it in it, looked about the face, and immediately fell their hands; when a judge is capable of being upon his knees in prayer. Upon his rising up, influenced by any thing but law, or a cause may he ordered the peasant to set before him what. be recommended by any thing that is foreign ever food he had in his house. The peasant to its own merits, we may venture to pronounce brought out a good deal of coarse fare, of which that such a nation is hastening to its ruin. the emperor ate very heartily. The peasant
For this reason the best law that has ever seeing him in good humour, presumed to ask past in our days, is that which continues our of him, why he had ordered the flambeaux to judges in their posts during their good beha- be put out before he had commanded the adul. viour, without leaving them to the mercy of terer should be slain? Why, upon their being such who in ill times might, by an undue in lighted again, he looked upon the face of the fluence over them, trouble and pervert the dead body, and fell down in prayer? And why, course of justice. I dare say the extraordinary after this, he had ordered meat to be set before person who is now posted in the chief station him, which he now eat so heartily? The of the law, would have been the same had that sultan being willing to gratify the curiosity of act never passed; but it is a great satisfaction to his host, answered him in this manner. Upon all honest men, that while we see the greatest hearing the greatness of the offence which had ornament of the profession in its highest post, been committed by one of the army, I had reawe are sure he cannot hurt himself by that as- son to think it might have been one of my own siduous, regular, and impartial administration sons, for who else would have been so audaof justice, for which he is so universally cele- cious and presuming! I gave orders therefore brated by the whole kingdom. Such men are for the lights to be extinguished, that I might to be reckoned among the greatest national not be led astray, by partiality or compassion, blessings, and should have that honour paid from doing justice on the criminal. Upon the them whilst they are yet living, which will not lighting the flambeaux a second time, I looked fail to crown their memory when dead. upon the face of the dead person, and, to my
I always rejoice when I see a tribunal filled unspeakable joy, found it was not my son. It with a man of an upright and inflexible tem- was for this reason that I immediately fell upon per, who in the execution of his country's laws my knees and gave thanks to God. As for my can overcome all private fear, resentment, soli- eating heartily of the food you have set before citation, and even pity itself. Whatever passion me, you will cease to wonder at it, when you enters into a sentence or decision, so far will know that the great anxiety of mind I have there be in it a tincture of injustice. In short, been in upon this occasion, since the first comjustice discards party, friendship, kindred, and plaints you brought me, has hindered my eating is therefore always represented as blind, that any thing from that time until this very mowe may suppose her thoughts are wholly intent ment.' on the equity of a cause, without being diverted or prejudiced by objects foreign to it. I shall conclude this paper with a Persian
Monday, July 6, 1713. story, which is very suitable to my present subject. It will not a little please the reader, if he
Hoc vos præcipue, niveæ, decet, hoc ubi vidi, has the same taste of it which I myself have. Oscula ferre humero, qua patet, usque libet. As one of the sultans lay encamped on the
Ovid. Ars Amator. Lib. iii. 309. plains of Avala, a certain great man of the army If snowy white your neck, you still should wear entered by force into a peasant's house, and
That, and the shoulder of the left arm, bare;
Suich sights ne'er fail to fire my am'rous heart, finding his wife very handsome, turned the good
And make me pant to kiss the naked part. man out of his dwelling and went to bed to her.
Congreve. The peasant complained the next morning to the sultan, and desired redress; but was not THERE is a certain female ornament by some able to point out the criminal. The emperor, called a tucker, and by others the neck-piece, who was very much incensed at the injury done being a slip of fine linen or muslin that used to to the poor man, told him that probably the of. run in a small kind of ruffle round the upperfender might give his wife another visit, and if most verge of the women's stays, and by that he did, commanded him immediately to repair means covered a great part of the shoulders and to his tent and acquaint him with it. Accord- bosom. Having thus given a definition, or raingly, within two or three days the officer en- ther description of the tucker, I must take notered again the peasant's house, and turned the tice that our ladies have of late thrown aside owner out of doors; who thereupon applied him this fig-leaf, and exposed in its primitive nakedself to the imperial tent, as he was ordered.ness that gentle swelling of the breast which it The sultan went in person, with his guards, to was used to conceal. What their design by it the poor man's house, where he arrived about is, they themselves best know. midnight. As the attendants carried each of I observed this as I was sitting the other day them a flambeau in their hands, the sultan, af- by a famous she-visitant at my lady Lizard's, ter having ordered all the lights to be put out, when accidently as I was looking upon her face. gave the word to enter the house, find out the letting my sight fall into her bosom, I was sur criminal, and put him to death. This was im- prised with beauties which I never before dis• covered, and do not know where my eye would What most troubles and indeed surprises me
have run, if I had not immediately checked it. in this particular, I have observed that the The lady herself could not forbear blushing, leaders in this fashion were most of them marwhen she observed by my looks that she had ried women. What their design can be in made her neck too beautiful and glaring an making themselves bare I cannot possibly ima. object, even for a man of my character and gine. Nobody exposes wares that are approgravity. I could scarce forbear making use of priated. When the bird is taken, the snare my hand to cover so unseemly a sight. ought to be removed. It was a remarkable
If we survey the pictures of our great grand circumstance in the institution of the severe mothers in queen Elizabeth's time, we see them Lycurgus: as that great lawgiver knew that the clothed down to the very wrists, and up to the wealth and strength of a republic consisted in very chin. Tho hands and face were the only the multitude of citizens, he did all he could to samples they gave of their beautiful persons. encourage marriage. In order to it he preThe following age of females made larger dis- scribed a certain loose dress for the Spartan coveries of their complexion. They first of all maids, in which there were several artificial tucked up their garments to the elbow, and not-rents and openings, that upon their putting withstanding the tenderness of the sex, were themselves in motion, discovered several limbs content, for the information of mankind, to ex of the body to the beholders. Such were the pose their arms to the coldness of the air, and baits and temptations made use of by that wise injuries of the weather. This artifice hath lawgiver, to incline the young men of his age succeeded to their wishes, and betrayed many to marriage. But when the maid was once to their arms, who might have escaped them sped, she was not suffered to tantalize the male had they been still concealed.
part of the commonwealth. Her garments were About the same time, the ladies considering closed up, and stitched together with the greatest that the neck was a very modest part in a hu- care imaginable. The shape of her limbs and man body, they freed it from those yokes, I complexion of her body had gained their ends, mean those monstrous linen ruffs, in which the and were ever after to be concealed from the simplicity of their grandmothers had inclosed notice of the public. it. In proportion as the age refined, the dress I shall conclude this discourse of the tucker still sunk lower; so that when we now say a with a moral which I have taught upon all ocwoman has a handsome neck, we reckon into it casions, and shall still continue to inculcate into many of the adjacent parts. The disuse of the my female readers; namely, that nothing be. tucker has still enlarged it, insomuch that the stows so much beauty on a woman as modesty. neck of a fine woman at present takes in al. This is a maxim laid down by Ovid himself, most half the body,
the greatest master in the art of love. He, obSince the female neck thus grows upon us, serves upon
that Venus pleases most when and the ladies seem disposed to discover them. she appears (semi-reducta) in a figure withselves to us more and more, I would fain have drawing herself from the eye of the beholder. It them tell us once for all, how far they intend is very probable he had in his thoughts the stato go, and whether they have yet determined tue which we see in the Venus de Medicis, among themselves where to make a stop. where she is represented in such a shy retiring
For my own part, their necks, as they call posture, and covers her bosom with one of her them, are no more than busts of alabaster in my hands. In short, modesty gives the maid greater eye. I can look upon
beauty than even the bloom of youth, it bestows * The yielding marble of a snowy breast,'
on the wife the dignity of a matron, and rein. with as much coldness as this line of Mr. Wal- states the widow in her virginity. ler represents in the object itself. But my fair readers ought to consider that all their beholders are not Nestors. Every man is not suffi.
Tuesday, July 7, 1713. ciently qualified with age and philosophy, to be an indifferent spectator of such allurements.
Tros Tyriusve mihi nullo discrimine habetur. The eyes of young men are curious and pene.
Virg. Æn. i. 578 trating, their imaginations are of a roving na
Trojan and Tyrian differ but in name, ture, and their passion under no discipline or Both to my favour have an equal claim. restraint. I am in pain for a woman of rank, when I see her thus exposing herself to the This being the great day of thanksgiving regards of every impudent staring fellow. How for the peace, I shall present my reader with a can she expect that her quality can defend her, couple of letters that are the fruits of it. They when she gives such provocation ? I could not are written by a gentleman who has taken this but observe last winter, that upon the disuse of opportunity to see France, and has given his the neck-piece, (the ladies will pardon me, if it friends in England a general account of what is not the fashionable term of art,) the whole he has there met with, in several epistles. Those tribe of oglers gave their eyes a new determina- which follow were put into my hands with tion, and stared the fair sex in the neck rather liberty to make them public, and I question not than in the face. To prevent these saucy fa- but my reader will think himself obliged to me miliar glances, I would entreat my gentle for so doing. readers to sew on their tuckers again, to re. trieve the modesty of their characters, and not SIR,-Since I had the happiness to see you lo imitate the nakedness, but the innocence, of last, I have encountered as many misfortunes their mother Eve.
as a knight-errant. I had a fall into the water
at Calais, and since that, several bruises upon enough by him to furnish another gallery much the land, lame post-horses by day, and hard longer than the present. beds at night, with many other dismal adven. • The painter has represented his most Chris tures,
tian majesty under the figure of Jupiter, throw.
ing thunderbolts all about the ceiling, and strik"Quorum animus meminisse horret luctuque refugit." ing terror into the Danube and Rhine, that lie
Virg. Æn. ii. 12.
astonished and blasted with lightning a little * At which my memory with grief recoils."
above the cornice.
• But what makes all these shows the more • My arrival at Paris was at first no less un agreeable, is the great kindness and affability comfortable, where I could not see a face nor that is shown to strangers. If the French do hear a word that I ever met with before ; so that not excel the English in all the arts of humani. my most agreeable companions have been sta- ly, they do at least in the outward expressions tues and pictures, which are many of them very of it. And upon this, as well as other accounts, extraordinary; but what particularly recom. though I believe the English are a much wiser mends them to me is, that they do not speak nation, the French are undoubtedly much more French, and have a very good quality, rarely to happy. Their old men in particular are, I be. be met with in this country, of not being too lieve, the most agreeable in the world. An antalkative.
tediluvian could not have more life and brisk"I am settled for some time at Paris. Since ness in him at threescore and ten : for that fire my being here I have made the tour of all the and levity which makes the young ones scarce king's palaces, which has been, I think, the conversible, when a little wasted and tempered pleasantest part of my life. I could not believe hy years, makes a very pleasant and gay old it was in the power of art, to furnish out such age. Besides, this national fault of being so a multitude of noble scenes as I there met with, very talkative looks natural and graceful in one or that so many delightful prospects could lie that has gray hairs to countenance it. The within the compass of a man's imagination. mentioning this fault in the French must put There is every thing done that can be expected me in mind to finish my letter, lest you think from a prince who removes mountains, turns me already too much infected by their conver. the course of rivers, raises woods in a day's sation ; but I must desire you to consider, that time, and plants a village or town on such a travelling does in this respect lay a little claim particular spot of ground, only for the bettering to the privilege of old age. I am, sir, &c.' of a view. One would wonder to see how many tricks he has made the water play for his diver.
* Blois, May 15, N. 8. sion. It turns itself into pyramids, triumphal "Sir, I cannot pretend to trouble you with arches, glass bottles, imitates a fire work, rises any news from this place, where the only ad. in a mist, or tells a story out of Æsop.
vantage I have besides getting the language, is I do not believe, as good a poet as you are, to see the manners and tempers of the people, that you can make finer landscapes than those which I believe may be better learnt here than about the king's houses, or, with all your de. in courts and greater cities, where artifice and scriptions, raise a more magnificent palace than disguise are more in fashion. Versailles. I am, however, so singular as to I have already seen, as I informed you in prefer Fontainbleau to all the rest. It is situated my last, all the king's palaces, and have now among rocks and woods, that_give you a fine seen a great part of the country. I never variety of salvage prospects. The king has hu. thought there had been in the world such an ex. moured the genius of the place, and only made cessive magnificence or poverty as I have met use of so much art as is necessary to help and with in both together. One can scarce conceive regulate nature, without reforming her too the pomp that appears in every thing about the much. The cascades seem to break through the king; but at the same time it makes half his clefts and cracks of rocks that are covered over subjects go bare-foot. The people are, however, with moss, and look as if they were piled upon the happiest in the world, and enjoy, from the one another by accident. There is an artificial benefit of their climate, and natural constitution, wildness in the meadows, walks, and canals; such a perpetual gladness of heart and easiness and the garden, instead of a wall, is fenced on of temper as even liberty and plenty cannot be. the lower end by a natural mound of rock-work stow on those of other nations. It is not in the that strikes the eye very agreeably. For my power of want or slavery to make them misera. part, I think there is something more charming ble. There is nothing to be met with in the in these rude heaps of stone than in so many country but mirth and poverty. Every one statues, and would as soon see a river winding sings, laughs, and starves. Their conversation through woods and meadows, as when it is toss is generally agreeable ; for if they have any wit ed up in so many whimsical figures at Versailles. or sense, they are sure to show it. They never 'To pass from works of nature to those of art : mend upon a second meeting, but use all the In my opinion the pleasantest part of Versailles freedom and familiarity at first sight, that a is the gallery. Every one sees on each side of long intimacy or abundance of wine, can scarce it something that will be sure to please him. draw from an Englishman. Their women are For one of them commands a view of the finest perfect mistresses in the art of showing them. garden in the world, and the other is wainscoted selves to the best advantage. They are always with looking-glass. The history of the present gay and sprightly, and set off the worst faces king until the year 16– is painted on the roof in Europe with the best airs. Every one knows by Le Brun, so that his majesty has actions how to give herself as charming a look and pos
ture as sir Godfrey Kneller could draw her in. naked, without complaining of the bleakness of I cannot end my letter without observing, that the air in which they are born, as the armies of from what I have already seen of the world, I the northern nations keep the field all winter. cannot but set a particular mark of distinction The softest of our British ladies expose their upon those who abound most in the virtues of arms and necks to the open air, which the men their nation, and least with its imperfections. could not do without catching cold, for want of When, therefore, I see the good sense of an being accustomed to it. The whole body by Englishman in its highest perfection without the same means might contract the same firm. any mixture of the spleen, I hope you will ex- ness and temper. The Scythian that was asked cuse me, if I admire the character, and am am- how it was possible for the inhabitants of his bitious of subscribing myself, sir, yours, &c.' frozen climate to go naked, replied, “Because
we are all over face.' Mr. Locke advises parents to have their children's feet washed every morning in cold water, which might probably
prolong multitudes of lives. No. 102.] Wednesday, July 8, 1713. I verily believe a cold bath would be one of
the most healthful exercises in the world, were Natos ad flumina primum
it made use of in the education of youth. It Deferimus, sævoque gelu duramus et undis.
would make their bodies more than proof to the Virg. Æn. ix. 603.
injuries of the air and weather. It would be Strong from the cradle, of a sturdy brood,
something like what the poets tell us of Achilles, We bear our new-born infants to the flood; There bath'd amid the stream, our boys we hold,
whom his mother is said to have dipped, when With winter harden'd, and inur'd to cold. Dryden. he was a child, in the river Styx. The story
adds, that this made him invulnerable all over, I am always beating about in my thoughts excepting that part which his mother held in for something that may turn to the benefit of her hand during this immersion, and which by my dear countrymen. The present season of that means lost the benefit of these hardening the year having put most of them in slight sum. waters. Our common practice runs in a quite mer-suits, has turned my speculations to a sub-contrary method. We are perpetually softening ject that concerns every one who is sensible of ourselves by good fires and warm clothes. The cold or heat, which I believe takes in the great air within our rooms has generally two or three est part of my readers.
degrees more of heat in it than the air without There is nothing in nature more inconstant doors. - than the British climate, if we except the hu. Crassus is an old lethargic valetudinarian.
mour of its inhabitants. We have frequently in For these twenty years last past he has been one day all the seasons of the year. I have clothed in frize of the same colour, and of the shivered in the dog-days, and been forced to same piece. He fancies he should catch his throw off my coat in January. I have gone to death in any other kind of manufacture; and bed in August, and rose in December. Summer though his avarice would incline him to wear has often caught me in my drap de Berry, and it until it was threadbare, he dares not do it lest winter in my Doily suit.
he should take cold when the knap is off. He I remember a very whimsical fellow (com- could no more live without his frize coat, than monly known by the name of Posture-master) without his skin. It is not indeed so properly in king Charles the Second's reign, who was his coat as what the anatomists call one of the the plague of all the tailors about town. He integuments of the body. would often send for one of them to take mea- How different an old man is Crassus from sure of him, but would so contrive it as to have myself! It is, indeed, the particular distinction a most immoderate rising in one of his shoul. of the Ironsides to be robust and hardy, to defy ders. When the clothes were brought home the cold and rain, and let the weather do its and tried upon him, the deformity was removed worst. My father lived till a hundred without into the other shoulder. Upon which the tailor a cough; and we have a tradition in the family begged pardon for the mistake, and mended it that my grandfather used to throw off his hat, as fast as he could, but upon a third trial found and go open-breasted, after fourscore. As for him a straight-shouldered man as one would de. myself, they used to sowse me over head and sire to see, but a little unfortunate in a hump ears in water when I was a boy, so that I am back. In short, this wandering tumour puzzled now looked upon as one of the most case-harall the workmen about town, who found it im- dened of the whole family of the Ironsides. In possible to accommodate so changeable a cus- short, I have been so plunged in water and tomer. My reader will apply this to any one inured to the cold, that I regard myself as a who would adapt a suit to a season of our Eng. piece of true tempered Steel, and can say with lish climate.
the above-mentioned Scythian, that I am face, After this short descant on the uncertainty or, if my enemies please, forehead all over. of our English weather, I come to my moral.
A man should take care that his body be not too soft for his climate; but rather, if possible,
No. 103.] harden and season himself beyond the degree
Thursday, July 9, 1713. of cold wherein he lives. Daily experience Dum flammas Jovis, et sonitus imitatur olympi. teaches us how we may inure ourselves by cus
Virg. Æn. vi. 588. tom to bear the extremities of weather without
With mimic thunder impiously he plays, injury. The inhabitants of Nova Zembla go And darts the artificial lightning's blaze.