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top of the rock, we came suddenly into an the scene two hundred years ago. There open place, but so surrounded by trees and the exile would sit hour after hour, not as shrubs, as effectually to shut in the view. one may sit there now, to see sails and Here was the cave; and very different it steamers entering and leaving the har bor, was from what we had expected to find it! and post-coaches and railroad cars passing We had prepared ourselves to explore a and re-passing continually; but to gaze in small Antiparos, and were quite chagrined astonishment and fear, if one lone ship to find our grottó diminished to a mere den might be descried coming up the bay, or or covert, between two immense stones of a if a solitary horseman was to be seen or truly Stonehengian appearance and juxta- heard pursuing his journey in the valley position. I doubted for a moment whether below. their singular situation on the top of this While the fugitives lived in this den, mountain, were matter for the geologist or they were regularly supplied with daily the antiquary; and would like to refer the bread and other necessaries of life, by a question to the learned Dean of Westmin- woodman, who lived at the foot of the rock. ster, who hammers stones as eloquently as A child came up the mountain daily with a some of his predecessors have hammered supply of provisions, which he left on a pulpits. The stones are well-nigh equal in certain stone, and returned without sceing height, of about twenty feet perpendicular, anybody, or asking any questions of Echo. one of them nearly conical, and the other In this way he always brought a full basket almost a true parallelopiped. Betwixt and took back an empty one, without the them another large stone appears to have least suspicion that he was becoming an fallen, till it became wedged ; and the very accessory in high treason, and, as it is said, small aperture between this stone and the without ever knowing to whom, or for what, ground beneath, is all that justifies the he was ministering. As a Brahmin sets name of a cave, though there are several rice before an idol, so the little one fed the fissures about the stones, in which possibly stone, or left the basket to “ the unseen beasts might be sheltered, but hardly hu- spirit of the wood ;” and well it was that man beings. To render itself large enough the little Red-riding-hood escaped the usual for the pair that once inhabited it, the carth fate of all lonely little foresters, for it seems must have been dug from under the stone, there were mouths and maws in the mounso as to make a covered pit; and even then, tain which cheesecakes would not have it was hardly so good a place as is said to satisfied. The dwellers in the rock had a have been made for " a refuge to the conies,” terrible fright one night from the visit of being much fitter for wild-cats or tigers. I some indescribable beast-a panther, or could scarcely persuade myself, that English something worse-that blazed its horrid law could ever have driven a man three eyes into their dark hole, and growled so thousand miles over the sea, and then into frightfully, that if all the bailiffs of London such a burrow as this! But so it was; and had surrounded their den, they would have it was retribution and justice too.
been less alarmed. It seemed some moBad as it was, it looked more agreeable therly tigress in search of her cubs, and to Goffe and Whalley, than a cross-beam when she discovered the intruders, she set and two halters, or even than apartments up such an ululation of maternal grief as in the Tower of London. They had it fit- made every aisle of the forest ring again, ted up with a bed, and other “ereature- and so scared the inmates of her den, that, comforts” of a truly Crusoe-like descrip- as soon as they dared, they took to their tion. The mouth of the cave was screened heels down the mountain, ready to hear any by a thick growth of bushes, and the place hue and cry on their track, rather than was in several other respects well suited to hers. This story was told us by our guide, their purposes.
The parallelopiped, of who gave it as a reason for their final dewhich I have spoken, was easily climbed, sertion of the place. being furnished with something like stairs, On the stone which I climbed, I found and its top commands a fine view of the engraven a great number of names and initown, the bay, and the country for miles tials, with dates of different years. Appaaround. It served them, therefore, as a rently they liad been left there by visitors watch-tower, and must have been very use- from the university. In more than one ful as a means of protection, as an observa- place, some ardent youth, in his first love tory for amusement. I mounted the stone with democracy, had taken pains to renew myself, and tried to fancy how different was the inscription, which tradition says Goffe and Whalley placed over their retreat. The troglodytes, then, were but two; “ Opposition to tyrants is obedience to but there was a third fugitive regicide who God.',
I suppose there will always be fresh came to New Haven, and now lies there in men to do Old Mortality's office for this in- his grave. This was none other than John scription, for the maxim is one which has Dixwell, whose name, with those of Goffe long been popular in America among patri- and Whalley, may be found on that infaotic declaimers. How long it will continue mous death-warrant, which some have not generally popular, may indeed be doubted, scrupled to call the Major Charta. Dixsince the abolitionists have lately adopted well's is set among the oi nolhou, who, in it, and in their mouths it becomes an incen- the day of reckoning, were judged hardly diary watchword, which the supporters of worth a hanging; but Whalley's occupies slavery have no little reason to dread. I the bad eminence of being fourth on the list, myself saw this motto on an anti-slavery and next to the hard-fisted autograph of placard set up in the streets of New York. Oliver himself; while William Goffe's is
I inferred from this inscription, and the signed just before the signature of Pride, names on the rock, that the spot is visited whose miserable penmanship that day, it by some with very different feelings from will be remembered, cost his poor body an those which it excited in me and my com- airing, on the gibbet, in the year 1660. panions. Our valuable conductor, it is Scott, by the way, gives Whalley the prænotrue, spoke of “the Judges” with as much men Richard ; but there it is on the parchreverence as so sturdy a republican would ment, too legible for his soul's good-Edbe likely to show to any dignity whatever; ward Whalley. Shall I recur to the rest of and really the honest fellow seemed to give their history in England before I come to us credit for more tenderness than we felt, my American narrative? Perhaps in these and tried to express himself in such a man- days of " elucidation,” when it is said that ner, when telling of the misery of the exiles, everything about two hundred years since is, as not to wound our sensibilities. But I for the first time, undergoing a calm but fear his consideration was all lost; for, sad earnest review, I may be indulged in recaas it is to think of any fellow-man reduced pitulating what, if everybody knows, they to such extremity as to take up a lodging know only in a great confusion with other like this, we could only think how many of events, which impair the individual inthe noble and the lovely, and how many of terest. the true and loyal poor, had been brought Of Dixwell, comparatively little is known, by Goffe and Whalley to greater miseries save that his first act of patriotism seems to than theirs. I could not force myself, have consisted in leaving his country. therefore, to the melting mood; it was Enough that he served in the parliamentary enough that I thought of January 30, 1648, ariny; sat as a judge, and stood up as reand said to myself, “ Doubtless there is a gicide in that High Court of Treason in God that judgeth in the earth.” The lady Westminster Hall ; was one of Oliver's recalled some facts from Lord Clarendon's colonels during the Protectorate ; became History, and said that her interest in the sheriff of Kent, and no doubt hanged many spot was far from having anything to do a rogue that had a better right to live than with sympathy for the regicides. Her pa- himself; and finally sat in Parliament for tronizing protector expressed his surprise, the same county in 1656.* His experiences and jokingly assured me that she regarded after the Restoration are not known, till it as a Mecca, or he would not have given he emerged in America almost ten years himself the trouble of waiting on her to a after the last mentioned date. place he so little respected. She owned Whalley was among the more notorious that she was hardly consistent with herself of the rebels. He was cousin to Oliver, in feeling any interest at all in the memo- and one of the few for whom Oliver somerial of regicides ; but I reminded her that times exhibited a savage sort of affection. Lord Capel kissed the axe which completed He proved himself a good soldier in a bad the work of rebellion, and deprived his royal cause, at Naseby; and a furious one.at master of life ;* and we agreed that even Banbury. When the rogues fell out among the intelligent instruments of that martyr- themselves, he was the officer that met Cordom acquired a sort of reliquary value from net Joyce as he was convoying the king's ma the blood with which they were crimsoned. jesty from Holmby, † and offered to relieve the royal prisoner of his protector; an offer do a little exposition besides, when there which Charles with great dignity refused, was any call for such an exercise; as, for preferring to let them have all the responsi-instance, at that celebrated groaning and bility in the matter, and not caring a straw wrestling which was performed at Windsor, which of the two villains should be his jailor. and ended in resolving on the murder of At Hampton Court, however, fortune de- the king,* after extraordinary supplication cided in favor of Whalley, and put the and holding forth. When father Whalley king, for a time, into his power; till like removed the mace, son-in-law Goffe led in fortune put it into the king's power to get the musqueteers, and bolted out the Anarid of his brutality by flight, an accident for baptists, against whom he rode circuit which our hero got a hint of displeasure through Sussex and Berks, growing rich, from parliament. Just at this point Crom- and indulging dreams of disjointing the well addressed a letter to his “dear cousin nose of Richard, and thrusting himself into Whalley,""* begging him not to let anything the old shoes of the Protector, as soon as happen to bis majesty ; in which his sincer- they should be empty.”+ He, too, sacriity was doubtless as genuine as that of cer- ficed his feelings so far as to become a lord; tain patriots in the Pickwick history, who, and, perhaps, thinking that royal shoes out of regard to certain voters coming down would fit him as well as republican ones, he to the election, with money in their hands at last consented to making Oliver a king. I and tears in their eyes, besought the senior Nor were his honors wholly of a civil chaWeller not to upset the whole cargo of them racter, for he was made an M. A. at Oxford, into the canal at Islington. After getting and so secured himself a notice in Anthony out of this scrape, and doing the damning Wood's biographies, where his story condeed that got him into a worse one, he cludes with a set of mistakes, so relishably fleshed his sword against the king's Scottish served up, that I must give it in the very kinsmen, at Dunbar, where he lost a horse words of the Fasti, as follows :—“ In 1660, under him, and received a cut in his wrist, I. a little before the restoration of King though not severe enough to prevent his Charles II., he betook himself to his heels writing a saucy letter to the governor of to save his neck, without any regard had to Edinburgh castle He was the man that his majesty's proclamation; wandered about took away the mace, when Cromwell broke fearing every one that he met should slay up his Barebones' parliament. Then he him ; and was living at Lausanna in 1664 rode through Lincoln, and five other coun- with Edward Ludlow, Edward Whalley, ties, dealing with recusant Anabaptists, t and other regicides, when John l'Isle, anoas one of the “ Major Generals;" demurred ther of that number, was there, by certain a little, at first, at the king-manufacturing generous royalists, despatched. He afterconference, but finally came into the pro- wards lived several years in vagabondship; ject; and, from a sense of duty, so far but when he died, or where his carcase was overcame his republican scruples as to al- lodged, is as yet unknown to me.”'S low himself to take a seat in the House of On Christmas day, 1657, good John Lords, as one of the Oliverian peerage. $ If Evelyn went to London, in spite of many titles were to be had with estates, like the severe penalties incurred thereby, to receive Lordship of Linne, he was surely entitled the holy sacrament from a priest of the to his peerage, for he was growing fat on Church of England.|| Mr. Gunning, afterthe Duke of Newcastle's patrimony, with wards Bishop of Ely, was the officiating part of the jointure of poor Henrietta Ma- clergyman, and preached a sermon approria, when, God be praised, the day of reck- priate to the festival. As he was proceedoning arrived ; and my lord Whalley, sur-ing with the Eucharist, the place where mising that, should any one come to the they were worshipping was beset by Oliver's rope, he was likely to swing if he remained ruffians, who, pointing their muskets at the in England, made off beyond seas.
* Somers's Tracts, vi., 339. • State Trials, ii., 389.
+ Carlyle and Clarendon.
comminicants, through the doors and winGoffe, too, was one of the Cromwellian dows, threatened to shoot them as they cousinry, having married a daughter of knelt before the altar. Evelyn surmises Whalley. || He was a soldier, but could that they were not authorized to go so far * Carlyle.
* Letters and Speeches, &c., by Carlyle. + Carlyle.
† Fasti Oxon., ii., 79. Clarendon, iii., 590.
Carlyle. Percy's Reliques, 121,
Fasti Oxon., ii., p. 79. Anno 1619. lí Fasti Oxon, ii., 79.
i Evelyn's Memoirs, i., 308.
as that, and consequently they did not He lived in Rhode Island till he was more put their threat into execution; but both than a hundred years old, begetting sons priest and people were taken prisoners, and and daughters, to whom he bequeathed the brought under guard before the magistrates surname of Whale. Whoever he was, he to answer for the serious misdemeanor of seems to have been a sincere penitent, which they had been guilty. Before whom whose conscience would not let him rest. should the gentle friend of Jeremy Taylor He slept on a deal board instead of a bed, find himself standing as a culprit, but these and practised many austerities, accusing worshipful Justices, Whalley and Goffe ! himself as a man of blood, and deprecating It was, doubtless, by their orders that the the justice of God. The particulars of his solemnities of the day had been profaned. guilt he never disclosed; and as his name
Evelyn seems to have got off with only was probably an assumed one, it is diffia severe catechizing; but many of his fel-cult to surmise what share he had in the low-worshippers were imprisoned and oth- murder of his king. There was in Hacker's erwise severely punished. The examina- regiment one Whalley, a lieutenant; and tion was probably conducted by the theolo- Stiles, the American writer, thinks this gically exercised Goffe, for the specimen Wbale may have been the same man. But preserved by Evelyn is worthy of his ge- then, what did this Whalley perpetrate to nius in every way.
The amiable confessor account for such horrible remorse ? Conwas asked how he dared to keep “the su- sidering Hacker's active part in the bloodperstitious time of the Nativity;" and was iest scene of the great tragedy, and the admonished that in praying for kings he conflicting testimony in Hulet's trial,* as to had been praying for Charles Stuart, and the man that struck the blow; and coupeven for the king of Spain, who was a Pa- ling this with the fact, that an effort was pist! Moreover, he was told that the Prayer- made to procure one of several lieutenbook was nothing but the Mass in English, ants to do the work,Ť I confess I once and more to the like effect ; “ and so, thought there was some reason to suspect says Evelyn, “ they dismissed me, pitying that this fellow's accusing conscience was much my ignorance."
terribly earned, and that he at least had This anecdote, accidentally preserved by been one of the masks that figured on the Evelyn, shows what kind of characters they scaffold. This surmise, though shaken by were. They seem to have been as sincere nothing that came out on the state trials, as any of their fanatical comrades, though I have since discharged, in deference to the it is always hard say of the Puritan lead- opinion of Miss Strickland, f. who is satisers which were the cunning hypocrites, and fied that the greybeard was Hulet, and the which the deluded zealots. Whatever they actual regicide, Gregory Brandon. may have been, their time was short, so far The American history of the regicides as England is concerned with them ; and in begins with the 27th of July following the three years after this event, they suddenly Restoration, when Whalley and Goffe landdisappeared. So perfectly did they bury ed at Boston, bringing the first news that themselves from the world, that from the the king had been proclaimed, of which it year 1660, till the romance of Scott* again seems they had tidings before they were brought the name of Whalley before the clear of the Channel. Proscribed as they world, it may be doubted whether anything were, they were heroes among the colonists, was known in England of lives, which in and even Endicott, the governor, ventured another hemisphere were protracted almost to give them a welcome. The inhabitants into another generation. Nobody dreamed of Boston and its environs paid them many there was yet an American chapter in the attentions, and they appeared at large with history of the regicides.
no attempt at concealing their names and Yet, considering the known disposition character. The Bostonians were not all of the colonies, and their inaccessible fast- Republicans, however ; and several zealnesses, it is remarkable that only three of ously affected Royalists having been noticthe fugitives found their way across the ed among their visitors, they suddenly conAtlantic
. Another, indeed, there was, a ceived the air of Cambridge more salubrious mysterious person, of whom it is only known, than that of Boston, and took up their that though concerned in the regicide, he abode in that village, now a mere suburb was not probably one of “the judges.”
* Sir Thomas Herbert's Two Last Years, p. 189.
+ State Trials, ii., 386. Notes to Peveril of the Peak.
Lives of the Queens, vol. viii.
of the city. There they freely mingled ried with masterly skill and activity, and with other men, and were admitted as com- rewarded by another salute from the broommunicants in the Calvinistic meetings of stick, which ludicrously besmeared the the place; and sometimes, it appears, they sword-player's eyes ; the crowd setting up even ventured, like the celebrated party at a roar of merriment at his crest-fallen apthe Peak, “to exhibit their gifts in extem- pearance. A third lunge was again spent poraneous prayer and exposition." On upon the cheese, amid shouts of laughter ; visiting the city, they once received some while the broomsman calmly mopped nose, insult, for which the assailant was bound eyes, and beard, of his antagonist's puffing over to keep the peace; though, if he had and blowing physiognomy. Entirely transbut known it, he was so far from having ported with rage and chagrin, the champion done any wrong in the eye of law, that he now dropped his rapier, and came at his was entitled to a hundred pounds reward, ridiculous adversary with the broadsword. for bringing before a magistrate either of “Hold, hold, my good fellow," cried the worthies who appeared against him. Broomstick, “ so far all's fair play! but if The authorities, however, had received no that's the game, have a care, for I shall official notice of the Restoration, and chose certainly take your life.” At this the conto go on as if still living under the golden founded gladiator stood aghast, and staring sway of the second Protector.
at the absurd apparition before him, cried A story is told of one of the regicides, out, amid the jeers of the mob, “Who is while living at Cambridge, which deserves it ? there were but two in England that preservation, as it not only illustrates the could match me! It must be Goffe, Whalopen manner in which they went to and fro, ley, or the Devil !” And so it proved, for but also shows how well exercised were the it was Goffe. soldiers of Cromwell in military accom- In November, came out the Act of Inplishments. A fencing-master had appear- demnity, by which it appeared that Goffe ed at Boston, challenging any man in the and Whalley were not included in the amcolonies to play at swords with him ; and nesty which covered a multitude of sins. It this bravado he repeated for several days, was nevertheless far in February before the from a stage of Thespian simplicity, erected governor had entered upon even a formal in a public part of the town. One day, as inquiry of his council, as to what he should the mountebank was proclaiming his defi- do with the fugitives; a formality which, ance, to the terror and admiration of a empty as it was, must have occasioned their crowd of bystanders, a country-bred fellow, abrupt departure from Massachusetts. At as it seemed, made his appearance in the New Haven, a concentrated Puritanism assembly, accepting the challenge, and press- seems to have offered them a much safer ing to the encounter with no other wea- asylum ;* and as a brother-in-law of Whalponry than a cheese done up in a napkin for ley's had lately held a kind of pastoral diga shield, and a broomstick, well charged nity in that place, it is not improbable that with puddle water, which he flourished with they received pledges of protection, should Quixotic effect as a sword. The shouts of they choose it for their city of refuge. One the rabble, and the confusion of the chal- now goes from Boston to New Haven, by lenger, may well be imagined; but the railroad and steamer, in less than a day; countryman, throwing himself into position, but in those times it was very good travellustily defied the man of foils to come on. ling which brought them to their Alsatia in A sharp command to be gone with his non- less than a fortnight. There they were sense, was all the notice which the other received as saints and confessors; and Dawould vouch safe; but the rustic insisted on venport, the strait-laced pastor of the colohaving satisfaction, and so stubbornly did ny, seems to have taken them under his he persist in brandishing his broomstick, especial patronage. He seems to have been and opposing his cheese, that the gladiator, a kind of provincial Hugh Peters, though in a towering fury, at last drove at him he was not without his virtues : and there desperately enough. The thrust was very was far more fear of him before the eyes of coolly received in the soft and savory shield the local authorities, than there was of of the countryman, who instantly repaid it King Charles and his Council. His Maby a dexterous daub with his broom, soak- jesty was in fact completely browbeaten and ing the beard and whiskers of the swords- discomfited, when his warrant was afterman with its odorous contents. A second and more furious pass at the rustic was par- i
* Holmes's American Annals.