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“I study with my eyes on my book, and intrusted with “ a dozen groats' worth of my mind is in the court ; I preach without ballads," goes on to say, that their emspirit; I trust not of God, but of my sore- ployer," if they prove thrifty, makes them reign, which is God's lieutenant, and so pretty chapmen, able to spread more pamanother god to me. For of such it is said, phlets, by the state forbidden, than all the · Vos estis dii.' I eat without stomach; I booksellers in London ; for only in this sleep without rest; I company without city is straight search : abroade small suscomfort; and live as one dead. You labor pition, especially of such petty pedlars :” daily to cherish other bishops set up by - it hathe been said they bragge they hath others, and will you throw down him you gained their 20s. a day.” Twenty shillings have set up yourself?” The last remark a day! why, even allowing the highest seems to allude to the mischievous power price of the period for a pamphlet—a groat, which Hatton, the only truly “high church”|--their daily sale must have been three-score. minister which Elizabeth ever had, exercis- One of these“ petty pedlars” was doubted in ecclesiastical affairs.

less Humfrey Newman, the active disperser There is great reason to believe that the of the Mar-Prelate tracts, who first appearcombined efforts of Whitgift, Aylmer, and ed at Sir Robert Knightley's house, in a Hatton, who was then vice-chamberlain, green coat and green hat, like a forester; and from his office took great share in eccle- and afterwards wore the good knight's siastical affairs, were the chief cause of the livery--the blue coat and silver badge ; persecuting measures adopted against the and who again went about as a travelling stricter puritans between 1580 and 1590. cobbler. This was doubtless when the And these measures roused up a host of tracts were consigned to his care ; and then writers, whose works, in the form of pam- the large pack, which the travelling shoephlets, were so numerous, that, taking into mender always bore, was filled with Episaccount those surreptitiously printed as well tles," and "Supplications,” and “Have as those duly licensed, we greatly doubt you any worke for the Cooper ?" instead of whether their number would not fully lapstone and leather. A romance of printequal those of the present day.* There ing might the veritable details of the pubmust have been a large reading public lication of the Mar-Prelate tracts form } then, and the eagerness with which the and here female agency is conspicuous, too. newest pamphlet, especially if on contro-" Two sortes of letters," left at a merverted subjects, was sought after, proves chant's house in London. Another “ sorte the public were intelligent too. “Pam- of letters,” brought to Mistress Crane's phlets," as a late reviewer has truly said, house, also in London, and a “loade of is were the mode of agitation of that day, stuffe” provided, in which they were conand admirably they fulfilled their purpose.” veyed to her house at Moulsey, at Penry's Admirably indeed, did they, but in no request. Then the press set up at Newtonscoffing sense would we say it. Our space lane, near Manchester, whither Mistress is far too limited, or we could give passages Crane seems to have conveyed the types. from these little black-letter quartos that Then some of the printers apprehended, would fully prove, that like as the bud is but the press conveyed to Sir Robert to the fruit, the dawn to the perfect day, Knightley's, at Fausely, where the “ Episo in their initiatory form are the noble tome” was printed; and then the press principles of the commonwealth period dis- moved to another house belonging to the played in these pamphlets. We have a knight, at Norton, from whence it, and curious remark in « Kinde-harte's Dream," Waldegrave the printer, removed to Mr. where Chettle, after lamenting over the in- Hale's house, at Coventry; and how two crease of ballad-singers, who we find were more of the tracts were there printed. regularly trained for the purpose, and then Thus was "the mill kept going,” to use

Waldegrave's phrase. But again was there * From soine remarks of Nash, in “ Piers Pen- danger of detection, and the press appears nilesse,” we find that, even at this early period, to have been seized; and then Mistress printed paper was a mere drug, so extensive was ihe use of the printing press. "Look you at the

Crane,* to whose house Penry and Udal chandlers' shop, or at the flax-wives' stalls, if you “ oft resorted,” obtained the aid of Madam see no tow, or sope, wrant up in the title page of such a pamphlet." From the examination relating to the * Mistress Crane was among those who appeared Mar-Prelate tracts, we find pamphlets were pulled before the High Commission Court; but although in off by seven hundred or a thousand. No wonder the presence of Whitgist and Aylmer, she steadfastly there was no lack of waste paper.

refused to answer any questions, either concerning




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Weekston--we must entitle her“ Madam,”|s0; indeed, with her principles she could because her husband is expressly designated not be. Thus, if the habits were strictly

Roger Weekston, gentleman,” who, imposed, it was for order and comeliness; with true womanly management, moved if the passing bell was to be tolled, it was her husband to have a piece of work done solely to remind the living of their morin his house." Little did the servants tality; and when, in 1576, the proclamadream of the real character of “the piece tion came forth for a more rigid observanco of work,” done “in a low parlor" there; of Lent and Ember days, it was expressly for Hodgkin, the printer, was introduced stated it was not for any liking of popish

an embroiderer,”—there were many ceremonies,” but only to maintain the male embroiderers in those days, -50 mariners and navy in this land, by setting “ Martin, senior,” and “ Martin, junior" men a-fishing." Nor did Elizabeth ever were set up and pulled off in the low par- exhibit towards any of her bishops the lor, the household probably wondering at friendship she displayed toward Walsingthe clumsy frame of the embroiderer, but ham, the Sidneys, but especially Burghley ; expecting to see marvellous knots of flowers, no reverence for the episcopal office ever or the family arms, wroughte in silke and marked her conduct; and the queen who crewel,”—perhaps King Solomon and the once threatened to unfrock" a proud Queen of Sheba, instead of mere pam- prelate, would soon have sent little Laud to phlets. Honor to the writers and the prin- the rightabout. Although Elizabeth, proters of the Mar-Prelate tracts, violent and bably from love of a gorgeous ceremonial, coarse as many of them are: these were the preferred “forms and ceremonies,” it is faults of the age, but the enunciation of the curious to observe how many of her chief great principles of religious freedom was a advisers actually held puritan opinions. credit which no man can take from them. Walsingham was openly charged with them, And honor, too, to Mistress Crane and Leicester was favorably disposed towards Madame Weekston, the women who so de- them, Secretary Davidson and his assistant votedly aided in hiding this leaven in the Beale actually got into trouble on this acthree measures of meal, where it worked, count; Essex, her last favorite, sheltered until those principles for which their advo- silenced preachers in his house; even cates willingly endured the gallows-tree, Burghley was complained of, both by Par became the common heritage of the land. ker and Whitgift, for his unceasing efforts

It is in connexion with the proceedings in mitigating, indeed opposing, their enagainst Barrow, Greenwood, and Penry, deavors after uniformity. Now, we think that the character of Elizabeth appears in that the wisdom displayed by Elizabeth in its worst light; but we must bear in mind | adhering to her faithful and wise counselthat these legalized murders, if they were lors, although they held different religious not indeed simply murders, were the inevi- views, was one of the chief causes of the table result of those Erastian principles set attachment with which the queen was reforth by her godfather Cranmer, even as garded by all her subjects. However vioearly as 1540. In strict accordance with lent are the attacks on the church, however these principles, Elizabeth commanded a roughly the bishops are handled, no disrecertain form of church polity to be adopted, spectful word have we ever met with in any and opposition to this was viewed as oppo- pamphlet against Elizabeth. Men who sition to the laws of the realm, and pun- laid down their lives for denying the ished accordingly. There is in some quar- queen's supremacy in ecclesiastical matters a rather favorable view taken of ters, prayed fervently for her as their temErastianism, but we should ever bear in poral sovereign; and when in the next mind, and especially at the present time, generation a bolder tone was assumed that the meddling of the government with towards the king, still the memory of Elizathe religious teachings of the merest infant beth was reverently cherished. school is as mischievous in principle as the There was certainly much in Elizabeth, power of the holy Inquisition. Elizabeth as viewed in connexion with her age, to has sometimes been viewed as “high attract public homage. The daughter of a church.” Now, few sovereigns were less royal race, when the prestige of a long line

of ancestry was still at its height-one of herself or others, remarking that in conscience she the most learned women of an age that could not accuse others, while, in regard to herself, she said, with true English spirit, she would not cultivated learning with the intensity of be her own hangman.'

an overmastering passion—a queen whose mother and whose godfather had both suf- Jence of the nation. And therefore bound fered death for what popular opinion view- together by the tie-the strong tie of a ed as the cause of the reformed faith-common danger, did the people cling round who herself had suffered imprisonment for Elizabeth, the queen-bee of the hive, upon the same cause-all these greatly endeared whose life not only their civil polity, but the young queen to her subjects. And their very existence as a nation depended. then,- from the very day of her entrance Our space is too fully occupied, to coninto London, when she took the branch of template Elizabeth in private life. The rosemary from the poor woman at Fleet- abusive and disgusting details of her proflibridge, and held it till she arrived at West- gacy-all of which may be traced to a minster, to the day when, tired and aged, foreign and papal source—are easily acshe stopped her " carroch” at the gate of counted for by the malignity with which Coudray, and sat“ with her masque off, in she was regarded by the adherents of Mary. the wet and rain,” till the wearisome fare- But that Elizabeth was strictly moral, well speech was ended,-her intercourse seems to us emphatically proved, not only with her subjects was always marked by a by the absence of all such charges against courtesy, which, save in the long past days her by the Brownists, who certainly would of the Plantagenets, had never been dis- have felt it their duty to“ testify” against played

all" wickedness in high places,” had her "In the year '88, I did live,” says conduct been stained by vice; but by the Bishop Goodman, “in the Strand,” and very character of her ministers and associfrom thence he ran, he tells us, one winter's ates—all, with the single exception of Leinight, to see the queen come from the cester, pious, decorous, family men. With council. “ The yard was full, there being these we know she was in habits of strict a great number of torches, and the queen intimacy; and, from some of her letters, came out in great state.” Then we cried, she appears to have valued them highly. “God save your majesty !-God save your Surely, then, it was in strict correctness majesty !” Then the queen turned, and that her favorite title, “ Parthenia," was said,

“God bless you all, my good peo- applied to Elizabeth. There is one touchple.'' Then we cried again,“ God save ing incident, when her faithful Burghley your majesty!"

Then the queen said was on his death-bed, that seems to prove, again unto us, "You may well have a notwithstanding her violence of temper, that greater, but you shall never have a more she was susceptible of gentler emotions. loving prince ;” and so, looking one upon Burghley, in a letter to his son, relates how another awhile, “the queen departed."' the queen, “who, though she be not a mo. And yet this was the very year when the ther, yet showeth herself as a careful nurse, dreaded Armada had just been dispersed, by feeding me with her own princely hand."'* and plots without number might be form- Those who bear in mind the strict line of deing against her ; but then Elizabeth--the marcation preserved in those days between most truly English monarch, as regards even the highest noble and the sovereign, race, who ever sat on the English throne- can alone adequately estimate this little had the thorough fearlessness of her coun- trait ; and then, few incidents will appear try, and the spirit that rose higher as dan- more affecting than the venerable lordgers thickened around her. Never was keeper, reduced to the helplessness of incountry menaced with such dangers as fancy, and the mighty, but aged Elizabeth; England in the reign of Elizabeth, and with woman's warm feeling, proffering with never was monarch more threatened, too. her own hand refreshment to the faithful At the outset of her career, she pledged counsellor of forty years! herself to the Protestant cause- --that cause

We must conclude, although much more dearest to her subjects; and hence as year might be added, to show the marvellous by year passed on, and still

progress of what, intellectually considered,

may be called the “golden period” of our “The glorious semper eadem, the banner of our history. Well pleased shall we be, how, pride,"

ever, if these desultory remarks should fung out its defiance, arose the almost un- awaken in one mind a wish for further inbroken succession of plots, which threatened her life-that life, on whose single thread * Vide Wright's Letters of the Reign of Elizadepended the religion, and the independ- beth, vol. ii.

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quiry into the character of an age, which has great Protector, bore honorable testimony, dwelt on the popular mind for seven genera- as that lady, that great queen_Elizabeth tions, linked with the emphatic phrase, “the of famous memory; we need not be ashamed golden days of good Queen Bess”—a sove- to call her so."-(Carlyle's Cromwell, vol. reign, to whom a greater ruler, even the ii., p. 240.)

from Lowe's Magazine.


IF, after having been manifested to the these burning lenses to combustion, were senses of men for near six thousand years, certainly known to the ancients, even if we unveiling the home landscape with the far suppose the oft-told tale of Tzetzes to be off sublimities of the creation, and win- a fiction, respecting the destruction of the ning universal homage to the sentiment so Roman ships in this way at the siege of beautifully expressed by the royal teacher, Syracuse. When,” says he,

66 the fleet “ truly light is sweet, and a pleasant thing of Marcellus was within bowshot, the old it is for the eyes to behold the sun ;” and man, Archimedes, brought an hexagonal if, after the loftiest intellects have been mirror, which he had previously prepared, employed in the endeavor to search it out, at a proper distance from which he also the nature of the grand element still remains placed other smaller mirrors of the same somewhat enigmatical, a large amount of kind that moved in all directions on hinges, knowledge has been acquired respecting its which, when placed in the sun's rays, diproperties and connexions, not only of the rected them upon the Roman fleet, whereby highest interest, but of positive utility in it was reduced to ashes.” Buffon, who the economy of human life.

Some new elaborately canvassed this curious story, views have also been recently presented of succeeded in igniting beech wood at a disits more recondite relations, founded upon tance of 150 feet, with the faint rays of the direct experiment, which we propose to no- sun in the month of March, by means of tice, and which seem to intimate the con- a combination of 168 plane mirrors ; and clusion that the mighty influences of the M. Villette melted copper ore in eight material world, the main forces of the ma- seconds, iron ore in twenty-four seconds, chine, electricity, magnetism, and light, are silver in seven seconds, and tin in not only bound together by fine affinities, three seconds, by a lens condensing the and mutually dependent, but so convertible solar rays 17,257 times, generating a degree as to proclaim their common unity of source of heat 490 times greater than that of an and actual identity. First, however, it ordinary fire. It is probable, from the simay not be unnecessary to a class of read- lence of the older historians relative to the ers, or uninteresting to any, cursorily to re- particular feat of the Syracusan-a man cur to the progress of discovery, and to the possessing the inquiring and inventive simpler truths of optical science, illustra- genius in the highest degree-that he extive of the great agent upon which vision, perimentalized on various occasions with vegetation, color, and an endless series of burning mirrors, and also fired the enemy's beneficial phenomena, depend—an agent ships by machines constructed to throw consecrated by inspired appropriation as lighted materials into them, later writers the symbol of Divinity, and the emblem of erroneously connecting the two circumthe condition of humanity glorified—the stances together.* However this may be, importance of which is emphatically declared by the magnificent command inau

* Sir D. Brewster, however, states that Kir

cher, who first observed the efficacy of a union gurating its visible activity in the present of plane mirrors to form a powerful burning cycle of terrestrial history—“Let there be instrument, went with his pupil Scheiner to light, and there was light.”

Syracuse to examine the position of the hostile fleet; and they were both satisfied that the ships

of Marcellus could not have been more than I. The concentration of the sun's rays thirty paces distant from Archimedes. by concave mirrors, and the application of One of the largest burning lenses ever con. the Romans as well as the Greeks were | philosophical inquiry has gone off with unconversant with the laws of the reflection fagging pace in new directions, reaching of objects from the surface of polished by delicate investigations and exact memetals; and at Rome, we are told, if the thods of research, occult and unsuspected sacred fire in the temple of Vesta went out properties of the subtle, benign, and beautithrough the carelessness of the attendant, ful element. the chief pontiff scourged the vestal-virgin Two theories have chiefly divided the in the dark, the city mourned, and the fire suffrages of the scientific world respecting could only be re-ignited by the pure rays the nature and propagation of light, the of the sun.

While holding a false and per- undulatory and the corpuscular or Newtofectly gratuitous hypothesis upon the sub- nian. The former had precedence of the ject of vision, the Platonists, three centu- later, but was almost completely supplantries before the Christian era, had arrived ed for upwards of a century, when it was at two remarkable properties of light-its revived in 1801, and gradually obtained the propagation in straight lines, and the ascendency. The corpuscular hypothesis equality of the angles of incidence and re- supposes light to consist of excessively flection when it falls on bright and polish- minute material particles projected from ed surfaces, which are assumed as axioms luminous bodies, the sun, fixed stars, and in the optical treatise ascribed to Euclid. incandescent substances. It was advanced The effect of the atmosphere in changing as an objection, that no sensible diminution the direction of the rays of light was also has been observed of the solar mass and known to Ptolemy, who, though unable to volume since the epoch of observation comappreciate the amount of its refractive menced, notwithstanding the presumed inpower, clearly perceived its influence on the cessant projection of luminous particles altitude of celestial objects, was aware of from every part of his surface. But calcuits increage with the distance from the lation shows that no perceptible waste zenith, and assigned it as the cause of the could have transpired. If we take the greater magnitude of the solar and lunar sun's apparent diameter to be 2000, which discs at the horizon. These statements it is nearly, a second of a degree, at his comprise the knowledge upon the science distance, will correspond to about 460 of light possessed by the ancients, who miles. Now supposing the solar substance seem to have been as inapt generally in the to undergo a daily waste of two feetman various departments of natural philosophy, amount in excess, considering the vast magas they were expert in pure geometry and nitude of the body, and the extreme rarity abstract reasoning. The successful culti- of light-it would require a period of 3000 vation of this branch of physics is entirely years for a diminution of 460 miles, or 1" of modern origin, and dates from the dawn of apparent diameter to occur. But this of the seventeenth century. It opened with loss in the lapse of even thirty centuries Kepler explaining the true theory of vision, would still not be apprehensible, so small and suggesting the astronomical telescope, a variation as 1" being scarcely appreciable which gave an impulse to the study of the by our best instruments. The undulatory optical properties of light in consequence hypothesis supposes a highly attenuated of their application to that instrument, and medium, or ether, to pervade all space, so with Snellius discovering the true law of rare as not to offer perceptible resistance to refraction. It closed with the grand con- the movements of the planets, and not to be clusion of Newton, that a beam of light, cognisable by our senses while at rest, light white as emitted from the sun, was not ho- resulting from luminous bodies setting its mogeneous, but consisted of seven different particles in motion, propagating waves or colors possessing different degrees of refran- vibrations through it in all directions, as gibility; and with Huyghens observing the sonorous bodies propagate vibrations through polarization. Since that period, some views the atmosphere, conveying sound. The have been renounced, others modified, while theory of emission, while more open to postructed was made of flint glass, by Mr. Parker pular appprehension, and affording an easy of Fleet Street, 212 pounds in weight, 3 feet in and intelligible explanation of many obdiameter, 34 inches thick at the centre, exposing served facts, completely fails to account for a surface of 330 square inches to the sun's light. an extensive class of phenomena. On the It melted platina, gold, silver, copper, tin, quartz, other hand, the theory of undulations, agate, jasper, flint, topaz, garnet, asbestos, in a few seconds, £709, and passed into the pos- though less apparently natural, and not só session of the Emperor of China.

readily embraced by the mind, possesses

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