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which the presence of the one presupposes divine, a painter or a physician, a merchant the other two. To utilitarians who believe or a manufacturer. this, poetry has as great a claim to respect The new generation is a reading generaand veneration as science and religion- tion. A bold and craving spirit is abroad. provided always it be TRUE poetry. It fol. Religion, which formerly supplied sufficient . lows from the utilitarianism of the age—if mental aliment for the multitude, can supthis be a correct definition of it—that it is ply it no longer. Its province is not the an earnest age; for if facts be stubborn Intellect, but the Faith. As has been rethings, utility is an earnest thing, and the marked by an eloquent writer in the British man who would exert any influence over an Quarterly Review, society requires its carnest age, must himself be thoroughly, priests of letters, as well as its priests of hopefully, undauntedly, unconquerably in religion. The Christian mind has arrived earnest. Hitherto, in this realm of Britain, at a point when the teachings of faith are the great fault of men of letters, as a class, insufficient without the teachings of the inhas been a deficiency of earnestness. They tellect. These priests of letters have aphave not loved their vocation. They have peared in former times, and bequeathed been, with all their vanity and pride, their minds to us. Immortal books—with ashamed of it. Their lot has been cast in truths in them--are better than living men a country where there was a tendency to that would feed us with lies or empty fribwealth-worship, and to lord and squire- bles. The great minds of the past preach worship ; and a rush into all professions or to us ever more. By a divine privilegepursuits promising to success the rewards of the most divine given to us in this world by wealth or rank. The man of letters had no the infinite wisdom of its Creator-we are chance of either from his profession; he was enabled to converse with the mighty men not recognised at all; and but too often who went before us: their words and thrown into it from a failure in other pur- thoughts are perpetuated for our consolasuits of life-like a friendless woman, who tion, our instruction and our guidance : we losing her husband sets up a day-school as weep for the sorrows, rejoice for the glada last resource in her extremity. Too ness, tremble with the fears, and glow with often, therefore, have they cringed to the the hopes, of departed centuries. And if powerful, that they might thereby acquire our living poets will not fulfil their high wealth, and quite as often have they pan- functions, not only in as good but a better dered to the passions and prejudices of the spirit than those, they are unworthy of the crowd, and written themselves down to a high place that would otherwise have been popular level for the reason that they set apart for them—they are unworthy of thought it more profitable to accommodate the age. They distract its attention with themselves to the people than by their ar- their vain babble, and bring contempt upon duous efforts in a good cause-slowly and a vocation which should be considered a faithfully through difficulties and discou- holy one. We have books enough and more ragements—to raise the people up to their than enough : and hence the arduous task standard, and acquire true glory for ever- reserved for the truly great poet in the premore. Writers of this class have done sent day—the man who would reflect the nothing for literature but degrade it as a age, and yet be in advance of it-who profession. Itself they have not been able would be of sympathies with it, and yet to degrade ; but they have woefully impair-beyond it—who would give it the blossoms ed the respect of serious men for all literature of his intellect with a full certainty that that is not stamped with the seal of anti- those blossoms, fair and flowery to this age, quity, or the approval of one generation of would be fruit to the ages which are to folthinkers at least, and rendered more diffi- low it. cult the task of him who loves it and culti- To think, because we are a practical peovates it for its own sake, independent of ple, living in a practical age, that we shall worldly recompense. Happily this earnest- no more find pleasure in the singing of the ness of feeling, without which no good can birds, the flowing of the stream, and the be done, is increasing, and the day seems to waving of the woods; that the varied beaube approaching when intellect will be ho- ty of nature, animate and inanimate, shall pored, whether its possessor be rich or poor, charm us no more; that the beams of the and when an author will no more be glorious orb of heaven, or the mental sunashamed of his profession than a lawyer or a shine of bright faces, shall fill us no more with delight ; and that love, or hopes, or heart, and enshrine them in noble words set joys, or sorrows, shall no more affect us; or to the music which stirs the blood, will that poetry, which refines and spiritualizes never want listeners. The poet who would all these, shall be extinguished by the pro- do that has an arduous but a noble mission. gress of steam, is mere lunacy. No: Poetry Such an one need not fear that he has fallen shall never die, while man is an inhabitant upon evil times for his vocation ; if he be of the globe ; nor if man is to be succeeded but in earnest with it, and will make it not in the fulness of time by a still nobler race, his pastime, but the business and the reshall it die even then. As civilization in-compense of his life. Let him put on his creases, the world will, doubtless, become singing robes cheerily in the face of heaven more difficult to please in poetry. The and nature ; and wear them in a trustful wiser men grow, the less aptitude will they and patient spirit, and speak that which is exhibit for being put off with “ shows" and in him, for the advancement of his kind and “ seeming" instead of reality. But poetry the glory of his Creator, and there will be itself, purificd and exalted, will all the more no risk that his mission will be unaccompurify and exalt mankind. Those who plished, or that he will be allowed to sing speak great truths from their fulness of' in the wilderness, no man listening to him.

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“ Oliver NEWMAN” is a poem which I Mr. Cooper due credit for a prior use of opened with trembling; for the last new the story, he made it over, in his own inpoem that ever shall be read from such an imitable way, and puts it into the mouth of one as Southey, is not a thing that can be Major Bridgenorth, relating his adventures looked upon lightly. Then it came to us in America. Southey seems next to have from his grave, “like the gleaming grapes got wind of it, reviewing “ Holmes' Ameriwhen the vintage is done;" and the last can Annals,"'* in the Quarterly, when he fruit of such a teeming mind must be rel- confesses he first thought of King Philip's ished, though far from being the best ; as war as the subject for an epic-a thought we are glad to eat apples out of season, which afterwards became a flame, and dewhich, in the time of them, we should termined him to make Goffe (another regihardly have gathered. But this is not to cide) the hero of his poem. A few details the purpose.

I was surprised to find the of the story got out of romance and gossip new poem

built on a history which novelists into genuine history, in a volume of “ Murand story-tellers have been nibbling at ray's Family Library;"f and the great these twenty years, and which seems to be “ Elucidator” of Oliver Cromwell's mystifia peculiarly relishable bit of news on an old cations condenses them again into a single subject, if we may judge by the way in sentence, observing, with his usual buffoonwhich literary epicures have snatched it up ery, that “two of Oliver's cousinry fled to piece-meal. In the first place, Sir Walter New England, lived in caves there, and Scott, who read everything, got hold of a had a sore time of it.” And now comes “North American publication,'* from the poem from Southey, full of allusions to which he learned, with surprise, that the same story, and, after all, giving only Whalley the regicide, “who was never part of it; for I do not see that any one heard of after the Restoration,” fled to has yet mentioned the fact, that three regiMassachusetts, and there lived concealed, and died, and was laid in an obscure grave,

* Notes to " Oliver Newman." which had lately been ascertained. Giving referred to in “ Oliver Newman;" but I have not

+ Trial of Charles I. and the Regicides, which I see * Notes to "Peveril of the Peak."

the book myself.

cides lived and died in America after the requiring about five hours' sail to complete Restoration, and that their sepulchres are the trip to New Haven. I found the excurthere to this day.

sion by no means an agreeable one. The In truth, the new poem led me to think Sound itself is wide, and our way lay at there might be some value in a certain MS. equal distances between its shores, which, of my own,-mere notes of a traveller, in- being quite low, are not easily discerned deed, but results of a tour which I made in by a passenger.

Then there came up a New England in the summer of 18–, squall, which occasioned a great swell in during which, besides visiting one of the the sea, and sickness was the consequence haunts of the fugitives, I took the pains to among not a few of the company on board. investigate all that is extant of their story. | Altogether, the steamer being greatly inI found there a queer little account of them, ferior to those on the Hudson, and crowded badly written, and worse arranged; the with a very uninteresting set of passengers, work of one Dr. Stiles, who seems to have I was glad to retreat from the cabin, going been something of a pious Jacobin, and forward, and looking out impatiently for whose reverence for the murderers of King the end of the voyage. Charles amounts almost to idolatry. He Here it was that I first caught sight of was president of Yale College, at New- two bold headlands, looming up, a little haven, and thoroughly possessed of all the retired from the shore, and giving a dignity hate and cant about Malignants, which the to the coast at this particular spot, by which first settlers of New England brought over it is not generally distinguished. We soon with them as an heir-loom for their sons. entered the bay of New Haven, and the A member of his college told me, that town itself began to appear, embosomed Stiles used to tell the undergraduates that very snugly between the two mountains, silly story about the king's being hanged and deriving no little beauty from their by mistake for Oliver, after the Restora- prominent share in its surrounding scenery. tion; and that he only left it off when a I judged them not more than four or five dry fellow laughed out at the narration, hundred feet high, but they are marked and on being asked what there was to laugh with elegant peaks, and present a bold perat, replied, “hanging a man that had lost pendicular front of trap-rock, which, with his neck.” After reading the doctor's book the bay and harbor in the foreground, and on the Regicides, I cannot doubt the anec- a fine outline of hills sloping away towards dote, for he carries his love of Oliver into the horizon, conveys a most agreeable imrapture; talks of " entertaining angels” in pression to the approaching stranger of the the persons of Goffe and Whalley, and ap- region he is about to visit. A person who plies to them the beautiful language in stood looking out very near me, gave me which St. Paul commemorates the saints, the information that the twin mountains " they wandered about, being destitute, were called from their geographical relaafflicted, tormented; they wandered in tions to the meridian of New Haven, East deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and and West Rocks, and added the remark, caves of the earth-of whom the world was for which I was hardly prepared, that West not worthy.The Book itself is the most Rock was celebrated as having afforded a confused mass of repetition and contradic- refuge to the regicides Goffe and Whalley. tion I ever saw, and yet proved to me My fellow-passenger, observing my invastly entertaining. In connexion with it, terest in this statement, went on to tell I got hold of several others that helped to me, in substance, as follows. A cleft in “ elucidate” it; and thus, with much ver- | its rugged rocks was once inhabited by bal information, I believe I came to a pretty those scapegoats, and still goes by the name clear view of the case. I can only give of “ The Regicides' Cave." New Haven, what I gathered, in the off-hand way of a moreover, contains the graves of these men, tourist, but perhaps I may serve some one and regards them with such remarkable with facts, which they will arrange much veneration, that even the railroad speed of better, in performing the more serious task progress and improvement has been checked of a historian.

to keep them inviolate ;-a tribute which, After spending several weeks in the in America, must be regarded as very vicinity of New York, I left that city in a marked, since no ordinary obstacle ever is steamer for a visit to the “ Eastern allowed to interfere with their perpetual States ;” our passage lying through the “go-ahead.” It seems the ancient graveEast River and Long Island Sound, and l yard, where the regicides repose, was found Vol. XI. No. I.


very desirable for a public square; and as dently calendared saints of his religion, and a mimic Père-la-Chaise had just been cre- their adventures his Acta Sanctorum. He ated in the outskirts of the town, away was nevertheless very civil and entertaining, went coffins and bones, grave-stones and and I was glad, on arriving at the quay, to sepulchral effigies, and monumental urns, find no worse companion forced upon me in to plant the new city of the dead, and the carriage which I had engaged (as I supmake way for living dogs, as better than posed for myself alone) to take me into the defunct lions. Such a resurrection the city. There was so great a rush for cabs towns-folk gave to their respectable grand- and coaches, however, that there was no fathers and grandmothers; but not to the going single; and I accordingly found myrelics of the regicides. At these shrines of self again in close communication with my murder and rebellion, the spade and the narrative fellow-traveller, who soon made mattock stood still; and their once restless room for two others ; grave personages with tenants, after shifting between so many dis- rigid features and polemical address, which turbances while living, were suffered to convinced me that I was in the presence of sleep on, in a kind of sepulchral limbo, be the dons and doctors of a Puritan univertween the marble in Westminster Abbey, sity. to which they once aspired, and the ditch i Go ahead! sung out somebody, as at Tyburn, which they so narrowly escaped. soon as our luggage was strapped behind;

I was cautioned by my communicative and away we drove, in full chase, with friend not to speak too freely of “the Re- drays and cabs, towards the central parts gicides." I must call them“ the Judges," of the city. The newer streets are built, he said; for, in New Haven, where Paritan- I observed, with snug little cottages, and ism perpetuates some of its principles, and intersect at right angles. The suburban all of its prejudices, it appears that such Gothic, so justly reprobated by the crities is the prevailing euphuism which is em- of Maga, is not quite as unusual as it ought ployed, as more in harmony with their to be ; but a succession of neat little shrubnotions of Charles as a sinful Malignant, bery-plots around the doors, and a trim and of the Rebellion as a glorious foretaste air about things in general, suits very of the kingdom of the saints. “ The well the environs of such a miniature city Judges' Cave” is therefore the expression as New Haven. I never saw such a place for by which they speak of that den of thieves shade-trees. They are planted everywhere; on West Rock; and they always use an little slender twigs, boxed carefully from equally guarded phrase when they mention wheels and schoolboys, and struggling appathose graves in the square,-graves, be it rently against the curse, “ bastard slips remembered, that enclose the ashes of men, shall not thrive ;” and venerable overarchwho should have been left to the tendering trees, in long avenues, so remarkable mercies of the public executioner, had they and so numerous that the town is familiarly only received in retribution what they called, by its poets, the “ City of Elms." meted out to their betters.

The funereal Square, of which I had New Haven, in addition to these trea- already learned the history, was sures, boasts another Puritan relic, of a dif- reached, and we were set down at a hotel ferent kind. The early settlers founded in its neighborhood. Its “rugged elms” here a Calvinistic college, which has be- are not the only trace of the fact, that the come a very popular sectarian university, rude forefathers of the city once reposed in and my visit at this time was partly occa- their shadow; for in the middle of the sioned by the recurrence of the annual com- square, a church of tolerable Gothic still memoration of its foundation. I suspect remains; in amiable proximity to which the

person who leaned over the bulwarks of appear two meeting-houses, of a style of the steamer, and gave me the facts--which architecture truly original, and exhibiting I have related in a very different vein from as natural a development of Puritanism, as that in which I received them was a dis- the cathedrals display of Catholic religion. senting minister going up to be at his col- Behind one of these meeting-houses prolege at this important anniversary. There trudes, in profile, the classic pediment of a was a tone in his voice, as was said of Prince brick and plaster temple, of which the diviAlbert's when he visited the savans at nity is the Connecticut Themis, and in Southampton, which sufficiently indicated which the Solons of the commonwealth bienhis sympathies.* The regicides were evi- nially enact legislative games in her honor. * London Times, of that date..

Still further in the back-ground are seen


I can

spire and cupola, pecring over a thickset selves. One oration delivered by a bachegrove, in the friendly shade of whose acade- lor of arts, was vociferated with insolence mic foliage a long line of barrack-looking so consummate, that I marvelled how the buildings were pointed out to me as the solemn-looking divines, whom it occasioncolleges.

ally seemed to hit, were able to endure it. These shabby homes of the Muses were in all that I heard, with very few excepmy only token that I had entered a univer- tions, there was a deficiency of good Engsity town. The streets, it is true, were lish style, of elevated sentiment, and even alive with bearded and moustached youth, of sound morality. Many of the profeswho gave some evidences of being yet in sors and fellows of the University are constatu pupillari ; but they wore hats, and fessedly men of cultivated minds, and even flaunted not a rag of surplice or gown. In of distinguished learning: yet this great the old and respectable college at New celebration was no better than I say. York, such things are not altogether dis- account for it only by the sectarian influencarded; but, at New Haven, where they are ces which imbue everything in New Haven, devoutly eschewed as savoring too much of and by the want of a thoroughly academic Popery, not a member of its faculties, nor atmosphere, which sectarianism never can master, doctor, or scholar, appears with create. It was really farcical to see the the time-honored decency which, to my an- good old president confer degrees with an tiquated notion, is quite inseparable from attempt at ceremony, which seemed to have the true regimen of a university. The only no rubric but extemporary convenience, and distinction which I remarked between Town no purpose but the despatch of business. and Gown, is one in lack of which Town All this may seem to have nothing to do makes the more respectable appearance of with my subject; yet I felt myself that the the twain; for the college badges seem to regicides had a good deal to do with it. be nothing more than odd-looking medals In this college, one sees the best that Puriof gold, which are set in unmeaning dis- tanism could produce; and I thought what play on the man's shirt ruffles, or dangle Oxford and Cambridge might have become with tawdry effect from their watch ribbons. under the invading reforms of the usurpaI have no doubt that the smart shopmen tion, had the Protectorate been less impowho flourish canes and smoke cigars in the tent to reproduce itself, and carry out its same walks with the collegians, very much natural results on those venerable foundaenvy them these poor decorations ; but in tions. my opinion, they have far less of the Tit- On the day following the Commencemouse in their appearance without them, ment, I took a drive to West Rock. I was and would sooner be taken for their betters so happy as to have the company

of by lacking them. My first impressions intelligent person from the Southern States, were, on the whole, far from favorable, and of a young lady, his relative, who was therefore; as from such things in the young very ambitious to make the excursion. It men, I was forced to judge of their alma ma- was a pleasant drive of about three miles to ter. And I must own, moreover, that my the foot of the mountain, where we alighted, subsequent acquaintance with the university the driver leaving the horses in charge of did little to diminish the disappointment themselves, and undertaking the office of which I unwillingly felt in this visit to one of guide. It was somewhat tedious climbing the most popular seats of learning in Ame- for our fair friend; but up we went, over rica. I certainly came prepared to be rough stones, creeping vines and brushwood, pleased; for I had met in New York seve- that showed no signs of being very frequentral persons of refined education, who had ly disturbed ; our guide keeping the bright taken their degrees at this place; but, to buttons of his coat-skirts before us, and in dismiss this digression from my main pur- some other respects reminding me of Mepose, I must say that the Commencement phistopheles on the Hartz. It certainly was was anything but a creditable affair. After very accommodating in Nature, to provide carefully observing all that I could unob- the lofty chambers of the regicides with trusively hear and see, I cannot speak flat- such a staircase ; for in their day it must teringly of the performances, whether the have defied any ordinary search, and when matter or the manner be considered. I can found must have presented as many barscarcely account for it that so many edu- riers of brier and thicket, as grew up around cated men as took part in the exercises the Sleeping Beauty in the fairy tale. should make no better exhibition of them- As we reached what seemed to be the

a very

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