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amined and refuted. He who feels ashamed for his opinions to be compared with those of another, or is afraid to consider the reasoning of an opponent, pays but a poor compliment to his own character and creed. It has been well said, “Whoever fears to examine the foundation of his opinions, and enter into the consideration of any train of counter-argument, may rest assured that he has some latent apprehension of their unsoundness and incapacity of standing investigation; and as a fear of this sort is totally at variance with that spirit of candour and fairness which is the proper disposition for the attainment of truth, no man should suffer it to prevent him from engaging in the requisite examination."

Our “constant readers ” have, during nearly six years, tested the practical value of these enlightened sentiments, and with the most satisfactory results. It is of course impossible for us to daguerreotype the secret workings and progress of truth, but we know of some cases in which, through the influence of our work, opinions have been beneficially changed, or materially modified, while “ the falsehood of extremes” has been exposed, a spirit of kindly and mutual respect has been generated, and, at the same time, a process of mental training has been going on, fitting its subjects to take a more important position in life, and to exercise a stronger and more elevating influence on those around them.

We may here, without impropriety, refer to an interesting experiment made during the present year, for the purpose of registering the opinions of our readers on the subjects discussed in our Fifth Volume.

It was thought that the deliberate judgment of " a constituency of cultivated intellect," engaged in an earnest search after truth-beyond the reach of corruption, intimidation, or even influence--and expressed only after thorough debate, would be a most novel, interesting, and valuable species of statistics; and although, from various causes, only a small portion of our subscribers sent in their "votes," the result was far from being uninteresting, as indicating, in their proportional relationship, the opinions of a large number of intelligent persons, resident in all parts of the United Kingdom.

On the question of Church Polity, 240 voted for Episcopacy, 120 for Presbyterianism, 324 for Congregationalism, and 155 were Neutral. On the question of Communications being now made to Man from a Spiritual World, 143 were in favour of the Affirmative, 547 were in favour of the Negative, and 150 were Neutral. On the question of Napoleon Bonaparte being worthy of the admiration of the French people, 470 were in favour of the Affirmative, 151 were in favour of the Negative, and 125 were Neutral. On the question of Scotland baving reason to complain of Injustice, 265 were in favour of the Affirmative, 409 were in favour of the Negative, and 168 were Neutral. On the question respecting the Universities being Open to all, 612 were in favour of the Affirmative, 163 were in favour of the Negative, and 65 were Neutral. On the question of the Maine Liquor Law, 407 were in favour of the Affirmative, 385 were in favour of the Negative, and 48 were Neutral. And on the question of Slavery being Justifiable under any circumstances, 108 were in favour of the Affirmative, 709 were in favour of the Negative, and 23 were Neutral.

Apart from the intrinsic worth of this Report as "a barometer of thoughtful opinion," we value it as an incontrovertible proof of our success in gaining the support and confidence of a large body of intelligent men of all sects and parties.

Our editorial labours have not, however, been confined to polemical subjects; we have

endeavoured to afford suitable advice and assistance to youthful aspirants and self-educationalists generally. Our “ Aids to Self-Culture," as well as the courses of study prescribed in the various classes, are not designed to be exhaustive, but rather stimulative and suggestive; and such, we believe, they have proved. The communications which we are constantly receiving, reveal bow wide-spread is the desire for instruction, and how acceptable are our efforts to promote it. The ultimate influence of the contents of this and preceding volumes we will not attempt to estimate. Every year deepens our conviction of their value, for we are frequently enabled to recognize amongst those who now occupy important and responsible positions in society, some of our first student readers, who are not slow in acknowledging the beneficial aid and impetus which they derived from this magazine. We cannot, then, but rejoice in the success of our preceding volumes, nor avoid looking with satisfaction on the one which we now send forth to the world; and, concerning all, we indulge the cheering hop', that when this work may have passed into other hands, or even ceased to exist, the influence of our labours will be felt in some cultivated minds and disciplined hearts.

Nor would we forget our generous coadjutors, for they have enabled us to make this volume what it is. We beg them to accept thanks which come warm from our very "heart of hearts,” and we invite them to share with us our anticipations, all bright and glorious as they are!

We cannot conclude without casting a hopeful but anxious glarce towards the future of the BRITISH CONTROVERSIALIST. What that future may be, we cannot, of course predict; but we cherish the belief that it will be not merely worthy of the past, but far excel it in character, and exceed it in success. That this may be the case, it is only necessary for our readers to remain faithful to "their own Magazine;” to lose no opportanity of making known its character and contents; and to aid it in other ways to carry out its designs to ENLIGHTEN, ELEVATE, and BLESS.

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EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY:-

HISTORY :-(Continued.)
The Ionic School-The Philosophy of Na Was Mahomet an Impostor ?
ture .........

Affirmative Article, I.

Negative Article, I......
Anaxagoras 16

331
Affirmative Article, JI...

373
Diogenes of
Apollonia ........

Negative Article, II. .....

376
Affirmative Article, III. .

413
AIDS TO SELF-CULTURE :-

Negative Article, III.
The Art of Reading

Affirmative Reply
The Art of Writing...

Negative Reply .....

460
Arithmetic
The Essentials of English Grammar and POLITICS:
Composition, No. I. ..................2

No.II................... Is the Ballot more desirable than Open Voting?
No. III. ....

Affirmative Article, I....
No. IV. ...

Negative Article, I......
No. V.....
........ 441

Affirmative Article, II..
RELIGION:

Negative Article, II.
Do the Scriptures teach that the Punish-

Affirmative Reply ......
ment of the Wicked will be Eternal ?

Negative Reply
Affirmative Article.-I.

Was the British Government Justified in
Negative Article.-I......

tering upon the Present War with Russia ?
Affirmative Article, II....
Negative Article, II......

Affirmative Article, I.
Affirmative Article, III.

Negative Article, I. ..

261

Affirmative Article, II..
Negative Article, III...
Affirmative Article, IV....

128

Negative Article, II...
Negative Article, IV.....

133

Affirmative Article, III.
Affirmative Reply

166

Negative Article, III.
Negative Reply ......

170

Affirmative Article, IV....
Negative Article, Iv.

379
PHILOSOPHY:-

Affirmative Reply
Is the Notion of a Plurality of Worlds Con.

Negative Reply ....
sonant with Science and Revelation ?
Affirmative Article, I. ......

16 SOCIAL ECONOMY:-
Negative Article, I....

Is Secularism Consonant with the Highest
Affirmative Article, II....
Negative Article, IÍ.

Amount of Social Happiness?
Affirmative Article, III. ...
141 Negative Article, I..

106
Negative Article, III. ......

173
Affirmative Article, I. ...

191
Affirmative Reply ......

... 207
Negative Article, Il..

222
Negative Reply ...................... 249 Affirmative Article, II. ...

225
Is Reason Confined to Man?

Negative Article, III. ....
Affirmative Article, I. ....

Affirmative Article, III. ..
Negative Article, I.

302
Negative Article, IV......

287
Affirmative Article, II...

306
Affirmative Article, IV..

326
Negative Article, II......

342
328

Negative Reply ..........
Affirmative Article, III. ..

347
Affirmative Reply

368
Negative Article, III. ....

Is the Unanimity required in Juries Conducive
Affirmative Article, IV.....

405 to the Attainment of Justice ?
Negative Article, IV.......

.... 409
Neutral Article ...

388

Affirmative Article, I. ...
Affirmative Reply ....

390
Negative Article, I. .....

..450
Negative Reply ...

427
Affirmative Article, II
.. 453

Negative Article, II.
HISTORY:-

Affirmative Reply ..

468
Has Monachism been beneficial to European Negative Reply ....

470
Society ?

THE ESSAYIST:-
Negative Article, I.
Affirmative Article, I. ..

Advantages to be derived from the Study
Negative Article, II.....,

of History.- Prize Essay, by D. M. West 350
Afirmative Article, II....

145 Ditto, ditto, by J. W. Hardman, A.B. ....
Negative Article, III. ....

177

Benjamin Franklin: a Study..........
Affirmative Article, III. ...

210 Byron ......................
Negative Reply ........

.. 252 Decimal Coinage: The Necessity for its
Affirmative Reply ...

Adoption-Its Advantages over the Pre-

418
........ 463

268
270

285

......... 347

371

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PAGE 1

PAGE

THE ESSAYIST :-(Continued.)

SOCIETIES' SECTION :-

sent System and the Various Plans for REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT

carrying it out which have been proposed

SOCIETIES :

33, 68, 113 Bow and Stratford Mutual Improvement
Gerald Massey ...

109

Association .....

Hints on Extemporaneous Speaking

431 Bristol (Cooper's Hall) Mutual Improve.

Shelley .......

63 ment Society ...

The True Test of Merit .........

433

Christchurch 'Mutual Improvement and

Thomas Moore ............

Debating Society .................... 238

True Object of History......

Crieff Debating Club.................... 119

Young Men's Associations ........ 231 Edinburgh Young Men's Association .... 278

Glasgow, Dundas-street Young Men's Mu-

THE INQUIRER:

tual Improvement Society ............

... " Wardlaw" Young Men's Lite-

Questions requiring Answers :-36, 71, 115, 157,

rary Association ................

......... 196

192, 233, 274, 314, 357.

Great Yarmouth Discussion Society...... 238

Answers to Questions :-

High Wycomb Discussion and Mutual Im-

provement Class....

...... 278

A Course of Mathematical Study ........ 399

A Scripture Query ..................194,

315

Kirkintilloch Young Men's Mutual Im-

A Telescope..............

359

provement Society.

Aqua Vivarium

397

Law Students' Mutual Corresponding So-

..........

Cambridge Examinations...

Liverpool, “ Franklin" Mutual Improve.

Cause of the Apparent Size of the Moon in

Rising and Setting...

158

ment Society ........................ 196

London, Bermondsey, and Horselydown

Composition and Style ...

Division of the Sciences

116

Mutual Improvement Association...... 360

Early Closing Association.......

Equation of Time

St. James's Literary Society .... 318

Geological Question ......

434

George Sand ............ .......74, 117

Society of Compositors ........ 360

The Lorrimore Mutual Improve-

Glasgow University ......

. .................. 158

ment Society ...........

Hebrew Grammar and Dictionary ....159, 434

Madras Young Men's Literary Society.....

How to Obtain a Thorough Knowledge of

Meirion Literary Institution ....

Latin .....

How to Obtain Skeletons of Leaves .... 194

Monkton Young Men's Mutual Improve-

ment Society

158

Hyperion ..........

........................

Neophyte Writers' Society ..............

India ..................

398

Newcastle-on-Tyne Debating Society ....

Intellect and Habit

Redruth Mutual Improvement Society....

Is Bull's Blood Poison ?

Latin Pronunciation .......

71

Retford Mutual Improvement Society..197, 310

Skipton-in-Craven Young Men's Mutual

Lenore ........

Improvement Society

Matriculation Examinations of the London

................

University

Spalding Mechanics' Institution ........

.....

Staines Mutual Instruction Class ...

Meaning of Names..................195, 275

Swansea Christian Literary and Scientific

Painting ....

Photography ..

399

Association .....

Red-haired Men of Genius ..

Walthamstow Mutual Improvement Society 198

Wolverhampton Mutual Improvement So-

Religious Sect of Duchoborzen in Russia. 358

The Barber's Pole ....

76

ciety ................................. 239

The Collodion Process .

.......... 275

LITERATURE:-

The Invariable Value of Gold ..

358

LISTS OF NEW BOOKS ON EDUCATIONAL,

The Philosophy of Death...

LITERARY, AND SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS,

The Scotch Bawbee

276

39, 119, 198, 279, 438.

Trial of the Pyx .......

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE, 40, 80, 120, 160,

Works on Oratory ...

158

199, 239, 280, 319, 360, 4

NOTICES OF BOOKS:-

THE YOUNG STUDENT AND WRITER'S

An Essay on the Art of Writing ........ 472

ASSISTANT:

Cyclopædia of Universal History ........

GRAMMAR CLASS :-Model Exercises, 37, Liber Cantabrigiensis ...

.............. 320

76, 117, 159, 195, 236, 276, 315, 435.

Mann's Guide to the Knowledge of Life .. 280

MATHEMATICAL CLASS:- Questions for

Ragg's Creation's Testimony to its God ..

Solution, 37, 77, 118, 159, 195, 237, 277, 318, Ragonot's Vocabulaire Symbolique Anglo-

359, 400.

Francais ...

Solutions, 118, 159, 195, 237, 277, 318, 359, 400, Ryland's Extension, Security, and Moral

436.

Influence of the Church of England.... 28

GEOGRAPHICAL Class:-Exercises, 77, 118, Sunday School Union Publications for 1855

160, 196, 237, 277, 318, 359, 400.

The Age we Live in ...

......

LOGIC Class:-Exercises, 77, 118, 160, 196, The British Workman ...

280

238, 277, 318, 360.

The Dawn of History ...

472

PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS :-Exer-

The Dignity of Labour, a Lecture .... 200

cises, 38, 77, 118, 160, 196, 238, 277.

The Pilgrim Fathers, a Lecture ... 200

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CONTRIBUTORS SIGNATURES.

...... 74, . 390, 415, 225

22

PAGE

PAGE Arhoudhu...... ..... 409 Junius (Chelmsford).....

264 Benjamin

...... 48, 225 L'Ouvrier (Birmingham) ...... 11, 145, 179, 305 Beta (Leeds .............. 390, 412, 470 Maxwell ..

312 na 210 06 Morfhaich .. B. S.... ........... 74, 190, 194, 195, 249, 426 Morfhaich............................ 393, 472 C. W., jun. ............. ..... 36, 71, 115 N. ..........

91 Clement (Ashton-under-Lyne) .... 133, 290, 457 Onward.................................. 465 D. M. W................. ... 233 P. D. (Dublin).

293, 460 E. L. J.................

468 Persona .....

270, 287, 453 E. W. S. (Buckingham).... 67, 231, 314 | Philalethes.

. 20, 210 F.J. L., B.A. (Bedford)........ 76, 217, 235, 435 Republicola ...

418 G. F. ... 376 Rolla

109, 298, 317 Gray.......

150, 157 Scotus .. Halket ..... 117, 308 Sigma ..............

..... 15, 50, 173 H. C.F.

.......... 105 S. N.

................ 85, 106, 284, 367, 404, 446 H. D. L.....

.... 25, 252 S. S.
...................

... 9+ Horatio............. ... 350 Stanislaus .........

.... 59, 261 Irene .... , 267 Taliesin ..

373 J. A. C.. 128 Thor .......

330 James ... . 192, 228 Threlkeld .

. 54, 328, 379, 399, 430 J. F. (Ollerton).

. 89,370 T. U. (Edinburgh) .... 33, 113, 140, 301, 337, 463 J. G. R. (Manchester). 103, 388 T. W.R.

428 J. L...

273 Vincat Veritas ..... ......... 28, 177, 257 John Brown... 100, 183 Vinculum .....

450

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450

ERRATA,
Page 52, col. 2, line 4, for“ 1000," read" - 100°."
Page 112, col. 1, par. 2, line 7 thereof, for “ practical power," read " poetical power."
Page 113, col. 2, line 10, “but for the surged up," read" but as there surged up."
Page 245, line 32, for “ possession," read possessing."

Page 275, col. 2, line 13 from bottom, instead of “ By this process beautiful positive pictures are obtained for negatives," read “ By this process beautiful positive pictures are obtained;" and instead of " Albumen is used instead of collodion, as follows," read “For negatives albumeir is used instead of collodion, as follows."

Page 326, col. 2, line 12, for “ arbitration," read “ abstraction."
Page 327, col. 1, line 35, for “ reviewed," read “ received."
Page 327, col. 2, note, for" Kirtzand, Spence," read “ Kirby and Spence."
Page 379, col. 1, line 16, after was," insert“ in some cases."
Page 428, col. 2, line 47, for" has Rogers," read “as Rogers."
Page 430, col. 1, line 33, for “ were," read “ was."

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