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English poetry, leave no very favourable impres. doubtful (i.e., spondees or dactyls), may be scansion of this strife of sounds; yet from its constant ned in this manner with still greater ease and occurrence in their poetry it evidently must have certainty. Let him, however, understand me, I pleased the “conquerors of the world." If“ Eni. do not recommend such a practice; it is merely tor" will accent the celebrated soliloquy of Ham- serving poetry as some annoying people serve let (Act iii., sc. l), and get some foreigner who music, by beating or kicking time to it, and so knows very little of our pronunciation to read it, adding an accompaniment tbe very reverse of he will find that the effect is ludicrous, although pleasing to a musical ear. Moreover, this singthe accentuation may be correct. I heard it tried song scanning will fail him in the varying and in the case of a Frenchman, who could write our complex metres of the great lyrist Horace: scaulanguage well, but whose knowledge of our pro-ning there must be bona fide, and based upon nunciation was confined to the results of a few hard-earned knowledge.-B. S. days' experience in this country. The first line 236. George Sand.- One of the difficulties which sounded (as nearly as I can indicate) like:“ Toby', beset a young reader, who is toiling in the upward ore note' Toby', dat ees de kais'-icheon." The path to knowledge by self-aid alone, arises from facility with which the beat (ictus) of some of the frequently meeting, in his course of study, with simple Latin rhythms (especially the Trochaic, names of writers," sages and philosophers," of Iambic, and Anapæstic) can be applied to English whom, previously, he was ignorant, and conpoetry, has led to the introduction of the termin- cerning whom he may be led to form opinions ology of Latin prosody into our grammar, and to diametrically opposed to their real character. the idea that English poetry may be scanned and Such was the manner in which the writer was otherwise maltreated in a manner foreign to its deluded as to the real character and genius of genius; if, however, we even go so far as to allow “George Sand." Reading, some years ago, a work that English metre is a mere system of accent, it! which contained a profound quotation from this cannot well be denied that it is not based on author, I was led to form a very flattering idea of quantity, and therefore, to take the lowest ground, his talents. My surprise was unbounded when a distinct prosodiacal system and nomenclature reading in a literary journal of the day a statewould save much confusion of things that differ. | ment that Madame Dudevant was the real“ George It is amusing to glance at the examples of Eng. Sand," and further, that the said lady was a lish scansion on p. 195, and to find that the inter robust, masculine-looking person, standing five jection “Oh!" and the preposition“ of" are long feet six inches in height, her hair forming a natuor short at the whim of the poet; that in the ral shawl, covering her shoulders; that she wore word “ unforgotten," the first " 0," though really a pointed cocked hat, mustachios, boots and spurs, the longer sound, is to be considered short, and and was an inveterate cigar smoker. I have been the second " 0," which is short, is to be deemed able to glean a few facts relating to the curious long; that“ had," which is as short as any syl- | career of this most remarkable woman. lable can be, must nevertheless be marked loug, Marie Aurore Dudevant was born, I believe, at &c. Surely the scanning system works but ill in Berry, or Berri, in France. The following partithese favourable specimens. And how the ever-culars, as to the rank of the lady, I extract from varying swell of Shaksperian or Miltonic verse a short memoir prefixed to a recent edition of the can be fitted with feet and quantities, at any ex- “ Enchanted Lake:"_“Every one knows, or is pense of whimsicality and inconsistency, I am supposed to know, that Marshal Saxe was the unable to conceive. It really would be a treat to natural son of Augustus II., King of Poland, and see a classic pedagogue applying his measuring of the Countess of Koenigsmark. Under a Saxon rule to the exquisite music of our prince of living outside, the hero of Fontenoy possessed a truly poets-Tennyson; we would set him to work French heart. In his lifetime he had made a numfirst at some such little gem of melody as that ber of conquests; and the issue of one of these, entitled “ Claribel."
in 1750, proved to be a daughter, Marie Aurore, So much then for the general character of metre. recognized as such after the death of the Marshal As to its species and varieties in Latin, any at- by a decree in parliament. Her first marriage tempt of mine to instruct“ Enitor" would be very was with Count Horn: she remained a widow but like the blind leading the blind." I know of no for a short period. The Countess Horn retired short elementary work so likely to assist him as to her country seat, l'Abbaye-aux-Bois, and under « Zumpt on Metre," published separately as a that predestined roof-which, at a later period, supplement to the grammar already mentioned; sheltered a beauty immortalized by gooduess and it is clear, concise, and practical.
grace-she held her delightful re-unions, the inost In conclusion, “ scanning" should be the prac. distinguished in those days; the old Maréchal de tical application of our knowledge of quantity and Richelieu frequented them, and was, it seems, one metre: it too often is a mere mechanical feat. l of her most devoted admirers. Remarkably good. Let“ Enitor" take 50 lines of the Æneid, or any looking and witty, the young widow inspired a other Hexametric poem, and having by the aid of M. Dupin Franceuil, son of Claude Dupin, with a gradus or dictionary carefully marked the quan- I a feeling of love. They were soon after united; tity of each syllable, divide each line into six feet and he took her to Berry, where he was just (dactyls or spondees); then let him read the lines nominated to a very valuable government appointaloud half-a-dozen times, laying a strong empha-ment. Afterwards, she resided successively at sis on the first syllable of each foot, and giving Chateuroux, and the castle of Nohaut, about a to each long syllable twice the time of utterance league from Chatre. Madame Dupin again found of a short one. His ear by that time will be so herself a widow, in 1786, with a son, Maurice Dudrilled into the beat (ictus) of the metre, that he pin. He married at an early age, and had just will be able, as most schoolboys are, to scan | gained, under the Empire, a high military grade, hexameter verse without a thought of quantity. when he died suddenly at Chatre, of a fall from a The pentameter, having only the two first feet | horse, leaving an only daughter, named, like her grandmother, Marie Aurore, and whose education subsequent popularity, and the manner by which was confided to her care." It appears she re- she emerged from obscurity and obtained a fielu mained under the care of her grandmother some for her talent, is singular and amusing, as deyears, or until she was near 14 years of age, when scribed by herself. We ought here to state that the old lady began to think it high time her grand the Baroness Dudevant had left her husband, and daughter should receive an education suiting her | was living under the protection of Jules Sandeau, rank and birth; with this in view, Marie Aurore a novelist of some reputation in France, half of was placed in the convent of the Dames Anglaises. whose name the lady appropriated to berself, and It is related, that while bere, her ardent imagina has since immortalized by her talent. The charaction began to show itself. The tranquillity and ter of“ Watelot" is meant to represent Sandeau, retirement of the cloister, coupled with the pomp and" Margret Lecomte" the fair authoress herself. of the Roman Catholic religion, produced such an Some time after the July Revolution, there apeffect upon her mind, that she was suddenly seized peared a book entitled, “Rose and Blanche; or, with fits of fervid devotion, which increased to the Actress and the Nun." The book, which at such a degree, that ultimately we find her a resi. first passed unnoticed, fell by chance into a pub. dent in the castle of Nohaut. About six years lisher's hands; he read it, and, struck by the after this time a husband was selected for her, richness of certain descriptive passages, and by and she became united to a man who, it appears, the novelty of the situations, he inquired the was of an opposite temperament to her own, and author's address. He was referred to a mean "held refinements of the heart and mind as idle lodging-house, and on applying there was con. nonsense ; not very learned, and very abrupt and ducted to a small attic. There he saw a young ungentlemanly." He is described as a retired man writing at a little table, and a young woman soldier, and of the name of Dudevant. From | painting flowers by his side. These were Watethis period, or a year or two later, we find the lot and Margret Lecomte. The publisher spoke troubles of Madame Dudevant commence, and of the work, and it appeared that Margret, who in the year 1828, while at Nohaut, she was sud. could write books as well as Watelot, and even denly missed. All were ignorant of where she better, had written a good part, and the best part had gone, but it subsequently transpires that she | of this one. Encouraged by the publisher's apretraced her steps to the convent of her younger proval, she took from a drawer a manuscript days, and there for some time found a suitable written entirely by herself; he bought it, and residence. The after-part of her life became doubtless very cheap ; it was “ Indiana." Soon clouded. She is supposed to have lived some after this she left Watelot, and, taking half his years with a wood engraver, who, in one of her name, called herself“ George Sand." works, she calls Watelot; and it was while thus | The authoress of “Indiana" is usually repreliving, in a secluded part of the country, appa- sented, particularly in the higher circles, as a worently unknown, that she produced her first work, man of abandoned and depraved morals, of coarse entitled “ Rose and Blanche; or, the Actress and appearance, and masculine habits. That she is the Nun;" and in less than ten years afterwards, eccentric, we are not prepared to deny ; but any she produced more than thirty volumes. Her little foibles that may serve the purpose of her works are chiefly fictious and politico-philosophic detractors, are far-far counterbalanced by the cal, but I think F. S. will not lose much if he many virtues she possesses. In the Department should never meet with them.
of the Indre, where she resides, her charity is un
bounded; and her pen, as well as her purse, is at “Modesty's the charin
the service of the unfortunate and the distressed. That coldest hearts can quickest warm;
“ Consuelo,"and" The Countess of Rudolstadt," Which all our best affections gains,
are among the most popular of her late works; And gaining, ever still retains."
and if F. S. requires more, he will find them in the -ALFRED H., Liverpool. “ Literature of all Nations." I may just mention
that she has disposed of her own written)“ Me236. Perhaps the following sketch of “George moirs;" and it is probable that they will be Sand" (which I condense from “ Reynolds's Po- brought before the eyes of the British public Sand" (which I condense o litical Instructor") may answer the wants of F.S., before long.-A.
ne wants of F.S., before long: A D and may not be altogether uninteresting to your 243. Trial of the Pyx.-J.C. F. will find an ela
I C.F. will find an elareaders generally :
borate description of the “Trial of the Pyx" in “George Sand," or to use a more correct appel- | the Illustrated London News of December 16th, lation, Madame Dudevant was left an orphau at 1854. We will, however, briefly explain this an early age, under the care of her grandfather, ancient custom. The word “pyx "signifies the Receiver-General of Taxes in the Department of box in which are placed specimens of the coinage the Indre,-a position of high consideration and issued during the four preceding years. The emolument. Upon the death of this relation, she object of the trial is to ascertain whether the was placed by her grandmother in a convent, and coinage is of the standard fixed by acts of parliaupon emerging from thence was married to Baronment, and thus prevent a depreciated currency. Dudevant. The death of her grandmother left i The court consists of four members of Her her, at the very inoment she quitted the convent Majesty's Privy Cou..cil, the Lord Chancellor alwhere she had been brought up, alone and ieud ways being one; and is attende i by sundry less. Totally ignorant of the world, she allowed officers of the Crown, a deputation from the Goldherself to be married to a rough old soldier, who smiths' Company, and the Mint authorities; led a monotonous existence in an old country twelve practical goldsmiths or silversmiths conhouse, and was perfectly destitute of romance,stituting the jury. The Master of the Mint takes sentiment, or love. This excuse is often urged an oath that the specimens produced are a fair by her admirers in extenuation of her conjugal selection. A bar of standard gold is then proinfidelity. The origin of Madame Dudevant's | duced by the assayer of the Goldsmiths Company, from wbich a piece is clipped off to form the there be bled. Doubtless, the competition for standard, and which, together with the coins, is custom was great, because, as our ancestors were entrusted to the jury, who, after being sworn, great admirers of bleeding, they demanded the retire to the Goldsmith's Hall, where the real operation frequently. At length, instead of hangtrial or analysis takes place. The Master of the ing out the identical pole used in the operation, a Mint is allowed a very trifling deduction, on pole was painted with stripes round it, in imitaaccount of unavoidable errors, otherwise the tion of the real pole and its bandagings; and thus standard is rigidly adhered to. It may gratily came the sign. J. C. F. to know that the recent trial proved the That the use of the pole in bleeding was very currency to be above the required standard. ancient, appears from an illumination in a missal
SIGMA. of the time of Edward I., wherein the usage is This is nothing more than a ceremonial meet represented. Also in “Comenii Orbis Pictus" ing held before the Privy Council, to which the there is an engraving of the like practice. “Such Lord Chancellor is president, respecting the as a staff," says Brand, who mentions these graphic saying of the gold and other coin in circulation. illustrations," is to this very day put into the There is an ancient chapel at Westminster, called hand of patients undergoing phlebotomy, by every the Pyx Chapel, and here standard pieces of the village practitioner."-F.J. L., B. A., Bedford. currency are deposited, time after time, as they I have copied the following extract from the issue from the Mint. The trial is performed at “Encyclopædia Perthensis" relative to the term, the Exchequer office, under a jury of twelve barber's pole: "The term, barber's pole, has been practical goldsmiths. It does not appear that subject to many conjectures, some conceiving it to any particular time has been appointed for the have originated from the word poll, or bead; the ceremony, as four years have elapsed since the true intention, however, of that parti-coloured last trial. The goldsmiths appear by summons, staff was to show that the master of the shop and their duty is to verify the state of the coinage, practised suryery, and could bleed a vein, as and check the Master of the Mint, to see that his well as mow a beard ; such a staff being to this issue is standard, and the piece correctly executed day, by every village practitioner, put into the The trial, therefore, is one of importance, and, hand of the patient while undergoing the operalike most city ceremonies, is of considerable an- tion of phlebotomy. The white band which actiquity.--JOHN BROWx..
companies the staff was meant to represent the 216. The Barber's Pole. The following account fillet thus elegantly turned about it.-J.L. is from Hone's “Every Day Book," vol. i., p. It was formerly the custom of our ancestors to 1270:- The barber's pole is still a sign in coun- | be blooded in the spring and fall of the year. This try towns, and in inany of the villages near Lon-operation was performed by the barbers, the pole don. ... The origin of the barber's pole is being an instrument which the patient used to to be traced to the period when the barbers were play his fingers upon, to cause the blood to flow also surgeons, and practised phlebotomy. To as- easier; their sign being a pole, decked with a sist this operation, it being necessary for the metal basin, having an oval piece out of the rim, patient to grasp a staff, a stick or a pole was to fit the arm of the patient. The stripes down the always kept by the barber-surgeon, together with pole were intended to represent the bandages used the fillet or bandaging he used for tying the pa after the operation. This custom originated, I tient's arm. When the pole was not in use, the believe, in ancient Rome, and was continued in tape was tied to it, that they might be both England up to the seventeenth century. The bartogether when wanted. On a person coming in bers then discontinued the practice of bleeding to be bled, the tape was disengaged from the pole, (with the exception of an occasional slip of the and bound round the arm, and the pole was put razor). They retained, however, the pole, and in into the person's hand; after it was done with, some instances the basin. The season-bleeding was the tape was again tied on the pole; and in this continued up to the commencement of the present state pole and tape were often hung at the door, century by surgeons. Bleeding is now generally for a sign or notice to passengers that they might' discountenanced by the medical profession.-J.H.
The Young student and Writer's Assistant.
6. The number of inhabitants in London are Perform the Exercise for the Senior Division, I (is) considerably upwards of two millious. in the March No., 1854, Vol. V., p. 116, beginning
7. Every one of the copies are (is) sold. with “underline the adjectives," &c.
1 8. At the late fire in Cheapside every one of
the books were (was) saved. MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXII.
9. If we louk through nature we shall find that
the happiness of organized beings consist (conVide February No., 1854, p. 73.
sists) in the accomplishment of the end of their 1. John and Charles is (are) coming to-morrow. existence.
2. Him (he) and his brother is (are) to take tea 10. It is by means of the nerves of sensation a tour house.
that constant communications from all parts of 3. George and me (T) expected them yesterday. the body to (with the brain is (are) carried on. | 4. The ships of the combined fleet has (have) 11. The buildings of the institution has (have) entered the Black Sea.
been enlarged. 5. The whole of the cargoes are (is) lost. 1 12. My sister, as well as my brother and me
(I), (is) daily engaged at (her) respective occupa-|. 18. Two triangles have each a base of 20 feet,
but the altitude of one of them is 6 feet less than 13. An immense shoal of herrings were (was) | that of the other, and the area of the greater tricaught by the fishermen.
angle is twice that of the less; find their altitudes, 14. In religious matters every man must an. 19. A and B began to play with equal sums, A swer for themselves (himself) to the Searcher of won 12s., then 6 times A's money was equal to 9 Hearts.
times B's; what had each at first? 15. Both him (he) and his clerk were present (c) 20. How many square yards of paving are when her (she) and I called.
in the trapezium, the diagonal of which is 65 feet. 16. Who (whom) did you see at the grocer's ? and the two perpendiculars let fall on it 28 and An assistant: he (him) who served us yesterday. 38-5 feet ?
17. Who (whom have I in heaven but thee? 21. What is the area of a trapezium, the dia
18. No person should be censured for being gonal of which is 1083 feet, and the perpendiculars careful of their (his) reputation.
654 and 60feet? 19. The remnant of the people were (was) persecuted. REMARKS.
GEOGRAPHICAL CLASS. 1. John and Charles, though singular nouns,
Junior Division, are coupled by and, and so form a plural nomin- Perform Exercise 2, in the March No., 1854, ative case, and hence require the verb in the Vol. V., p. 117. plural. 2. Him being in the nominative case should be
Senior Division. he. See remark 1.
EXERCISE No. XII. 3. See remarks on 1 and 2. 4. Ships, a plural nominative requires have, a
1. What forms the chief watershed of England ? plural verb.
2. Account for the greater length of the rivers 5. Whole, a singular nominative requires is, allowing towards the East. singular verb.
3. Principal plains ? 6. Number is singular, hence its verb is should
1 4. Explain the name Bedford Level. How is be singular.
it drained? How protected from the sea? Why? 7. One, &c., see 6.
5. Give the names of the four chief rivers. 8. See 6.
6. The part drained by the Thames ? 9. Happiness, a singular noun, requires con
7. Its source ? length ? direction ? sists, a singular verb.
8. Where does it discharge itself? 10. Conemunications, a plural noun requires
9. Its tributaries on the right bank? on the left the verb in the plural.
bank? 11. Buildings, &c., see 10.
10. Give the same particulars of the Severn, 12. Me, see 2.
Trent, Ouse. 13. Shoal, &c., see 9.
11. Is the Thames or Severn best fitted for navi14. The distributive adjective every requires the gation ? Why? noun and pronoun in the singular.
12. The distance very large vessels can come up 15. See 2.
the Thames ? 16. Who, being the objective case to see, should
13. How is the tide felt? have the objective form, whom: him should be
14. What is remarkable in the tide of the Severn? used instead of he, as the objective case of saw
15. Name some particulars which make the understood, as-I saw him, &c.
Thames interesting or important. 17. See 16.
16. The drawbacks to the navigation of the 18. Person, a singular noun requires his, a
Severn? singular pronoun.
17. How have the evils been in part obviated ? 19. Remnant, &c., see 18.
18. For what is the Wye remarkable ?
19. The size of the basin of the Thames?
Severn ? Trent? Ouse?
20. Explain the word Avon ?
21. Other rivers draining the district East of QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION.-II.
the Pennine range ? the country between the (a) 12. Which is the greatest and which the basins of the Trent and Thames? South of the least of is, is, ?
Thames and Severn ? the Cambrian range beside 13. Divide the sum of 1, s, and by the differ- the Severn? ence between and 1.
22. A general characteristic of English rivers ? 14. What number added to makes 13? and what taken from 137 leaves ? 15. Which is the greater, of 2%, or of 14, and
LOGIC CLASS. by how much?
Perform the Exercise on the “ Art of Reason(6) 16. A rectangle is 8 feet long, and if it were 2 feet broader its area would be 48 feet; find the No. 1851. Vol. II.
ing," No. 2., which will be found in the February 17. Two rectangular boards are equal in area; the breadth of the one is 18 inches, and that of the other 16 inches, and the difference of their length,
PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS. 4 inches; find the length of each, and the common Go through the 2nd lesson as given in the No.
for February, 1854, Vol. V., p. 74.
The Burieties’ brction.
Men's Literary So- advantageous to them in after life? Is Dr. Sa. ciety. --The sixth anniversary meeting of this muel Johnson's criticism on Milton liberal and society took place on Thursday, 26th October, fair?-Can Mary, Queen of England, be justified 1854, at seven in the evening, in the society's spa- for putting to death the Lady Jane Grey ?-Is the cious hall, in the Broadway Town. Alexander Rev. Mr. Godfrey's theory of hat and table moving Hunter, MD., Director of the Madras School of worthy of consideration ?- Is phrenology true?the Industrial Arts and Manufactures, presided. Does the nature or direction of a feeling constiNo resolutions were passed by the assembly; but, tute it virtuous or vicious ?-Is the import or as is the custom now with all associated bodies of export trade of a country the surer criterion of its this kind, sentiments were introduced, and in this prosperity ?-Can mind overcome the influence of case they were spoken to by Mr. J. Frost, the climate? --What constitutes morality ?--Is the pe. Rev. A. Vencataramiah, and the Rev. N. Hurd. rusal of works of fiction beneficial ? What are the The report, read by Mr. James Lyons, the secre- causes of the decline of the Indian trade and matary to the society, announced that the strength nufactures ?-Has the Great Exhibition of 1851 of the society was 100; that the amount of col benefited India ?-Is the principle of utility or lections, consisting of annual, quarterly, and expediency a safe moral guide ?-In the present monthly subscriptions, was rs. 1,213, a. 5, p. 7, state of the Madras Presidency, is Colonel Cote and the expenditure rs. 1,114, a. 1, p. 3, leaving a ton's proposal of cheap land and water communi. balance of rs. 99, a. 4, p. 5, at the society's credit; cations preferable to railroads ?-Is the practice to which, by adding the advances made on ac. of imparting a christian education in missionary count of house rent and subscriptions to English institutions by heathen agents objectionable?-Is newspapers for the ensuing year, the amount it possible for a Russian army to invade India ? available for the expenditure of the current year - Is the employment of architectural decorations rises to rs. 170; it is pleasing to observe that and instrumental music in churches at variance the income of the society for the year ending 31st with the simplicity of Christianity ?-Is caste August, 1854, exceeds that for the year preceding among Hindoos a religious or civil institution ?by rs. 300; and there is reason for believing that in which way are works of fiction beneficial 7–IS for the current year it will be even more abundant. beauty inherent in objects ?-Does Christianity
The reading room is still supplied with the pe- forbid all resort to physical force ?-Does the docriodicals and newspapers already reported in the trine of the immortality of the spirit influence the Controversialist. The visitors to the room during conduct of mankind ?-Is the moderate use of the past year number 6,341, or 3,598 in excess of alcoholic drinks injurious ?-Does the knowledge the previous year. The library has received an of one's-self influence our conduct in life ?-Does addition of 43 works, or 124 volumes. During the father or mother form the character of a child ? the year, 677 volumes were taken out by 431 --Who deserves the most praise, the inventor or members. Compared with the returns of the pre. the improver ? vious year, the number of readers appears to have I give this long list of subjects actually dis increased twofold, and the demand for books to cussed in the society's hall, for the purpose of have increased in like proportion. Only oue lec- letting your readers know what we are doing in ture was delivered during the year, the Rev. E. this place. I may also state that I have recently C. Jenks, of the Wesleyan Mission, being the been reading Dr. Hudson's work on Adult Edu. lecturer. Of the classes I ain sorry to say that I cation; and at the conclusion of the book I was cannot furnish so satisfactory a report. However, I amazed to find that in 1848 a Mechanics' Institute the discussion class is still in a vigorous state. existed in Madras. Where Dr. H. had his inIt met forty-five times, and discussed forty-four formation from, I can't say ; but I much recomsubjects. The aggregate attendance for the year mend him, if he intends to issue a second edition was 3,085, or, on an average, 69 weekly, the of his work, to consult your magazine first. In extreme numbers being 25 and 160. I subjoin fact, I think that in course of time the Controver. some of the subjects which have been discussed. sialist will contain the most accurate and authentic You will perceive that many of them are of a local history of adult education. It is a pity that some nature; several of them being purely Indian sub. more of your foreign or colonial readers do not jects. The class meets every Friday evening, at send a summary of the proceedings of their soci. seven o'clock. It is open to the public; that is eties half-yearly to you for publication. I am to say, auy person present is at perfect liberty to sure their accounts will be read by all with pecu. speak on the subject under debate.
liar interest. Subjects discussed:- Who is the greater poet, I may, in my next, write not only of the Young Milton or Shakspere ?-Is sporting justifiable ?- Men's Literary Society, but also tell you someHow has India benefited by the establishment of thing of kindred institutions in this city.- A steam navigation between her and Europe ?- MEMBER. What are likely to be the political, commercial, Meirion Literary Institution. – The fourth and social results of the formation of railways in anniversary meeting of the above society was held India?- What are the uses to which felspar may at Bala on Christmas evening. Deputies from all be applied ?-If science only, or literature, formed the branches met at one o'clock, for the purpose the basis of the primary education of youth, of reporting on their present state, as well as prowould the former or the latter be desirable or viding measures for their further advancement.
eam navigatio penefited by the es justifiable ?? Memay, in my next.