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Prepositions, for the most part, immediately precede the consequent noun, whose relation to a given antecedent noun requires to be expressed.
The following table contains an attempt at a new arrangement of some of the more important prepositions, according to the predominating notion of relation implied in each.
TABLE OF PREPOSITIONS. Amid
3 1 Heavily Among Encircled
Altitude More detached Within
(Most detached About
After Around Encircling
Beyond Athwart (Slanting
Close proximity Through or By means
At For | Progress
With To - Having an end in view
EXERCISE XXXVIII.—Distinguish the prepositions in the following extracts by underlining, and marking by a figure above, the class in the table to which each belongs :
“Hopes and fears
Look down-on what ?-a fathomless abyss."-Young.
Ah ! the souls of them that die are but sunbeams listed higher."-Longfellow. “Harmless mirth is the best cordial against the consumption of the spirit; wherefore, jesting is not unlawful, if it trespasseth not in quantity, quality, or season."-Fuller.
EXERCISE XXXIX.— Insert fitting prepositions in the blank spaces of the follorcing passages :
“ Hope - uplifted foot set free - earth,
Pants — the place --- its ethereal birth;
- wreaths like those angelic spirits wear."— Cowper. "It is surprising to see the images of the mind stamped - the aspect; to see the cheeks take the dye – the passions, and appear - all the colours — thought."-Collier.
“Honours best thrive When rather -- our acts we them derive Than our foregoers."-Shakspere,
Our thoughts very seldom, if they ever, arise in us detached or isolated. Much more frequently they are linked and bound together. Speech must express these conjunctions of thought with thought, and a class of words must exist to fulfil that office in the act of converse or writing.
Conjunctions form a class of words which show how words and sentences are connected with each other.
They are of four kinds, corresponding to the four laws of mental association (ride " Art of Reasoning," chaps. V. and X.X.), viz., Juxtaposition, Resemblance, Contrast, Succession ; and may be thus tabulated :
EXERCISE XL.–Underline the conjunctions contained in the following extracts, and indicate by a number to which of the four species in the above arrangement each belongs:
“Men would be gods in their unchanging bliss,
Ifjoy's midsuminer zenith could be still
And the high worlds unseen for light of this."-F. Tennyson.
And many a qualm of care his rising hopes destroy."—Beatlie. “If there be a royal solitude, it is a sick bed. How the patient lords it there! What caprices he acts without control! How king-like he sways his pillow, tumbling, and tossing, and shifting, and lowering, and thumping, and flatring, and moulding it to the ever-varying requisitions of his throb. bing temples."-Churles Lamb.
EXERCISE XLI.-Supply conjunctions of the kind denoted by the figures in brackets in the passages that follow :
“How clouded man
“Oh! the cursed devil,
For each man's good; when which nick comes it strikes
(3) when it cries clink in his raiser's spirit.”—John Chapman. EXERCISE XLII.-In the following extract distinguish the adverbs by marking one above them; the prepositions by two, the conjunctions by three:
“Now will I go forth into the crowded world
And grasp its choicest pleasures. Arm outstretched,
To use it as we will may follow too."—W. Smith. For now six years, dear reader, we have been co-labourers. In these pages it has been our privilege and duty to say many words of hope and love. Ever with gladness did the hour, which was to bring us into communication, find us, and we have often coined the silent hours of night into golden thoughts of you. As friends we met in converse, and," as iron sharpeneth irun,” strove to whet each other's aspirations. Time smiled upon our intercourse, and it ripened-into what fruit, let each answer for himself. May we, then, with the license of long and true friendship, bespeak you for a little before this year also departs into“ the past eternity," and yet once more mingle the farewells of the closing year with sober thought? If so, to one and all we bear the same mission; namely, make Life an earnest, truthful activity—a reality. Study to know its duties and to do them, and aspire, by industry, perseverance, and true speaking and acting, to rise to that state in which the performance of duty is not only possible, but pleasurable. It is quite true that we cannot know
“How various are the events that may depend
Upon one action, yet the end proposed
Not follow the intention;" but we do know that-pure motives are the safeguards of men. Let us become, then, pare in heart, as well as earnest in action. Let us believe that life is a gift, that duty is the supreme purpose of life, that purpose is the soul of system, that system is the highway of success; and may each of us resolve to devote all our energies, capacities, opportunities, &c., to the fulfilment of some purpose commensurate with our Duty, Destiny, and Power, so that our future years may each be happier than we hope. This day for each of us“ divides eternity in twain ”-the Past with all its acts and memories, the Future with all its purposes and hopes. This day tbe urn of fate is again placed before us, that we may choose whatsoever we will. To each such choice Heaven has affixed a definite award, so that there is no lottery in human life, but a dire certainty that as we make the option, so shall it befall. May each choose discreetly, wisely, and well, and hereafter perfect up his life in the Great Taskmaster's eye! Adieu! S. N.
IS REASON CONFINED TO MAN ?
NEUTRAL ARTICLE. No small amount of the obscurity which of the nervous system; and how much more exists with regard to the relative predomi- so, to indicate the relative amount of develnance of the reasoning and instinctive powers opment which each of these constituents of in the different members of the Vertebrate the brain of man undergoes in the ascending kingdom, has arisen from the looseness with scale of animal life. We have been, howwhich these terms have been applied; in ever, induced to make the attempt, rather many cases both of them having been used with the view of drawing general attention indiscriminately by different persons to in-to the material source from which much of dicate the nature of the same mental func- our knowledge of the spiritual portion of our tion. It would be no difficult matter, by a nature is to be gathered, than with the little special pleading, and the aid of this expectation of bringing conviction or light to ambiguous phraseology, to prove to super the minds of our readers. ficial observers the truth of either side of Let us see, first, what is strictly meant this question; but it would be but a poor by the term “instinct;" for should we be triumph for the advocates of the restric- able to show that there are numberless tion of intelligence to the human race to know actions, not only of the higher Mammalia, that they had exalted their idol only by but even of the lowest members of the confusing the very phrases, the import of Vertebrate group, which cannot be comprewhich it should have been their object to hended under that head, the advocates of determine; and, on the other hand, it would the exclusively instinctive character of brute be easy, by insisting on the strict interpre- life will be non-suited, at least so far as the tation of the term “instinct,” for the cham- verbal nature of the question is concerned, pions of the brute creation to show that the for we never heard in popular discussion actions which owe their origin to that prin- any tertium quid between instinct and ciple are not only common to man as well as reason assigned as a cause of these actions. to the lower animals, but that there are in The truth, as in many cases of a far addition a great many faculties of the latter more practical nature than this, lies bewhich cannot, with any propriety, be called tween the two extremes. If the defenders instinctive, thus leaving their opponents on of the instinct theory will widen their prethe horns of a dilemma, from which their mises sufficiently to admit under that title only escape could be by adopting the alter- those automatic processes of reasoning which native of the more extended diffusion of the are constantly going on in their own heads, intellectual powers.
whilst their opponents will but confine the Nothing throws so much light upon this term “reason” to those volitional acts of question as an investigation into the func- intelligence which necessitate such a power tions which experiment and induction have of abstraction, as to be able to form general led modern physiologists to attribute to ideas, and which evince, not only an adapdifferent portions of the nervous system ; tation to certain ends, but a designed one and assuredly nothing would so unfit a man on the part of the agents, there is every for entering into this controversy as igno- reason to believe that they may yet find rance of these fundamental facts in the themselves in the position of those three science of metaphysics. Yet it is almost great logicians, who “nearly came from impossible, in so limited a space as a paper words to blows" about the colour of the in the Controversialist must necessarily chameleon, and who were somewhat astooccupy, to give to readers whose minds are nished to find that they were all in the unfamiliarized with the study of physiology, right, and at the same time all in the wrong. an idea even of the verbal meaning of the Man is sufficiently exalted in the pre-emiterms which are applied to different portions nence which the faculty of speech and the possession of a moral instinct gives him, to automatic, and in no way amenable to the be able to concede with grace a moiety of will, except that some of them, under certain what has too often been considered as his circumstances, can be for a time suspended exclusive attribute, to the “beasts that or modified, as in the forced cessation from perish;" whilst, on the other hand, the breathing, which a diver practises. And dignity of the plan of creation is much why this is so is clear, if we remember increased by the establishment of the fact that they are all highly necessary to the that although there is a hiatus between the continuance of the individual or of the lowest of the human species and the most species, and that many of them, being not developed of the inferior animals which no only devoid of pleasure, but even productive Lamarckian theory can fill up, yet that the of discomfort, if they were placed under the germs of those mental processes which sole control of the power of volition, would elevate man arnongst the denizens of the stand a good chance of being frequently unseen world, and even draw him near to omitted. It should also be remarked that the throne of God himself, may be dis- no previous experience can give them force, tinctly traced in the various stages of the nor can any amount of practice confer imanimal series, though performed under in- provement, for they are as perfect as the stinctive rather than volitional agency.* Designer of nature originally intended them
The term “instinctive” should, in strict to be. Now, all the apparatus that is propriety, be confined to those automatic necessary for the performance of these autoactions which are essential to the life and matic functions is a central nerve station, or well-being of the animals who exhibit them, ganglion, as it is technically termed, with of which we find the highest manifestations afferent and efferent nerves to bring to it in the class of insects, and which are tech- sensations, and convey volitions to the parts nically known to physiologists as (a) exci- to be moved; and such a system exists in tomotor and (6) sensorimotor-words which those portions of the nervous axis, which are may be paraphrased respectively as, (a) known as the Spinal Cord, Medulla Oblonsensations excited on the nerves of the gata, and Sensory Ganglia, with their respecgeneral surface, or some special part of the tive sensory and motor nerves. body, which cause muscular action in those To this category, then, of purely instinctmembers to which corresponding motor ive or automatic actions, we must refer all nerves are distributed,-e.g., the compulsion those instances of apparent contrivance and to swallow, which the propulsion of a pellet refined ingenuity which the lower animals of food down the throat produces, and (6) so abundantly supply, and which have been as sensations excited on the nerves of special the astonishment and delight of the curious sense, such as the eye, ear, &c., which also in all ages. A bee cannot help building a give rise to muscular action in those parts hive, if provided with wax; an ant cannot to which the corresponding motor perves are help storing grain; a beaver cannot help directed-e.g., the compulsion to close the constructing a dam; a snail cannot help lids, which the sudden approximation of a "dragging its slow length along” to its foreign body to the eye excites, the tendency accustomed food, because, in the words of the to sneeze, which an instantaneous bright divine and moral rhymester, “it is their naflash of light sometimes produces, &c. It ture so to do.” The phrase, however unsatiswill be remarked that these actions are truly factory in a philosophical point of view, is
the nearest approach which we can make to
an explanation; and we should be doing *“A very close correspondence may be traced | little more than trifling with words. if we between the gradual development of the Intelli. gence and the progressive acquirement of Voli. imagined that we had found a more satistional dominance in the ascending series of Verte- factory clue, by referring the actions of these brate animals, and in the advance of man from animals to a “physiological necessity of the mental state of childhood (which is perma. nently retained, as to all its essential characters,
their organization." Still it is competent in many adults, and even in whole races of the for us to offer some such hypothesis as this, least cultivated order) to the highest elevation that there is a kind of nervous irritation which his nature is capable of displaying in his present sphere of existence."-Dr. Carpenter,
excited by a variety of external circum** Principles of Human Physiology, "1853, p. 667. / stances in the animals, which compels them