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LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. We have authority for stating that there is no , in carrying out his experimental improvements, truth in a paragraph which has appeared in several and since his death it is proposed to make some of the papers, to the effect that the editorship of provision for his two surviving daughters. The the “ Quarterly Review" has passed into the hands subscription list is headed by the proprietors of of the Rev. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, the bio- “ The Times," and of “The London Journal," grapher and son-in-law of the late Dr, Arnold. with £100 each; and Messrs. Pirie and Sons, The Rev. Whitwell Elwin, to whom the editorship and Cowan and Sons, papermakers, £50 each; was confided at the suggestion of the previous and there are many contributors of lesser sums. editor, the late Mr. Lockhart, during his last ill. Messrs. Prescott, Grote, and Co., bankers, are ness, still occupies that honourable post, and treasurers of the fund. performs its duties very much, we believe, to the The third and fourth volumes of Mr. Macaulay's advantage of literature, and the satisfaction of "History of England" are definitely announced that political party with which the journal is for December. identified.

On December 1st, Mr. Charles Dickens comA subscription is on foot for a memorial of the

mences a new novel, entitled “Little Dorrit." late M. Foudrinier, the ingenious and indefatig. The popularity of this author's works may be inable perfecter of paper-making machinery. It ferred from the fact that the proceeds of " Bleak was formerly intended to purchase an annuity House" amounted to about £13,000, and had an for M. Foudrinier, who had spent much money average sale of 35,000 copies per month.

NOTICES OF BOOKS. Vocabulaire Symbolique Anglo-Francais, pour mere surface, and learns the deep, hidden mean

les Eleves de Tout Age et de Tout Degre. Par ings found in words, there must, of necessity, come L. C. Ragonot, Professeur de la Langue Fran- a stronger perception of the moral beauty and caise. Second Edition. Price 5s.

spiritual connection with the mind conveyed in It has been said, that when a man speaks more those words; and thus there is every possibility languages than one, he is so much more the man, of his receiving a strong moral tone from bis This, of course, has reference to his intellectual constant intercourse with such an elevating study. qualifications, inasmuch as a man is not neces. This, we maintain, is the only true and legitimate sarily more inoral for his acquisition of languages; manner of studying a language; and yet, how although, to a man who goes deeper than the few people know even their owu language in this The eyelashes commerce, but in speech, literature-everything,

66

La man.

of

way! How few stop to inquire why such a word different signification. As an illustration, we remeans such a thing, much less to inquire how member an anecdote of a lady going to buy a that thought is expressed by another nation- mattress, and she asked for a matelot, which she men who have been under other iufluences than thought all right enough till she received an our own! Many people content themselves with answer that she had better go to the nearest seathe idea, that wbat they know of the language of port, for they didn't sell sailors in Paris. What the country to which they belong will serve their she wanted was a matelas. A friend of ours turn, and is quite enough for them. Well, for asked, at a restaurant in Paris, for “ du pont." good souls whose thoughts travel no farther Pourquoi ?" said the Frenchman. than from hat to boots, and from boots to hat, ger," replied our friend. “Want a bridge to eat? ornitting that most important part which lies, or said the astonished waiter; “my-what a stom. should lie, immediately beneath that strange ach!” Our friend, being somewhat bashful, felt, article of dress vulgarly called a “tile "_namely, after that, he could neither eat du pont por brains, we suppose that it is enough that their pain. “seat of thought" should not have too many Now, we think that M. Rayonot's book will visitors seated thereon at once, lest the feeble obviale this difficulty; as, for such words, you receptacle should crack; for it is just possible, have an engraving of the article spuken of, it might be impossible ever to put such“ minds to assist the memory. The plan of the book is on the stretcb," it being highly probable they this,-not only to give the word you desire to would not prove elastic. Therefore, such inust know, but also all the words which immediately remain in nubibus not the “glorious cloud- belong to it. Suppose, by way of example, you land," but the land of fog. With such we shall desire to know the name for some part of the waste no words; in short, bad we not been ac. body, you look in the “ Table of Contents," and cused of "paying a compliment" within the last there you find "L'homme," "man,"—first,“ col. half-hour, we would say that our readers (!) lectively;" then “individually,"—" morally,"need not, in the least, apply these remarks to " socially,"—“physical, "—"normal state of man," themselves, as we flatter ourselves that the fact of -“ titles,"—“primitive man,"—“ men's dress," their being subscribers at all to such a magazine then“ ladies' dress," “ children's dress," &c., &c. shows they are not afraid of work. So,“ gentle Well, suppose we desire to know a few of the readers,"for we know you are genule, though parts of the human body simply-say the head. you are “ Controversialists" (which is an ugly Looking, as we said, in the “Table des Matières" name) - we trust that you will not consider our for “physical man," it refers us to page 4, where preaching is to you, and that you will allow your we find 4. tiles " to sit very complacently on your pates. L'Homme Physique Physical Man

Well, we were talking of language, or, rather, La tête est composée The head is composed the study of language; and we think most people de agree that, on the whole, French is the most Le crâne

The skull useful of the European languages. We should Les cheveux

The hair be glad, moreover, to hear that every one had La face, figure, visage The face determined to “parlez vous," if only for the sake Le cuir chevelu

The scalp of remaining at perfect peace with our neigh- Le front

The forehead bours; for we think there would be little chance Les tempe

The temples of the two governments quarrelling, if the people La nuque understood each other well, and could communi- Les sourcils

The eyebrows cate their thoughts one to the other. Therefore, Les yeux we desire to see a unity of the two natious, not Les paupières

The eyelids ouly in feeling, with regard to the present war and Les cils

The pape

&c. in fact, that can help to break down the barrier And so for any other part of the body, and, in fact, of separation between us.

of almost any other thing. Then, again, the en. The old idea, that a man must spend a life's gravings assist the memory materially in rememstudy upon a foreign language, is fust giving bering the words given. Og several pages of way; and experience shows, that for all the the book we have about thirty engravings—the practical purposes of conversation and literature, book, being quarto size, admits of this number. the French language may be acquired in a very It will be readily seen that the engravings form short time with energy and close application. an important part of this work, serving to give a Means for the study of the French language are description better than any amount of verbal becoming every day more and more numerous; matter could. and we are glad to see that it is worth the while Some estimate of what the book is may be of educated Frenchmen to offer themselves as formed from the fact that it is quarto size, conteachers and writers for the English public. I tains eighty pages, on several of which we have There is now hardly a town in England which counted as many as 230 words well explained. canuot boast of a French teacher; and books One advantage in the work is, it can be used with may be had by thousands. This brings us to our any method of instruction, and will not interfere task, namely, a short notice of one of the most with the labour of a teacher, inasmuch as it sensible hooks which it has been our lot to meet thoroughly instructs a studeut in the details of with of late; we mean the book by M Ragonot. the French language, without the possession of

We have no doubt many of our reailers, who which its study is dry work. have studied a foreign language, have found In cunclusion we may say, that the “getting great difficulty in fixing in the mind words which up" of the work does every credit to Nessrs. do not often occur in conversation; also those Ackerman and Co., the engravings being executed which have almost the same sound, but a very in a most spirited manner.-E. B.

The eyes

&c.

Aliùs to Self-Culturr.

THE ESSENTIALS OF GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION.—No. V.

STUDY is an earnest thing. In study Thought and Labour find their union-point, and in Speech they find expression and continued life,

“Making a curious pencil of the tougue;" man, in the colours of speech, preserves his ideas, widens their utility, and multiplies their force. Grammar and Composition, like all other studies, require a due proportion of theory and practice. In our present essayings we have striven to exhibit the “essentials” of these topics, so arranged, that as soon as a new truth has been gained, it may be reduced to practice, and thus, by that use which breeds a habit in a man, become a permanent potency of the intellect. How far we have succeeded, those who have, with diligence and honesty, laboured to improve themselves by our teaching, can best testify. Our first course of instruction in these topics wants only one more effort, and it is finished, To this we must gird ourselves, and with ready earnestness strive to make these “ Aids to Self-Culture” really and truly so. To become so, laborious practice—the self-exertion of honest study—is needful. Will it be withheld from us now ? No! every self-educator will remember the truth the poet so beautifully sings :

“ The smallest effort is not lost;
Each wavelet on the ocean tost
Aids in the ebb-tide or the flow,

Each raiu.drop makes some flowret blow;" and act like a believer in the consoling verity thereof.

Those various classes of words, the nature and use of which we bave formerly, to some extent, explained and exemplified, are qnite sufficient of themselves to enable man to construct perfect sentences, so long as the facts or topics upon which he discourses are purely categorical, i. e., express, positive, and absolute. But it is seldom that man can become the possessor of thoughts whose truth and accuracy are universally, unalterably, and unmodifiedly correct. So much that is uncertain in itself, so much that must be uncertain in consequence of man's limited powers, so much that is uncertain because of man's want of the habit of inquiry and investigation, requires utterance, that some means becomes requisite to express these uncertainties; and where everything is changing around us, as well as everything within us is so subject to variability, some mode of indicating the degree and intensity of these mutations is needful. In this necessity the adverb takes its origin.

Adverbs may, therefore, be philosophically defined as that class of words which, being added to perfect sentences, modify any part or parts of the essential idea or ideas expressed therein or thereby. More practically, the definition may be stated thus:-Adverbs are words which modify any other word or words expressive of essence or attribution, or, to

2 M

use more common, though less accurate language, adverbs are words conjoined to verbs and adjectives, to express some change or modification in the meaning they convey. The words italicized in the following dirge are adverbs:

“To-day is a thought, a fear is To-morrow,

And Yesterday is our sin and sorrow;
And Life is a death
Where the body's a tomb,
And the pale sweet breath
Is buried alive in its hideous gloom.
Then waste no tear,
For we are the dead; the living are here,
In the stealing earth and the heavy bier.
Death lives but an instant, and is but a sigh,
And his son is unnamed Immortality.
Whose being is thine? Dear ghost so to die
Is to live, and life is a worthless lie.
Then we weep for ourselves, and wish thee good-bye."-Beddoes.

The following table may be advantageously studied, as exhibiting at one glance the chief notions to which the modifying influence of adverbs may be applied. We do not believe that it is completely exhaustive of the subject, or that it includes all the kinds of differences which may be indicatable by adverbs, but it contains many of them, and may therefore be useful.

TABLE OF ADVERBS.

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1. Quality-e. 9., Fairly, secretly, justiy,

slowly 2. Quantity-.9., More, exceedingly. 3. Affirmation-e.g., Really, truly, surely,

certes, yea, doubtless, &c. 4. Negation-e.9., No, not, nay, least, &c. 5. Similarity-e.9., Alike, as, so, equally. 6. Difference-e.9., Otherwise, except. 7. Union-e.g., Together, wholly, totally,

universally, &c. 8. Separation-e.g., Apart, asunder, &c. 9. Comparison-e.g., Rather, less, more. 10. Illustration-e.g., Namely, for example. 11. Mode-e.9., Somehow, beadlong, &c. (12. Degree-e.g., Generally, enough, &c.

a. Near-e.g., Here, hence.

b. Distant - e. g., There, 1. Position

thence, afar.
c. Indefinite-e. J., Where,

whence, elsewhere.

a. To, hither, downwards, 2. Direction

homewards, &c.
b. From, thither, upwards,

forward, &c.
3. Succession-e. g., Successively, orderly,

firstly, &c.

II. PLACE.

EXERCISE XXXIV.-Insert the proper adverbs in the following extracts :

“Weave, brothers, weave! throw

The shuttle athwart the loom,
And show us -- your flowers grow,
That have beauty but — perfume."—B. Cornwail.

advises

“ A true friend unbosoms continues a friend —"-Penn.

assists

-, adventures

takes all

defends, and

“Sloth has --, and — been denominated the rust of the soul. The babit is is a part of our nature to be indolent."-Todd.

acquired, or, -, it

EXERCISE XXXV.—Place adverbs of the kinds denoted by the words in parentheses wherever such words occur :

“What precious drops are these
Which (Manner) each other's track pursue,

Bright (Manner) young diamonds in their infant dew?"-Dryden.
“The tear (Place) childhood's cheek that flows
Is like the dew-drop on the rose;
(Time) next the summer breeze comes (Place),
And waves the bush, the flower is dry."—Sir W. Scoit.

“ Time hath laid his hand
Upon my heart (Manner), not smiting it,
But (Manner) a harper lays bis open palm

Upon his harp, to deaden its vibrations."—Longfellow. EXERCISE XXXVI.--Underline each adverb in the extracts below, and indicate by numbers placed abore each the class and sub-class in the table to which it belongs :

“Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears.

Yet slower yet. Oh! faintly, gentle springs
List to the heavy part the music bears.
Woe weeps out her division when she sings.

Droop herbs and flowers,
Fall grief in showers,
Our beauties are not ours.

Oh! I could still,
Like melting snow upon some craggy hill,

Drop, drop, drop, drop,
Since Nature's pride is now a withered dafadil."-Ben Jonson.
" Why should we doubt of that whereof our sense
Finds demonstration in experience ?
Our minds are here and there, below, above;

Nothing that's mortal can so quickly move."-Denham. « Did men always think clearly, and were they at the same time fully masters of the language in which they write, there would be occasion for few rules."-Jamieson.

Adverbs should be placed as near as possible to the word or words whose signification they are intended to modify.

EXERCISE XXXVII.-Alter and improve the position of the adverts italicized in the following passages :

“Of perfect knowledge, see, the dawning light
Erquisitely foretells a noon most bright.
Springs of endless joy are here breaking forth,
Buds there the promise of eternal worth.”—Young.

“Her bosom to the view was only bare."— Dryden. “He had suffered the woodward only to use his discretion in the distant woods. In the grore3 about his house he allowed no marking hammer but his own.”—Gilpin.

Prepositions are words indicative of the relations which the mind perceives among the objects upon which thought is exercised, or among its thoughts themselves.

The relations perceived determine the particular preposition which should be employed.

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