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speech itself; its opening, the order and rule for the cultivation of skill in speaking relative force of the several arguments ad- is that which obliges the young orator to duced, the skill displayed in evading or engage frequently in the practice of original obviating objections, the pertinency of the composition. In this, if he would be proillustrations, the facility and naturalness of ficient, he must study to bring into actual the transitions from one topic to another, and appropriate use those essential principles the closing remarks or peroration, and, and precepts wbich, under the imposing throughout the whole, every grace and every names of Grammar and Rhetoric, all termielegance in the structure of individual sen nate at last in justifying that brief definition tences or passages.

of a good style—“proper words in proper The fourth rule is-Exercise your powers places.” often in the practice of written compo | By the due application of this rule, whesition.

ther in one or in all of the ways above indi"Writing,” says Lord Bacon, “ makes an cated, the mind becomes habituated to close accurate man," and this is the testimony of and accurate thinking, familiar with various every scholar. The rule, however, which forms of expression, and ready, when the we are now commending, has several modes occasion demands, to display its resources in of application. If the student is acquainted fluent and forceful language. with any language other than his vernacular, The fifth and last general rule which we one of the easiest applications of the present shall here give for acquiring superiority in rule is the translating of passages out of extemporaneous speaking is-Be always dilithat foreign language into his own. Every gent in the acquisition of knowledge. sentence thus translated is an exercise, how- The aim of this rule is especially to reach ever brief, in English composition; a fact the case of those who, relying upon a certain which accounts for the greater facility in natural readiness of utterance, are but too the nse of language, which boys have who have apt to fall into the deplorable habit of studied, even for comparatively short periods undertaking to speak without having anyof time, the Latin and Greek languages, than thing in particular to say. He that fails is found in the possession of those who are from this cause, deserves to fail; for he without that advantage.

equally deceives himself and his audience; He, however, who knows no other than mistaking sound for sense, and raising exhis native tongue, may adopt, with the pectations which he is not able to satisfy. greatest benefit, a custom, commended and A glib tongue in an empty head is no comadopted by Cicero and other great speakers | mon calamity. in their youth,—that of reading carefully a There is no kind of knowledge, as before passage from some great oration or other intimated, which may not be useful to the literary composition, getting the substance deliberative speaker. Such is the variety of of it fairly in the memory, and then putting the questions which he may find it necessary it again into language the best you can or desirable to discuss, that no mental treacommand. There is, also, another way of sures, however extensive or diversified, can reaching the result contemplated in this exceed the limits of his actual wants. exercise, which the author of these obser- ! It was no mere fancy that led the ancients vations has often found singularly efficient, to adopt the principle, that the genuine in the prosecution of his duties as a practical orator should be competently acquainted educator. It is, simply to place before the with every department of knowledge. Not learner a given passage from a writer of that, even in their day, the orator could be established reputation, and then to require expected to be a man of universal knowledge, him to express, in words other than those of in any such sense as includes and necessithe author, the same idea; that is, neither tates a minute and profound acquaintance more nor less than what is found in the with ail the various and complicated branches passage assigned. This is an admirable of human learning. This, if not then, cermethod of acquiring precision of style, on tainly now, would be quite out of human which depends, in great measure, every power; but there is an important sense in other excellence of composition.

which this theory of universal culture is But a higher application of the present | unquestionably true. Let the standard be

high, whatever may be our deficiencies in ing and judicious practice, may become reaching it.

| ready and efficient speakers. The perfect orator is, indeed, the rarest of “But,” as is well observed by an eminent human characters. It is seldom, in the writer,* “no man ought to place such conlapse of ages, that all those qualities that fidence in his own abilities as to hope to rise must conspire to produce this character are to the highest pitch of reputation by his found to unite in a single individual. In first efforts. For our extemporary powers voice, in person, in genius, in knowledge, in of speaking must rise by degrees, from fluency, in everything that can influence the inconsiderable beginnings to perfection. eye, the ear, the heart, or the head, he must And this can neither be acquired nor be pre-eminent.

maintained without practice.James N. Few, therefore, very few, can ever hope McElligot, LL.D. to attain to the glory of being perfect orators; but all, or nearly all, by persever

* Quinctilliun.

THE TRUE TEST OF MERIT. THE true test of competency will be the themselves, have had to form their own struggle, in which all earnest men engage, to characters, and to educate their own minds attain eminence and success, whatever path of in fact, they have been what are called selflife they may pursue. It is then that you instructed men. I do not make this remark will find the value of the right training of to undervalue the enormous advantages of the mind, and of real knowledge.

education, but rather to encourage you to It is because of the results of intellectual turn them to the best account. Let your exertion, and of the continued exercise of continued endeavours be directed to uniting thought and of the reason, as opposed to the the acquisition of knowledge with the trainmere development of the retentive qualities, ing of the mind. One hour's earnest thought that even self-instruction is, on many at night, to digest the study of the day, and accounts, preferable to a vicious education. to seek its application to the ordinary affairs We find that those who, as great writers, of public and private life, is worth hours of great inventors, and great thinkers, have patient reading. It is the want of this chiefly contributed to the happiness, the in- proper training of the mind, and of this struction, and the civilization of the human earnest thought-breeding sincerity, truthfulrace, have, for the most part, been men who ness, and self-reliance, which we may have to have struggled against overwhelming diffi- deplore in modern state education, and in its culties, who have tried to rely entirely upon effects upon the national character.-Layard.

The Inquirer.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.

tissues are thereby hardened, and the blood be.

comes putrescent and disqualified for vital circu266. The Philosophy of Death. In giving the lation. A complete revolution of the blood through requested “ explanation of the mystic operation of the system is effected in 21 minutes; hence the death," it may first be remarked that death is not rapidity of any poisonous action, whether it conso mystical iu its character as is generally sup- sists in arresting the progress of the blood, or in posed, neither is it so much an operation as it is chargiug it with deleterious elements or conditions. the cessation or the obstruction of an operation. When the deleterious blood, or the interruption Death is simply the negation of life, which is po- thereof, reaches the brain, it is at that instant that sitive; it is but the terrn where the far greater conscious life becomes deranged or destroyed. mystery of life ceases. Death arising from poison Natural death, however, or death from old age, is either caused by the poison's action upon some proceeds from the gradual consolidation and harvital organ, interrupting its functions, which are dening up of the physical system, until it reaches essential to life, or by its chemical or mechanical a point that is incompatible with any further opeaction upon the blood. In the case of arsenic,ration of the living principle, where the ossifiwhich is the only one instanced by “ Hider," the cation of the vital orgaus has disqualified them

dations en that the theme insignifine been, Nitra

for action, where the requisite flexibility of the compose the earth's crust, each one of which proentire system has become exhausted, and where bably occupied several thousands of years, if not the channels that once freely conveyed the streams of centuries, in its completion Professor Sedge of life have become contracted and choked up, and wick, however, one of the most eminent geologists their minute ramifications changed into solid of this country, has demonstrated that the sum fibres.-HALKET.

total of geological evidence is in favour of the 273. Hebrer Grammar and Dictionary.-Al. earth's having had a beginning in time. On this low me to recommend to A. J. C., as a Hebrew subject the reader is referred to Lyell's “ Princigrammar, “Schræderi Institutiones ad Funda- ples of Geology," to Richardson's - Geology" menta Linguæ Hebrew," and for a lexicon, Lee's. (chap. iii.), to Hitchcock's “ Religion of Geology" If A.J. C. wishes merely to be a biblical student, (lec. ii.), Miller's “Old Red Sandstope," and to to study the Old Testament in the original, Bakewell's “Elements." Suffice it to say here, “Buxtorfi Lexicon Hebraicum et Chaldaicum" | that some of the most recent post-tertiary accuwill admirably serve his turn. I would warn the mulations, lacustrine and fluviatile, and surface. christian student from tbe books of Gesenius, who changes, as the formation of the Egyptian and is a Neologian. The biblical student will find other deltas, the channel cnt by the Niagara Alfred Ollivant's “ Aualysis of the Text of the Falls, &c., bave been computed to have occupied History of Joseph" pre-eminently useful at the several thousand years; and though the effects commencement of his labours. A critical know produced by these influences have been, within ledge of Greek may sometimes be useful, but is the historic period, quite insignificant, yet geoloin no way necessary. THRELKELD.

gists think that the tremendous changes and gra277. Geological Question. The fossils found dations evidenced in the earth's crust bave been in the chalk cliffs at Margate and in other parts produced by causes strictly analogous, only opeof the Isle of Thanet and south coast, having a rating through cycles of ages proportionally globular, ovoid form, are varieties of the echino.vaster. derm, or sea urchin, either spatan gus or anan. The following brief classification, compiled chytes ovata, galerites or nucleolites; the two from Richardson, and from a remarkably clear former are found mostly in the chalk formations; and useful little “Introductory Text Book of Geothe two latter mostly in the oolitic. The whole logy," by D. Page, which the learner would do class possessed a highly organized integument, well to carry constantly with him in his rambles, or covering, of many hundred calcareous plates, may enable the student to refer any particular sys. closely fitting together, and armed with moveable tems or groups to their relative places in the spines.

earth's crust. Till lately, it was thought that the chalk and 1. Post-tertiary strata contain alluvial deposits. intervening layers of flint were owing to calca- peat-mosses, coral-reefs, raised beaches, beds of reous and siliceous matters precipitated at the lakes and rivers, volcanic ejections, remains of bottom of the ocean (which must have been of existing plants and animals, and, in the most enormous depth and extent, as the chalk strata recent formations, traces of mau, are in some places from 800 to 1,100 feet thick), 2. Tertiary system.-" Drift," clays and stratiand there deposited separately by the effect of fied marls, limestones, and lignites above the chemical attraction. The chalk, however, ex- cbalk, sub-divided into the Pleistocene group, or amined microscopically, is found to consist, in boulder-drift, and marine and freshwater beds; great measure, of minute torameniferous shells, the Pleiocene, as the mammaliferous crag of Norwhile the plates and nodules of flint are owing folk and Suffolk, shelly beds of sand, clay, yellow to sponges, round which there was probably an loam, and layers of flinty shingle; the Miocene, accretion of siliceons matter from the waters of or coralline crag, flaggy beds of limestone and deposit, and the chalk and flint which fill the greenish marl; and the Eocene, as the sandy cavities of shells and sea-urchins have a similar clays and siliceous limestones of Hampshire and origin. “ Flints," says Richardson, “are so con- Isle of Wight, the Bagshot sands, London clay. stantly associated with organic substances, that the Bognor beds, &c. The Tertiary system it is scarcely possible to meet with one which occurs as abore, and in Dorsetshire, Valley of does not contain a sponge, urchin, or shell, or the Thames (i. e., Middlesex, with part of Esses, the impression of one or more of these organ Kent, Surrey, Sussex), Yorkshire, and part of isms." The iron pyrites balls, probably hardened Scotland. Remains of plants and animals, very amid the pressure of semi-fluid matters, and nearly like existing species. their internal appearance, is owing to their having 3. Cretaceous system.-Thick beds of chalk, the crystallized in that position. The fossils of the upper with numerous layers of fiint, chalk mari, chalk (and the rotalia and other minute organ and the greensand strata, beds of siliceous green isms of the silex) are almost wholly marine, con- or ferruginous sands, with layers of chert and sisting of sponges, fucoids, corals, mollusks, sandstone, local beds of ganlt, rocks of chalky star fishes, echinoderms, crustacea, fishes, and limestone (Kentish rag), and fuller's earth. reptiles, which are vot discovered in the tertiary Occars in parts of Sussex, Surrey, Kert, Hants, strata, the species having all died out at the close Dorset, Wilts, and, dipping under Thames Valley, of the cretaceous period; "and they form," says occurs in Hertford, Bedford, Buckingham, Ox. Richardson, “the spoils of a primeval sea, which ford, Norfolk, Lincoln, and York. Remains of rivalled in extent the mighty oceans of the south- marine plants and animals now extinct. ern hemisphere at the present day, as the chalk 4. Oolitic system comprises the Wealden strata group extends over portions of the British between the chalk hills of Surrey and Sussex, Islands, various parts of France, Germany, Den Hastings sands, and Purbeck beds (limestone). wark, Sweden, Russia, and North America." the oolitic limestones (Portland stone), the Kim

The date of formation of the system can only meridge clay, Oxford clay, Bath oolite, Stonebe assigned relatively to the other systems which field slate, and the lias, beds of bituminous shale

lands, various passia, and Northy stem can only

field slate, ar

and laminated limestones. Runs from S.E. to sandstone, red conglomerate, and gray flagstone. N.W., through Dorset, Wilts, Berks, Gloucester, In Devon, Hereford, Monmouth, Shropshire; in Oxford, Rutland, Northampton, Lincoln, and Scotland at Caithness, Cromarty, &c. Remains York; and the lias through Dorset, Wilts, Berks, chiefly of fishes; few plants. Somerset, Gloucester, Warwick, Leicester, Not: 8. Silurian system.-Ludlow, Wenlock, and tingham, Lincoln, Yorkshire. Remains of plants Llandeilo series-gritty and slaty beds, sandand animals (chiefly huge reptilia) of extinct stones and limestones, white freestone, and calfamilies,

careous flags. Occurs in Gloucester, Worcester, 5. New red sandstone.--Saliferons marls, mag. Stafford, Hereford, Shropshire, Radnor, Montnesian limestone. Passes through Devon, Somer gomery, Caermarthen, Brecknock, Pembroke, and set, Warwick, Stafford, Nottingham, Lancashire, Monmouth. Fossils are zoophytes, radiata, molCheshire, Cumberland. Magnesian limestone lusks, annelids, and crustacea, all marine. from Trent to Tyne, in Nottingham, Shropshire, 9. Metamorphic, non-fossiliferous, or azoic York, Westmoreland, Durham. Few fossils of system-consists of hard and crystalline rocks, extinct species.

with no vestiges of plants or animals; embraces 6. Carboniferous system. - Coal measures, the clay-slate, mica-schist, and gneiss groups. mountain limestone, and carboniferous slates. The gneiss, an aggregate of quartz, felspar, and Coal distributed in local areas, chiefly in Somer mica; mica-schist, of mica and quartz; clay. set, Gloucester, North and South Wales, Worces. slate, a fine-grained, fissile, argillaceous rock, ter, Stafford, Warwick, Leicester, Derby, Notting- well known as roofing slates, &c., developed in ham, Lancashire, York, Cumberland, Durham, Cumberland and Wales; and the mica-schist, and Northumberland ; in Scotland, those of Firth gweiss, and granite in the Highlands and West and Clyde. Superabundance of tropical vegeta Isles of Scotland, the North of Ireland, and tion in the coal measures; of marine shells and “flank all the principal mountain chains in the zoophytes in mountain limestone.

world."-J. F. LEACHMAN, B.A., St. Loyes., 7. Old red sandstone, or Devonian.-Yellow Bedford.

The Vanng Student and Writer's Assistant.

GRAMMAR CLASS.

More, adv. qual. reasonable.

Than, conjunction.
MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXIX.

Reasonable, an adj. qual. a noun understood.

To conclude, verb act., pres., gov. in the infin. Vide Vol. V., page 359.

by seems. The obj. c. is the succeeding sentence. I. From, a preposition gov. character in the That, conjunction. objective case.

While, adv, of time. The, demons. adj. pron., qnal, character.

Every, indef. adj. Character, noun, com., neut., sing., obj., gov. Class, noun, coin., neut., sing., nom. to have. hy from.

Of, preposition. Of, prep. gov. agency in the obj. case.

Men, com. noun, inas., plu., obj. case, gov. The, as before, qual. agency.

by of Agency, noun, com., neut. sing., obj., gov. by Have, verb act., ind., pres., 3rd plu., and hence of.

not agreeing with class, which it ought to do. Which, rel. pron., agr. w, agency in gender, Their, poss. adj. pron., com., plu., 3rd, qual. number, and person, obj. case, gov, by to employ. prejudices,

It, pers. pron., neut., sing., nom. case 10 Prejudices, noun, com., neut., sing., obj., gov. pleased.

by have. Pleased, verb act., ind., past, 3rd pers., sing., Those, dem. adj. pron. qual. prejudices under. agr. w. it.

stood. The, as before.

Of, preposition. Almighty, an adjective, used here as a proper The, as before. noun, masc., sing., 3rd, obj. c., gov. hy pleased. Philosophieal, learned, two adjectives used

To employ, verb act., infin., gov, by pleased. here as nouns, and gov, in the obj. č. by of.

In, preposition, baving for its object the suc. Are, verb néut., ind. pres., 3rd plur., agr. w. preceeding clause.

judices understood. Making, act. part. of the verb to make, gov. Of, preposition. will in the obj. c. by in.

A, adj. qual. nature. Knouen, pas. part., having to be understood. Nature, noun, com., neut., sing., 3rd, obj., gov.

His, poss. adj. pron., mas., sing., 3rd, qual. by of: will.

* To deserve, verb act., infin., gov. by are. Will, noun, com., neut., sing., 3rd obj., gov. by! In, preposition. making.

The, as before, To, prep. gov. mankind in the obj. c.

View, noun, com., neut., sing., 3rd, obj. c., gov. Mankind, noun, coin., sing., obj. c., gov. by to. | by in. It, as before, nom. to seems.

Of, preposition. Seems, verb neut., ind., 3rd, agr. w. it.

The, as before. No, adv, of negation, qual. more.

Supreme, adj. qual. Ruler.

Employing the Mind and Improving it, and the benefits they had received from its formation, and Opposite Influence of Novel Reading and the pointing out some of the best means of promoting Study of Sound Literature; by Mr. James, of its future extension and usefulness. Allusions Scorrier, on the Necessity of Effort in the Main- were also made to the alleged charge of rivalry tenance of the Society; by Mr. John Brown (a with the institution already in the town, which man of colour), who spoke with a considerable charge was shown to be groundless, as its pretendegree of animation on the advantages of Young sious were humbler, and its basis, as a christian Men's Societies, comparing them to a looking though unsectarian society, is widely different. glass, in which might be seen the character of the After a vote of thanks to the chairman and the men of the future. Three of the members of the ladies, the meeting was concluded. society then followed, expressing the personal

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