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of man, supremely great and meanly little. Religion, as has been already stated, is The sombre light of eternity, falling on this the great fact in a nation's life; that reliendless variety of the characters of time, gion will be either of human or divine origin; will excite tbe mind to earnest endeavour, if the former, then a comparison will be and, by expanding the sympathies of the instituted between the effects of those two heart, will enlarge and liberalize the sacred kinds of religion on the condition of nations. duty of charity.
The three great systems of civilization at In this study of human character, too, present predominant are—Christianity, Mawill be formed friendships agreeable and homedanism, and Brahminism. As comennobling. Those who interpret the expe- pared with each other, the superiority of rience of our lives will be the “companions the first is established, inasmuch as it enters of our solitude;" while they who tender with the territories of the others, and maintains love their maxims of wisdom will be our its power over them by the greatness of its “ friends in council.” The solace of the truths, and is yearly extending its influence; wise at all times invigorates the heart, and whereas the other systems are entirely pasbraces the mind to action. True are the sive, and do not invade the territories conwords of Carlyle, that great men taken up quered, or being conquered, by the truths of in any way are profitable company.
Christianity. Nor can the student fail to VI. Moreover, in this study will be per- perceive the superior condition of those naceived the “ hand of God as displayed in the tions which have embraced the religion of extension and establishment of Christianity;" Christ; for, wherever established, it has enfor the unfolding of the drama of the life of nobled man, and elevated woman, advanced humanity, of which the history of nations freedom, and rendered truth triumphant. is the record, is only understood by the The study of history in this aspect conrecognition of the method of the divine firms the divine origin of Christianity, and government. “ What is history," asks enables the student to understand the purCromwell, “ but God manifesting himself
, pose for which nations exist, and the beneas striking down and treading under foot ficent plans in operation for the elevation of whatever he hath not himself planted?” | humanity-for history is the unfolding of To exclude this all-comprehensive idea from the providence of God. this study, would be on a parallel with the
“For I doubt not through the ages one increasphilosopher, who would attempt to study ing purpose runs, the physical history of the earth, without And the thoughts of men are widened by the estimating the influence of the sun.
process of the suns." -Tennyson.
QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. details should be given as to the order in which
the various subjects should be undertaken; which 274. Could any of the readers of the Controver- should be pursued simultaneously, to what extent sialist oblige mě by giving me some directions one should be studied before commencing another, for making gun-coiton for collodion for photo accompanied with a list of the best treatises on graphic purposes ? Also directions for inaking such subjects. An early answer to these queries, a good and cheap camera for portraits ?-Photos with any general remarks on mathematical
275. (1.) Would some of your readers kindly in study, either in these columns, or by letter, form me which, in their opinion, is the best system will confer a lasting favour. for teaching singing? (2.) Which are the best 277. Can any reader of the “Iuquirer," who works on singing and music?—T. R.
has studied geology, inform me what is the sup276. A student who has just commenced read posed origin and date of formation of the little ing for Cambridge, with the intention of aiming round masses of iron pyrites, and also those at the highest honours there, will feel obliged if conical shaped things, something like limpetany. Cambridge man will supply him with the shells, only much larger, and having no open outline of an extensive course of mathematical base, as large, sometimes, as the closed hand, study, so far as it is essential that one who is which are found in such numbers imbedded in wishful afterwards to graduate in the first place the chalk cliffs in the Isle of Tbanet? They are should acquaint himseli with preparatory to entry. found when the sea washes away any part of the It is the wish of the inquirer that full and minute cliff, and have undoubtedly been buried there for monialists." As F. T. A. wishes to know a few 3. As to the question of demand, it embraces particulars relating to them, perhaps you will more features. I must here be more distinct. allow space for the following, which I have taken The consumption in the fine arts is vastly greater from the German work of Moritz Wagner, on the in the United Kingdom than in America. In the “Caucasus," published at Dresden in 1848. The former the consumption annually amounts to about Duchoborzen do not allow the uninitiated to pene£3,000,000; in the whole of North America, to trate into the mysteries of their religious worship, about £600,000. Add to this, that in the neigh. so that its peculiarities have never been rightly bouring countries, France and Switzerland, the understood. They meet daily in their temples consumption amounts to £1,500,000, and the or churches to sing psalms, and they believe that charges of export or import to or from them God, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, dwells in being considerably less than to or from America, every man. They receive devoutly the sermons it follows that their demand acts in a greater of their elders, and their late head in particular
ages. The latter, from their shape and the marks degree upon our supply from America than our (dotted lines) on them, have been thought by demand does upon the American supply. This many to be sea shells; but their being closed all will be another reason why gold should be dearer round (though, singularly enough, the shell, in London than in New York. when broken, is full of chalk) appears to preclude 4. The peculiar state of the Indian trade abthe idea. I have read geological books, and yet sorbs a vast quantity (probably the greater part these-with the layers of fint, spread thin and of the supply) of the precious metals. It is evenly between layers of chalk, like piles of bread either shipped from this country, or on account and butter-how they came so, and the supposed of British trade; and another reason why gold date of their formation, is to me a mystery. Can is more valuable in London than in New York, is any one solve it for me ?- MARGATE.
to be found in the fact that it is more valuable in
India than in London; and, in homely language, ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. London is the "half-way house" between Ame
rica, and China, and India. 248. The Value of Gold. I think that the 5. Gold fluctuates in value like any other comanswer given by “Truocrat” (p. 315) to query modity; but, whatever be its fluctuation, it is 248 is not definite enough, vor, indeed, 'is it here of one standard value. If the mercantile to the point. The information sought was,
value be above the standard one, of course it “How is it that gold always maintains its stand. / leaves this country; but as this seldom takes ard, and is not so valuable in New York as in place, it is generally quoted at a higher rate in Great Britain ?" In answer we have a theory London than in New York. on population, corn, &c. These, certainly, to 6. The admirable system of banking in this counsome degree enter into the causes of the relative try would, even without Peel's ruinous Act, absorb value, but not, as your correspondent inters, considerable quantities of gold. In America it is wholly, or even principally. Like many other different. There, banking can be carried on, and “philosophical" explanations of simple facts, it is carried on, with coin seldom sufficient to make is too abstruse, and fails to secure its object by one day's payments in metal. To give an ingoing too far—ascending to the abstract, and stance. By the law of that country one-half of overlooking the simple. If my experience of the proposed capital of bank must be paid up mercantile affairs (and chiefly in bullion opera- before operations can be commenced. But several tions) is of any value, it is at your service. cases have been known where the new bank has
I suppose the writer wishes first to know-borrowed the requisite amount of dollars for a “How is it that gold always maintains its stand- single day, and the directors have sworn to it as ard" value in this country? The answer is sim- the paid up capital of the shareholders. Ruinous ple. By Act of Parliament gold in bullion can failures are the consequences of this deplorable always be exchanged at the mint for coin at mode of conducting business; and the effect on £3 175. 10 d. per oz.
Such is its standard, or the relative value of gold between this country mint value.
and America (there being no demand for it there) The question of “How is it gold is not so is of course to make it there of less value. The valuable in New York as in London?" is as bullion really required for the mercautile operaeasily, though not so simply auswered. It arises tions of the country is thus illegally set free for from many causes.
exportation. 1. Production. --Gold, like everything else, is 7. Regard must also be paid to the causes subject to the law of demand and supply; and in stated by your correspondent, “ Truocrat.” The the country where it is most easily procured it of widely scattered population of America, and the course bears a seemingly less value than in a greater cheapness of food, do not require such a more remote city. The difference is only nominal, supply of the precious metals for the convenience however, the increased value representing the dif- of commerce as the densely populated and strugference of freight, &c. As we maintain that the law gling arena of Britain, but not to the extent he of demand and supply goverus the value of gold supposes. Capital is there of greater value, but as well as of other commodities, it is necessary to bullion is considerably cheaper than in this show that the supply is greater and the demand country. less in New York than in London.
These causes, I believe, will fully answer the 2. As to the question of supply, I need not question asked by your correspondent.-Scotus.
California and Australia are the 257. Religious Sect of Duchoborzen in Russia. principal gold mining countries, and from them –The Duchoborzen, I believe, are the religious gold is conveyed at å less cost to New York than sert in Russia who call themselves “ Anti-Cereto London.
was greatly venerated, the people believing that * United Kingdom.
he was in some close relation to the Deity; and it
is true that he exercised a strange power over A second ukase ordered the remains of the them. The Duchoborzen had been settled, by Duchoborzen also to emigrate; and 4,000 or 5,000 order of the Emperor Alexander, on the borders had to sell their lands aud little possessions so of the Sea of Azof, as he feared that their en hurriedly that they received scarce a tenth of thusiasm might proselytize the heart of Russia. their value. They had been offered the choice There they possessed eleven large villages, and of remaining in their own villages, and conforming even their enemies, the adherents of the national to the national church, but very few yielded to church, acknowledged their industry and aptitude the temptation. It is indeed remarkable that for agricultural pursuits. In no other part of with such imperfect ideas of religion, and concepthe empire was land so well cultivated. The tions of God and futurity, they yet clung so colonists became wealthy, and, during the reign firmly to them, and for their sake renounced of Alexander, lived in peace. They paid their taxes, their hopes of worldly well-being to encounter supplied recrnits, and lived as became good the miseries of exile in dreary and barren deserts. citizens. When Nicholas ascended the throne, How to communicate with them I know not.their lot was soon changed. The Czar wished to FRAOIN. promote the unity of the national church, and 251. Lenore.-The word " Lenore," I am told their persecution began. They were accused of by a friend who has an extensive acquaintance harbouring deserters, and on this pretence large with the Scandinavian languages, is a Swedish sums were extracted from them. If any guilt did female name.-A. M. attach to this crime, it is likely that they were 268. A Telescope.-If “Socius will apply to guilty; but the punishments inflicted upon them Mr. H. Tulley, 23, Lower John-street, Liverpoolwere cruel and severe. Above a hundred were road, Islington, London, he can get bis telescope cast into prison, flogged, and tortured; thirty put to rights for £1 or 25s.-that is, the mirrors were knouted and banished to Siberia ; and the re-polished and adjusted.-F. B. whole body transported from their own fertile 272. Hebrew Grammar and Dictionaries.-If plains to the borders of the Arpatschai, the A.J. C. intends studying Hebrew, I would recoldest, most sterile, and desolate district of the commend him to get Ġesenius's “Hebrew GramCaucasus. They settled there in seven villages, mar," by Pro Rodiger, price 9s., and Gesenius's but the harsh climate and barren soil, in a place “Hebrew and English Lexicon," by Tregelles, wbere only the most favourable summers will price £1 5s., published by Bagster and Sons. ripen corn, made their condition very deplorable. I J. E.
The Young Studeut and Writer's Assistant.
114. What is the first hour after six o'clock at Perform the concluding exercise for the Senior which the two hands of a watch are (i.) directly Division contained in the October No. for 1854, opposite, and (ii.) at right angles to each other? page 396.
115. I wish to enclose a piece of ground with palisades, and find that if I set them a foot asun
der, I shall have too few by 150, whereas, if I set MATHEMATICAL CLASS.
them a yard asunder,
shall have too many by ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.-VIII. 70: what is the circuit of the piece of ground? (a) 93. 51, 67, 73. 94. 54, 57, 119.95., 54, when B comes to help him, and they take 3 days
116. A does of a piece of ground in 10 days, 60-5, 9-83. 96. 1, 168, 356.
97. 530, 31, (b) 98. 22. £5. 99. £125. 100. 1504. 101. done the whole, each separately, or both together?
more to finish it: in what time would they have 1540, 880,616. 102. 13. (c) 103. 5038531:3104, and 8379.072. 104.
(c) 117. What is the solidity of a cylinder whose 897619-6964. 105. 2085631807436-53640811. 106. length is 72-25 ft., and the circumference the 1795858-536223375.. 107. 75729-740625.
118. Required the cubic contents of a cylinder,
having a length of 174.2 ft., and the circumference QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION.-IX.
119. The length of a hollow roller is 4 ft., ex(a) 108. Reduced and tdi to decimals.
terior diameter 2 ft., and the thickness of the 109. Reduce •0675 and *0675 to vulgar frac- metal of an inch: determine its solidity. tions.
120. If a cylinder, whose length is 13 ft. 4 in., 110. If llb. of sugar cost.0703125 of 16s., what contains 1728 cubic feet, what length must be cut is the value of 0625 cwt. ?
off, so that it may contain that number of cubic 111. Add together , &, ló, and ja, both as feet ? vulgar fractions and as decimals, and show that the two results coincide. 112. Find the value of 3.58. +2.9 of 23:375s.
GEOGRAPHICAL CLASS. 14 of 16-6s.
Junior Division.. (0) 113. A horse was sold at a loss for 40 guineas; but if it had been sold for 50 guineas, Perform Exercise 8, in the October No., 1854, the gain would have been three-fourths of the Vol. V., p. 358. former loss: find its real value.
EXERCISE No. XIX. Describe the following places, and say where they are situated :1. Revel.
5. Olonetz. 2. Helsingfors. 6. Petrozavodsk. 3. Sweaborg
7. Novgorod. 4. Vyborg.
LOGIC CLASS. Perform the Exercise on the Art of Reason. ing," No. 9, in Vol. II.
The Societies' Section.
REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETIES. The Bermondsey and Horselydown Mutual sions are conducted is truthful and tolerant. All Improvement Association, which holds its meet kinds of opinions are freely heard and freely ings at the Sunday School and Preaching Station, criticised.—G.R. Snow's Fields, consists of three classes; viz., on London Society of Compositors.-Two or three Friday evenings, one class for the study of English months ago, this society took a house in Raquetgrammar and composition; and on Saturday court, Fleet-street, to be fitted up with news. evenings a class for the study of the French lan- rooms, library, and other apartments, for the conguage; and from half-past eight till ten (the same venience of the members. From a recent report evening), a public discussion class. The two first of the acting committee, we are glad to observe are for members of the association only, and are that a large collection of useful and valuable the objects of the liveliest interest to those who books of reference has been already made, the attend them. The discussion class is free to all, number of volumes now being above 800, about and of a thoroughly liberal and unfettered cha- 250 of which have been sent gratuitously, chiefly racter, as may be seen from a list of the subjects by the members. Some of our readers may be debated: “What are the Best Means for Sup- glad of the opportunity of aiding the London pressing Crime?"-—"Is Man a Free Agent?"- Society of Compositors to improve their library: “Which is the Best Form of Government? Donations of books will be gratefully received "Are Christians peculiarly protected by Deity?" and duly acknowledged. Works of reference and -“Is Combe's System of Phrenology true?"- standard books have been purchased with the “Which was the Greater Poet, Shakspere or funds of the society, which the committee have Milton?"
These are a few of the questions that judiciously refrained from expending on lighter have lately been discussed. Those that are to publications. But for the recreation of the memfollow are of an equally suggestive nature, and bers other kinds of reading are also desirable, and fully merit the consideration and study of all the library is as yet almost wholly unsupplied thinking minds. The spirit in which our discus- with book's of miscellaneous literature.
LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Modern French literature has just sustained a naturalist of long standing and especial eminence great loss by the death of Madame de Girardin. in his own department. For inore than thirty She was stricken down in the full prime of life, years Dr. Johnston made it his peculiar study to but after a long and painful illness. When quite examine physiologically and systematically the young, she, under her maiden name of Delphine zoophytes, sponges, and mollusca of his native Gay, gained great reputation, under the proud shores ; and being gifted with a fluent pen and name of " Muse de la Patrie," for some exquisite poetical feeling, his writings are all more or less poetical productions, whieh even Lord Byron characterized by their delightful and impressive admired, though he had small liking for French style. In that small company of British natural
Her subsequent literary labours, extend- isis, from the circle of whom we have lost, during ing over many years, are familiar to all who have the past year, David Landsborough and Edward occupied themselves in any degree with French Forbes, George Johnston was a conspicuous and literature.
valuable member. We regret to have to announce the death of The early appearance of Victor Hugo's new Henry Colburn, Esq., the eminent publisher. volume of poems, under the title, “ Les Contem.
Proposals have been circulated for the erection plations," is announced at Paris. of a memorial to Mary Russell Mitford, to con- Mr. Heywood, the member for Lancashire, has sist of a plain monument over ber grave in the given notice in the House of Commons, that next churchyard of the village which her writings have session he shall move “An address to Her Mamade classical, and, if sufficient funds are pro jesty, praying that Her Majesty will be graciously vided, the establishment of a village industrial pleased to appoint a Commission to inquire into school.
the state of the authorized version of the Bible, On Monday, July 30th, died, at the age of fifty- and to prepare a plan for the further revision of eight, Dr. Jobnston, of Berwick-on-Tweed, a that translation."
Dids to Self-Culturr. THE ESSENTIALS OF GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION.—No. III. LIFE implies duty. Self-culture is life's paramount duty. Unless man's nature is capable of bearing all its intended fruit, it has not been rightly cultured; and by so much as it is impaired by want of culture, it is incapable of adequately performing its lifeduties. Thought is man's noblest life,—that on the culture of which character and action—the signature of character—depend. All life should be reproductive. Every thought unexpressed in act or word is essentially barren, and fails in the fulfilment of the end for which its birth was granted. Every thought within us should be noble, pure, and good; and as word and act can only manifest thought, then all speech and action would be lifeworthy. Our present purpose is to aid “the utterance of thought by speech.” Ease, grace, and readiness in this, as in all else, are the results of persevering labour. dull, mechanic exercise” must neither be despised as drudgery, nor performed with perfunctory carelessness. The soothing Aattery that Genius atones for all faults, and often snatches " grace beyond the reach of art,” must not be laid like unction to the soul. Few thoughts are oftener erroneously entertained than that which makes the egotist exclaim, “I also am a genius.” The “patient touches” of “slow endeavouring art” honestly assert in our opinion, the only means by which the glorious thoughts of true genius may be fittingly commended to the mind, and the only instrumentalities by which mediocrity can be rendered sufferable; without these genius is unimpressive, and mediocrity is “very tolerable, and not to be endured.”
We write for self-culturists. To them our advice is given, and for them the labour of preparing these papers is undertaken. Why should they grudge labour if we grudge it not? Let but one solitary half-hour each day be given to the study of the subject now before
us, and it will not be long before the style of the student will undergo a marked change, and rapidity and correctness of composition supplant that lugging, straining, struggling unfitness to find fit utterance for a thought, which, to inept students, is so toilsome. A little labour now, and the habit of easy, fluent, ornate speech is acquired for life; yet a little more indulgence in negligence, and evermore restraint and sorrow shall reward us. The difficulty of using the pronouns of any language is well known, and the importance of gaining an accurate acquaintance is acknowledged on all hands. This must be our excuse if our paper is lengthy, our details minute, and our examples and exercises numerous.
Pronouns are the representatives of nouns.
Personal pronouns represent persons. They are inflected to indicate-1st, Person;
Neut. All genders.
His Her or Hers
Theirs or Their Thy
Ye or You