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the facilities for exchange and commerce Rule for converting decimal money into with foreign countries which the decimal present money.—The pounds stand; multiply system, if properly carried out, will afford. the florins by 2, to get the shillings. If the On this last point, assuming the statement cents be 5 or more, add a shilling for the 5, of Dr. Bowring to be correct that more than and treat the remainder of the cents and 400,000,000 of the human race, or nearly mils as farthings, deducting 1 where the one-half of the population of the globe, adopt number exceeds 25. Thus to convert 1:898 the decimal system, it will be both interest into pounds, shillings, and pence:ing and useful to see how far we can make The pound stands. . . . . . * our decimal system harmonize with theirs. 1 Twice 8 florins give 16s.; 5 of) We may mention as a proof of the in
the 9 cents give another shilcreasing interest felt for the promotion of
ling . . . . . . . . .). the decimal system, that the Committee of
The remaining 5 cents give 40 the Council of Education not very long since
mils; to which add the 8 mils Casa issued a circular to the Inspectors of Schools,
standing in the “mils” column, suggesting the propriety of calling the atten
and deduct one-47 farthings tion of the principals of training schools to
The above rules will in any case give the the importance of cultivating among the
result within the fraction of a farthing, which students a practical knowledge of decimals.
in ordinary cases is sufficiently accurate; but It is a move in the right direction, to train
where greater nicety is required, the tables up our young men to avail themselves of all
should be consulted. the advantages which the progress of scien
Another rule to be borne in mind in addtific knowledge places at our command. The first step of importance, so long as
ing or subtracting decimal values is, to place any of the present coinage remains in use, is
point under point, because the position which
decimal figures occupy with respect to the to acquire a ready plan of converting it into
point determines their value, as we explained its corresponding value in decimal coinage; and again to convert decimal coinage into
in our first paper. Take the foilowing in
voice as an example: its nearest proximate value in present coinage. An accurately compiled table would
3 vols. of “British Controverbe of great service in this respect, and the
sialist," at 3s. 6d.. . . . •525 writer is preparing one for publication; but 1 vol. “ Plutarch's Lives,” at as even this means would not always be at
7s. 6d. . .
-275 hand, some other method is desirable. We 1 “National Cyclopædia.” 12
vols., at 5s. . have found the following plans answer our
. . . . .
1 Porter's “Progress of the purpose:Rule for converting present values into
Nation,” at 21s. . . . . 1.025 decimal values. Take the pounds as they
1 Walford's “Decimal Coinage stand, and place after them the decimal dot.
Tables," at 6d. . . . . ·025 Divide the shillings by 2, which gives you
1 Do., with the System Exthe number of florins, if there be an odd
plained, at 1s. . . . . . 050 shilling, treat it as 50 mils, and to this add 3 Dozen steel pens at 3s. per the result of the pence column. If the gross . . . . pence be above 6d. in amount, add 25 mils / 1 Lead pencil, at 13d. . . . ·006 for the 6d., and reduce the remainder of the pence into farthings, treat them as mils, and
4:968 add them to the mils previously obtained.
10 per cent. discount for cash •496 Thus to convert £1 17s. 113d. into decimal coins :
4:472 The pound stands ... to
(Present Coinage, £4 9s. 5 d.) Half 17s. is 8 florins (and florins.
Let the reader take his pencil, and go ls. over). . . . . .S
through these figures for himself (we have The shilling gives 50 mils;) ocents.
put the cost of each article in present coin6d. 25 mils; the 57d. 23.
age for his guidance), and he will be struck mils more: total mils,98 or comils.
I with their simplicity — more particularly
1 Lead pencil. stii · · ·
with respect to the casting, subtracting, and of compactness; in the second, the cents are calculating the discount.
| omitted, and their value given in mils, which With respect to the method of calculating saves a column, and thus secures the advandiscounts, Mr. Mears, in his little book be- tage above stated. The reader should cast fore referred to, gives some very clever rules. up the above figures to learn how the results
He says—“In calculating discount or pre- , are carried forward. mium to be deducted from an account made The decimal rule for ascertaining the out in decimal coinage, multiply the amount value of a number of goods, by the price of by the rate per cent., and divide by 100, you one, is very simple: thus - 172,628 yards of then have the amount of deduction.” We calico at 3 d. per yard. We turn to the will give one example:
decimal coinage tables, and find that the
£ fcm “decimal of a pound” corresponding to 3 d. 5 per cent. discount off. 650.965 is .015625, by which we inultiply the numMultiply by rate of dis..
ber of yards, thus:
172628 yards. Divide by. ... . 100)3254•825
Discount to be deducted. 32-548
315256 Balance .. 3222.277
1035768 The process of dividing by 100 is effected
663140 in practice by moving the decimal dot two
172628 places to the left, treating the figures then remaining on the left as pounds, and the
2697312500 three first figures on the right as florins, In order to complete this calculation, the cents, and mils. One experiment will ini- / decimal point must be so placed as to leave tiate the reader into this useful method. on the right of it as many figures as are on
With respect to the method of keeping the right of the decimal point in the multiaccounts in the decimal system, although we plier. In the present instance there are 6, referred to it in our first paper, we purpose and we place our point accordingly-thus, now to give a few practical hints. Those | 2697.312500, giving the answer,--2697 who thoroughly appreciate the decimal sys-pounds, 3 florins, i cent, and 2 mils, with tem will only use one column, but others the remainder 5 as half a mil; for the cumay prefer separate columns for each deno- phers on the extreme right are of no value mination of coin, either as the result of in any case. This method of calculation is custom, or from a fancy that they can I capable of great extension; and where there thereby render their accounts more clear. I are any figures on the right of the decimal We decidedly think a column for each de- point in the quantity given, the number of nomination unnecessary; and if more than such figures has to be added to the number one column be used, we should propose, as of figures on the right of the point in the the next best and simplest plan, the three | multiplier, in order to ascertain the proper column system, which has the advantage of position for the point in the product. most completely adapting itself to the pre- The countries which have at present sent ruling of our account books. We give adopted a decimal system of coinage are: specimens of each plan:
Belgium, Holland, Portugal, 1 column. 3 column. 4 column.
Poland, ffcm | £ f. m. | £ f./c.m. China, Lombardy,
Rome, 20.765 | 20 7 65
Chili, Mexico, Russia, 46.201 | 462 01 46 2 0 1 Columbia, Modena, Sardinia, 94.590 | 94 5 90
France, Naples, Spain, -- -
Greece, New Granada, Tuscany, 161.556] [1615.56 (161) 515 161 Zollverein, Switzerland-in part.
The result is precisely the same in each A project for decimalizing the currency of case. The first specimen has the advantage Sweden and Norway has recently been set on foot by the authorities of these countries ;* Laurie before the " Committee") which we and Austria and Prussia have under con- give as an appendix to the present paper. sideration a plan for decimalizing the cur- It will be seen that out of 30 cases, taken rency of Germany.† Shall England any promiscuously from the countries, or people, longer neglect to avail herself of advantages with whom we have commercial dealings, which other countries, far inferior in mer- there are only 16 instances in which even cantile greatness, eagerly grasp! Mr. W. T. approximate accuracy can be attained with Thomson, one of our leading actuaries, in a our present coirs of account; while there are paper recently read before the Institute of 14 instances in which our present coinage Actuaries, says:-“As regards improvement cannot be made to assimilate, either in single in numeration, in the keeping accounts, and coins, or in a thousand coins, with the value the arrangement of our coinage, we have of the leading coins of the countries quoted. certainly stood still for upwards of 300 On the contrary, a decimal coinage would in years." It is now time we moved on a every instance give equal accuracy with the little!
present coinage, and in 14 out of 30 cases There is, however, beyond the mere would secure an accuracy which cannot, withsaving of labour in bookkeeping, or saving out its aid, be attained! time and trouble in calculations, other great We are well aware there is always a difiand striking advantages in favour of the culty in adjusting the coinage of one country decimal system. Dr. Bowring says, “the with that of another, consequent upon the introduction of a decimal system into our fluctuations in the supply of bullion, which currency and accounts will greatly assist the has the effect of varying the rates of exestablishment of sound principles of exchange change; but certainly under a decimal sysbetween the mother country and her depen- ' tem even the percentage of variation is more dencies." We think the advantages would easily calculated, and the results, therefore, extend beyond the “mother country and her more readily and accurately attained. dependencies." We believe the decimal sys- ! It strikes us as especially desirable in all tem, when once in proper operation, would improvements to take a broad and world-wide facilitate the commerce and exchanges of view, rather than a narrow and selfish one; the whole mercantile world. In support of and in no case can such a course be more this conclusion, we have compiled a table desirable than in the present one. A large (partly froin the evidence of Mr. James portion of the civilised world already posses
ses the advantages of the decimal system. Some decimal coins have been struck by the Our proposed system could be made, in many Stockholm miut, on trial. The Swedish royal medallist and ruint engraver is a lady, whose
instances, to harmonize with theirs. By talent is universally adinired.
adopting it, we shall be setting an example + A congress of several goveruments of Ger.
to other countries, still lingering in the rear, many, and particularly Austria, Prussia, and Bavaria, is now assembled at Vienna to consult
as well as adding another link to the chain of on the means of creating a uniform gold coinage social progress, which is so fast uniting the for all the States of the Germanic confederation. whole human family in one common brotherM. Brentano, an Aulic councillor, counected with
hood of religion, science and art! the Austrian mint, presides over the meeting. Galignani, Nov., 1854.
C. W., Jun.
QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. mony referred to in the following paragraph, which
242. Knowing that noon by mean time at Green-appeared in a local paper--the Chelmsford Chro. wich differs from noon by solar time or solar
nicle, of 8th Dec., 1854:noon, how am I to know the exact difference on “ Trial of the Gold and Silver Coinage.-O any given day in the year; or if a table be pub- Wednesday morning the ceremony known as the lished showing what I want, where? and by · Trial of the Pyx,' was performed at the Exchewhom?-d., Pendance.
quer Office, Whiteball Yard. Four years haie 243 Can any of the readers of the British Con. I elapsed since any previous trial took place." troversialist give me an explanation of the cere.
244. Will one of your rea lers be kind enough
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. to inform me of the origin of the Barber's pole ?
(Vide Vol. V.) -D, Y. G.
229. Intellect and Hair. -I have always under945. I wish to know which is the best method | stood that dark bair indicated a bilious disposition. of studying Euclid, so as to be qualified for the
while light hair was the result of a sanguine one. matriculation examination at the London Univer
Now, since no one will presume to say that dark sity. Perhaps some of your readers, who have
hair gives a man a superior intellect, but that it passed the examination, would be kind enough to
is the result of a first cause, viz., temperament, inform me the particular manner in which the
while intellect depends upon the formation and examination in Euclid was conducted.-LEO.
cultivation of the brain, it is certainly more just
to bestow laurels upon fair hair than upon dark, 246. I should feel much obliged if any of your
simply because a sanguine disposition is far more correspondents would inform me what is the
congenial to study than a Lilious one. Why not course of study reqnisite for an admittance into
allow that the host of worthies named by “Black the University of Glasgow, Can a person matri
Hair." as well as the fraternity generally, would culate there for B. A., without having previously
develop far more intellect and charity were they studied at any of their colleges or preparatory
possessed of a sanguine instead of a bilious temschools? Also, how many terms must one stay
perament? My hair is not light, neither is my at the uuiversity, in order to have an examination
temperament sanguine, but unfortunately for my for B. A., and how many for M. A., and what are
pride, the former is rusty, while the latter is rather the different fees 2-YOUNG STUDENT.
inclined toward nervousness; so Mr. Editor, please pardon my intrusion.-W.H. L., Reading.
The Vaung študent and Writer's Assistant.
We feel bound, in justice to the great body of | The Parliament is prorogued. It meets'again in our readers, to economise as much as possible the February. space occupied by this section of our magazine; At the close of the war the army was disbanded: we have therefore arranged this year, as far as peace renders its services no longer necessary. practicable, to conduct our new students through | Either I or my brother attend church every Sunsome of the courses of instruction which have day. appeared in previous volumes. To this plan there Neither sugar, rice, nor silk is produced in this can be no possible objection, as we apprehend I country; they may all be obtained from India. most of our friends possess the Controversialist | Either the Queen or her servants have arrived. from its commencement, and those who do not Both the mother and her daughters are indus
refer may obtain the volumes to which we shall refer
trious. at a cost scarcely worth mention, when compared Neither Jane nor Charlotte is idle. with the great advantages which they may derive The wages of the men have been raised. from connection with the various classes.
The study of politics does not always improve a The rules to be observed by all students will be man's fortune or temper. found in the January No., 1854, Vol. V., and these There were ninety head of cattle in the market. must be carefully read and strictly complied with. Every man is vanity.
All exercises must reach us on or before the Each pupil has the attention of the teacher. 18th of the current month; and persons wishing Every part of Italy is cultivated. to join any of the classes, who have not already | Either of you is welcome. sent in their names for enrolment, may do so by Who answered your question this morning? He applying in accordance with the directions given whom you met at my house. in the rules.
Whom do you expect this morning? Her whom
I saw yesterday.
Note.-The words which have been introduced, Perform the Exercise for the Senior Division,
are in italics.
QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION.-I. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thou lovest (a) 1. A cubic foot of water weighs 1000 oz.: thyself.
what weight of water is there in a vessel which The wise and virtuous are generally happy. measures a yard every way? Neither he nor his brother is here.
2. What weight of water may be contained in a The art of making clocks and watches is compara-canal whose depth is 8 feet, width 25 feet, and tively modern.
length 12 miles ? Geography and chronology are the eyes of his 3. A has £100 4s. 11 d., and B 64393 farthings; tory.
if A receive from B 11111 farthings, and B from The general causes of these derangements are | A £11 lls. 114d., how much will A have more
those things that weaken the constitution. than B? Fretfulness generally proceeds from physical 4. Find the greatest common measure of 6327 causes, and afterwards becomes habitual.
and 23997. Whom did you see this morning? Him who 5. Find the least common multiple of 9, 16, 42, served me yesterday,
63, 21,7,8,72, 14.
(6) 6. What number is that which exceeds its 6. Character of the Cumbrian hills; what does sixth part by 10?
Fell mean? 7. What number is that to which, if 7 be added, 7. What does the Cambrian range include ? twice the sum will be equal to 32 ?
explain the name. 8. A spent 2s, 6d. in oranges, and says, that 3 8. The highest mountain in Wales. of them cost as much under Is, a3 9 of them cost 9. The other principal ones, with their height? over ls., how many did he buy?
10. Give particular's respecting Snowdon and 9. What two numbers are those whose sum is Plinlimmon. 48, and difference 22?
11. Explain the names Snowdon and Cader (c) 10. The side of a square is 100 yards; what | Idris. is the length of its diagonal ?
12. What does the Devonian range include? 11. A line of 320 feet will reach from the top of principal elevation. a precipice, standing close by the side of a river, l 13. A table land found in thi range; describe to the opposite bank; required the breadth of the it and explain the name. river,- the height of the precipice being 103 feet. 14. Other less important ranges.
15. What are the chalk hilis? GEOGRAPHICAL CLASS.
16. Describe Salisbury Plain.
17. Describe the words downs, wold, and weald. Junior Division. Perform the Exercise 1, in the February No. 1854, Vol. V., p. 74.
Perform the Exercise on the “ Art of Reason-
ing," No. 1., which will be found in the January
No., 1851, Vol. II. 1. Give the name of the highest mountain in England. 2. Others above 3,000 feet; in what group.
PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS. 3. The highest in the Pennine range; others Obtain the books mentioned in the January near 2,500 feet.
No., 1854, Vol. V., p. 37, and go through the 1st 4. The name of the range in Derbyshire; ele. lesson, as there directed. We shall still be happy vation.
to forward the necessary books to all applicants 5. Character of the Pennine range; in the north; who forward 2s. 6d. in postage stamps, on or in the south; breadth in the south of Yorkshire. I before the 6th inst.
The Burirties' section.
REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETIES.
The Law Students' Mutual Corresponding [The friends of other institutions would, we Society.-The objects of this society are to pro- | apprehend, be happy to learn on what conditions vide a universal system of intercommunication similar grants to the one referred to could be obamongst the law students of the kingdom, and tained.-ED. B. C.] by that means enable them to render mutual as- Bow and West Stratford Mutual Improvement sistance in their studies, and so promote feelings Association.-On Monday, November 24, 1854, a of friendship and unanimity between themselves, soirée was held to inaugurate this society, which and stimulate their exertions in preparing for the owes its rise to the persevering energy of a few honourable profession of the law. The society | zealous spirits. The want of such an institution consists of honorary and ordinary members, ho- has long been deplored by many who were really norary members being barristers, attorneys, and anxious for an advance in knowledge. There solicitors, or any other gentlemeu connected with were 150 persons present at the meeting, over the profession, who become donors of half-a-gui- which Mr. Alderman Wire presided; and addresses nea. Ordinary inembers being articled clerks, I were delivered by Messrs. Ebenezer Clark, aud who shall contribute an entrance fee of 2s. 6d., Whittingham, Rev. Messrs. Driffield, Hewlett, and an annual subscription of 2s.6d. Gentlemen and Black. The proceedings were of a very desirous of becoming members are requested to interesting and instructive character, and the communicate with the secretary, Mr. Charles R. society is now started under the happiest ausGillman, St. Giles'-street, Norwich.
pices. A committee and officers were appointed, The Spalding Mechanics Institute.-The com and the number of members at present is 74. On mittee of this institute have just published their the following Tuesday the first of a series of ninth annual report, from which it appears that weekly meetings was held, at which lectures, the past year has been one of considerable pros- debates, and essays will be introduced. A library perity. The number of members has increased is in course of formation, towards which several from 94 to 150 ; the library has been considerably liberal contributions of books and money have augmented, by the presentation from the Useful been made; and it is intended to establish classes Knowledge Society of their entire collection of valu-l for the mutual study of various subjects, as soon able books; and an effort is being made, by means as the necessary organization can be secured.of £1 sbares, to erect new and more commodious W. H. S. rooms for the accommodation of the members. 1 Neophyte Writers' Society.--Meeting in Hud