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essential to the manhood of man, there is life from its divine source in the highest good ground for concluding that it is a dis- degree (for what can be higher than the tinctive attribute, and “confined to him." " image of God,"except God himself?). The
We now turn to our à priori argument. issues of this life in him are free will and This involves a consideration of “Life, its intellect, and these imply the faculty of origin, forms, gradations, and issues,” which conjunction with Deity, for thereby man can we shall argue from a scriptural basis. The receive, appreciate, and reciprocate the reSupreme Being is there revealed to us as gards of his Maker. We have already seen “I AM," or the only self-existent being; that character is the result of the action of hence all lower degrees of life are derived free will in connection with intellect, which from him, as the grand source of life. modifies the influent life, and constitutes it Men and animals are therefore organized the peculiar life of the individual; but charecipients of life, which is in them by influx racter may be either good or bad. So confrom their Creator; and the various phases junction, the faculty of which must always of this life are attributable to the modifi- pertain to the essential attributes of man cations impressed upon it by this recipiency. may be either positive or negative. It is We infer the vast superiority of the life positive when man determines the issues of enjoyed by man over the lower animals from his life to God,“ to do his will and walk in the scriptural intimation that "man was his ways," and negative when he determines created in the image of God,” which evi- its issues to self and selfish ends the fordently denotes a capacity in man for receiv- mer leading to a blissful, the latter to an ing the influx of life in a most eminent unhappy, immortality. Brutes, on the other degree; and it becomes of importance in the hand, receiving life only in the lower degrees present connection, to consider what consti- of instinct and innate science, do not approtutes this “image of God” in him. We priate this life by any such elaboration as opine that it consists in the free will and character. Life is in them as motion is in intellectual faculties with which he is en- a machine. Hence, when natural death dowed, answering respectively to the divine ensues, the life of the individual is dissilove and the divine wisdom which are the pated. revealed will and intellect of Deity. If this The scope of our arguments has had in be so, our argument is established, for man view to show that the proper characteristics alone“
was created in the image of God," and privileges of man are due to the action and intellect or reason is an essential feature of reason, and that the absence of the same of that image.
in brutes demonstrates the absence of reason; It remains to notice the connection between ergo, reason is “confined to man.” It is reason in man and his immortality. We for our readers to say how far we have have seen that man receives the influx of succeeded.
NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-I. WHEN we view with an intelligent eye | liar character, which may be, and often is, the many varieties of organized nature, we modified within certain limits by circumperceive a great diversity, and yet a corre- stances, climate, and the influence of man. sponding fitness in each to the position it The increase of knowledge shows that it is occupies as a connecting link in the great more philosophical and truthful to suppose chain of organized being. Beginning at the that each, species had an independent crealowest, we may proceed upwards by a steady, tion, than a successive development, "accordcertain, and rapid step, through higher and ing to law," of each from one proceeding still higher forms of life, until we arrive at that, in fact, there is an impassable gull the highest condition of terrestrial existence between each species which none can ever MAN, who, lord of the lower creation, shows, cross. even in his degradation, that he is not un- If we turn our attention to man, we find worthy of wielding the sceptre over all in- that he is not only distinguished from the ferior tribes. In all this connection there is, inferior creation by his physical frame, but we think, no development of species one from possesses mental faculties which are at once the other. Each species has its own pecu- his glory, and make up for all the deficiencies of physical strength, giving him the correctly the provinces of reason and inmeans of power far surpassing all the re- stinct, properly so termed. The question sources of inferior creatures, and by which now is, Have we any evidence to show that he is able to defy the strongest and most any of the lower animals possess some menpowerful animals, and subdue them to be tal faculties in common with man, by the his servants or his slaves. It is this cha- aid of which they perform actions that lie racteristic feature of man which has given beyond and out of the province of instinct? rise to the question before us, and it is In reply to this question, we remark that natural to ask, “Do the lower animals pos- many animals, especially those standing sess in common with man any faculties of a highest in the scale of being, possess somemental nature, or are they ever led by a thing analogous to the mind of man. The blind something over which they have no truth of this might be argued from the discontrol?” “Is the reason of man distin- coveries supposed to have been brought to guished from that of the brute in kind or light by the science of phrenology, and this degree?”. In other words, and more ex. without committing ourselves to any mateplicitly, “Is reason confined to man?” rialistic theory; but, leaving this debated
In attempting to answer this question in ground, we may observe, that a reference to the negative, it may be well first to define instinct alone does not always explain many our terms, Reason and Instinct.
actions of the higher classes of animals. Reason we consider to be the collective Instinct may direct the bee to build its cell, power of the intellectual faculties, the acting the bird her nest, and the beaver his dam;of mind upon its knowledge. Speaking of instinct certainly enables each animal to the mind, Isaac Taylor says, “Its power choose the peculiar food necessary to its over itself, a power directed by knowledge, existence; for what is rejected by, and is and employed for the accomplishment of poisonous to one, is received, and becomes some purpose foreseen, is what constitutes nutritious food to another. Instinct may reason." 'Reason consults for the future direct the animal in the gratification of its by the knowledge of the past, putting a appetites and passions; but does not the restraint upon present impulses. By refer- term become somewhat meaningless when ence to what memory can supply from the adduced to explain many other actions which past, reason combines the means suitable to we almost daily witness, and have often read effect ends, and, not discouraged by repeated of, among the higher animals? To speak failures, changes and improves those means, more particularly, the monkey tribe, those till the end is accomplished, as often as that animals which approach nearest to man in is attainable."* This we conceive is the several respects, have often displayed qualtrue definition of reason, and from it we see ities entirely unaccountable by a reference that reason is not so much a single faculty, to instinct. The feathered tribes have also as the power of combining several or all the been noticed as evincing something of the intellectual faculties in their operation same kind of intelligence. Without referring towards the attainment of the object in view. to inore than one in particular, we just
Instinct is very different to this. As remember a very interesting anecdote of generally defined, it is “an agency which one of our songsters, which appeared in performs blindly and ignorantly a work of print some time since. As we only write intelligence and knowledge.” † The work from memory, we cannot give the minutiæ performed by instinct is never improved by cf particulars as to time or place, but these the worker on that of the original. The may perhaps be supplied by some of our honeycomb is now constructed by its inter- readers. In close proximity to a quarry, a esting builders with the exactness of mathe- wren had built her nest, and, having promatical precision just as the first generation duced her eggs, proceeded to hatch her of the species did; there is no improvement young, but was soon annoyed by a blast of nor yet deterioration; it is essentially the rock, and frightened for the safety of herself These definitions, we think, express and young. She shortly noticed that each
blast was preceded by the ringing of a bell, * Orr's “Circle of the Sciences," vol. i., p. 111. which, now known, she observed, and on the
given signal quitted her position on the nest,
retiring to a distance. This extraordinary animal, as he was able to choose those means conduct was noticed by the men employed, which were likely to attain his object. Inand, the report being spread, many visitors numerable are the anecdotes recorded of the came to see the wonderful bird, and, in order sagacity of the elephant, the intelligence of to gratify their curiosity, and show them the dog, and the wonderful knowledge frehow well the signal was understood, the bell quently displayed by them. Who has not was rung, and for several times with the heard of the tailor of Delhi, and the mandesired result of drawing the bird from her ner in which an unoffending brute he had nest. But the bird was not to be outwitted; wantonly exasperated inflicted severe and she very soon noticed that no blast succeeded merited punishment? Who has not heard the bell, and, not liking to be disturbed un- of the heroic dog, which swam off with a necessarily, when the bell was again rung rope to the unfortunate mariners on a wreck, she peeped out to see if the men engaged at a time when the raging of the sea was left their work; if they did, she followed such that no boat could for a moment live their example; but if they did not, no ring- in it, and so succeeded in establishing a coming of the bell could induce her to come munication with the shore, eventually saving from her hiding place, and so she continued the lives of many who had lost all hope? until her young were fledged, and could take Who has not read the history of Androcles the wing. Was there, we ask, nothing more and his lion, and admired the way in which than instinct here? What induced this the latter showed his gratitude and repaid little creature to connect the ringing of the an obligation many years after, when he bell with the succeeding blast of rock? spared the life of the unfortunate slave? What led her to know how to detect the What do these and similar records teach? true from the false alarm? Instinct? What Do they show us only the operation of blind does the term here mean? Surely not the instinct? Is there no reason here?
A dog operation of “blind ignorance”! Rather may be trained to carry a stick in its mouth, was it something in principle analogous and do many other wonderful tricks that to, and similar in kind, to the higher devel- may not indicate anything more than inopment of reason in man. Many such stinct; but when an animal of itself peranecdotes of other creatures might be related. forms actions such as these, we perceive
The domestic cat, maligned as she is, if a higher degree of intelligence displayed treated with kindness, will almost equal the by it. “Do they not love, hate, hope, dog in sagacity and affection. We ourselves fear?” Is there not memory? “Do they have noticed something above the operation not remember, decide about difficulties, and of instinct in several members of the feline choose between alternatives?” If so, is race, and are here reminded of an anecdote this the operation of instinct or reason? which a short time since went the round of “ Acts are sometimes committed in error, the press. At a certain house in Edinburgh and end in failure. There must have been a very fine Tom cat was kept. One day he reason, for there is often mistake.”* They was observed to purloin very quietly a piece certainly do not possess it in the same of meat, and carry it into the cellar." He degree as man; but while mind presents was silently followed, with the view of points of resemblance in man and other ania little chastisement being inficted for his mals, it is also susceptible of the greatest supposed theft. It was then found that he distinctions. When we think of the human had deposited the piece of meat opposite a mind and its powers, we are conscious that large hole, and was himself very quietly there exists a vast gulf between it and every watching it from a shelf opposite. In a form of brute sense. “ The power of analittle time two large rats made their ap- lyzing mental phenomena is doubtless denied pearance out of the hole, and, having seized to these humbler existences, but we may, in the meat, proceeded to drag it back after comparing ourselves with them, boast of it them. But in this they were prevented by as our exclusive faculty, while to our mind, Tom, who quickly pounced upon them, and, so superior to whatever looks like it in them, after a fierce struggle, sacceeded in killing other endowments may be added." + them both. This fact, we think, proves the possession of intelligence and reason in this * Dr. Hamilton.
By way of objection it may be asked, if affected by this. He is still lord of all we suppose that the lower animals are sub- below. The possession of reason in a far ject to a moral law? We at once reply, higher degree, and capable of an almost unthis cannot be, for they do not appear to limited development, raises man infinitely possess any moral sense of good or evil, right above the position occupied by the highest or wrong. They are guided chiefly by their of the inferich creation. To man is also passions, their appetites, and the circum- given speech and language, with all their stances in which they are placed; and of wonderful powers, which enable him to excourse, being unable to distinguish right change thought with his fellows; and with from wrong, i. e., having no moral sense, these and other means, every successive they cannot be responsible or accountable generation of men may surpass their predefor any of their actions.
cessors, and improve on their knowledge. It may be asked, Do we suppose that What, we may here ask, other things being animals will enjoy a future state of exist- equal, would man himself have become, had ence? We again reply, there is no evidence speech and language been withheld from for such a belief. Animals have here ample him? His condition outwardly would not opportunity for the attainment of every en- have differed so much from that of the brute, joyment of which they are capable, and, not while little more than a void would have being accountable creatures, there is no occupied the place of active mind. But, necessity for their existence hereafter. Man further, the possession of a moral nature, alone of all earthly creatures has not here a which subjects him to a moral law, and of sphere sufficiently wide for the development an immortal soul, destined to eternity, of his faculties, and the gratification of the raises the grandeur of man's nature infinitely holiest desires of his nature; he alone pos- above the “brutes that perish.” This it is sesses any aspirations towards immortality, which constitutes the true dignity of man, while future existence is necessary for him and is the glorious distinction between him as an accountable being, that he may receive and all inferior existences. a just reward for his actions, according as In conclusion we may remark, that if they are good or evil. Whatever may be speech had been granted to some of the the mental constitution of animals, it is evi- lower animals, we doubtless should fredent that it is in a great measure dependent quently hear, as did Balaam of old, many a on physical organization; it is nothing patient servant address the rebuke to his superinduced; "it is but a higher form of master, asking a reason for his unreasonable life, and not independent, and it never passes cruelty; and if the discussion of this subject, into anything higher than animal acts and which is confessedly mostly speculative, lead functions. It is of the body_its adjunct, any to treat with greater kindness the infeits instrument, rather than its guide.” rior creation, at least one practical lesson
It may be objected that, by ascribing to will have been learnt, and the object of the animals the possession of reason, even in a writer of this article attained, even though very limited degree, we detract from the he should not succeed in obtaining the dignity of man. This we deny. We only suffrages of the majority of his readers. place some members of the lower creation in
CLEMENT. their proper place. Man's dignity is not
WAS MAHOMET AN IMPOSTOR ?
AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-1. "The appearance," says Hallam,“ of Mo- more important and definite than the subhammed, and the conquests of his disciples, version of the Roman empire in Europe." form an epoch in the history of Asia still This, then, being the case, surely a question
which involves the discussion of the charac | Who would have thought, while gazing upon ter of the prophet of Mecca—the most pro- Mahomet as he lay an infant in Mecca, that minent figure in the picture--can by zio ere his withdrawal from this our earth, he means be devoid of interest.
would found a throne, upon which would sit But, at the outset, we may premise that conqueror after conqueror, and a faith which the opinions we may have formed, with should bear his name, and live even to the respect to the religion of which Mahomet present day? This, although he belonged was the founder, must not necessarily of to the tribe of Koreish, was never anticithemselves compel us to give our vote pated. If any ambitious notions had entered against him, and to brand him an "im- the minds of bis relatives concerning him, postor.” We may be well acquainted with the successive deaths of his father and grandthe doctrines of Islamism, and may know father annihilated them. By these bereavevery little of its originator; we may laugh ments he was not left wholly destitute of at the fables which fourish under its shade, friends, for his uncle took him home, and and yet be unacquainted with his character had him educated. Subsequently to this, who reared it. We are well aware that while yet comparatively young, Mahomet common sense would tell us that the doc- became agent to a wealthy widow, named trines promulgated by any man must be, to Kadijah, whose mercantile affairs he thencesome extent at least, an index of himself; forth managed. As might be expected from bat, we contend, an estimate formed from his energy and intelligence, the commercial such data alone must be very defective; interests of the widow-merchant prospered besides, we know not how any one can say in his hands, and after some time she gave "impostor” or “no impostor without him her hand in marriage. His frequent having made himself somewhat acquainted journeyings, made in the prosecution of his with the life of him upon whom he pro- daily business, threw him among men of nounces judgment. There have been those various religious beliefs, for at that time who have taught truth, yet were they im- there was in Arabia almost every form of postors “wolves in sheep's clothing." religion. Now we can imagine with what There have been others who, amid a cloud eagerness such an one as the youthful of misconceptions on their part, have seized Mahomet would seek to ascertain their upon error, and, with the wild enthusiasm various peculiarities. Losing faith in Meccan of untntored zeal, have thrown it broadcast idolatry, -with whose gross absurdities he around them, while they were no impostors, was no doubt disgusted, he would anxiousbut honest men. Whether Mahomet belonged ly turn to some other system which might to this latter class, or was included in a promise something more satisfying than it third—those who, while they teach error, was in the power of the 360 idols, which surare at the same time impostors—is the rounded the walls of the Kaaba, to confer. question, we apprehend, which the discus- But, unfortunately for Mahomet, the numsion of the present subject in the pages of ber of religious sects at that time in Arabia the Controversialist is designed to settle, or, equalled, or surpassed, their errors.
Besides at least, to elucidate.
the various forms of idolatry (which became, And now, as we gird ourselves for the in- and continued to be, abominations in our vestigation of the matter, let us cast from inquirer's eyes), a corrupt Judaism and a us prejudice, that loose, flowing robe which degenerate Christianity held ground there. trips so many in their race for truth, and let us In neither of them did he see those varied make up our mind, if needs be, to let go as excellencies which their heavenly origin
preconceived notions which may would seem to imply; in both he would as we make for the wisbed-for goal. behold religions which, like the fruit we are We confess the present subject is to us told of that furnishes but ashes to the trapregnant with interest. All will admit that veller, appears fair at a distance, but, when if Mahomet was not a reformer he was at touched, only yields disappointment to the least an innovator, and that, too, on a large ardent seeker. We are inclined to think, scale
, having been the founder of what Mr. with the Rev. Richard Dill, that had pure W. C. Taylor designates “ the most influen- Christianity at this time been brought to tial system ever devised by human reason. Mahomet's notice, he would have gladly
we run burden,