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EXERCISE XVIII.-Insert the right adjectives in the following lines. The dots indicate the number of letters, and the syllables are indicated by hyphens :
this night! the .... sigh Which
zephyrs breathe in evening's ear
world."-Shelley. EXERCISE XIX.-Supply more appropriate adjectives than those in italics in the fol lowing quotation :
“The ground we tread on is as ancient as the creation, though it does not seem so, except when collected into colossal masses, or separated by dreary solitudes from present uses and the purposes of ordinary life. The solitary Helvellyn and the quiet Andes are in thought of the same age with the globe itself, and can only perish with it. The pyramids of Egypt are immense, elevated, antique, everlasting; but Stonehenge, built no doubt in a more recent day, satisfies my capacity for the sense of antiquity; it seems as if as much rain had drizzled on its whitish, wrinkled head, and it had watched out as numerous winter nights; the hand of Time is upon it, and it has sustained the burden of years on its back, a wonder and a weighty riddle, time out of mind, without ascertained -origin or use, defeating fable or conjecture, the credulity of the unlearned or sage men's search."Hazlitt's “ Plain Speaker," vol. ii., Essay vi.
EXERCISE XX.— Insert the adjectives hereunder quoted in their proper places in the following sonnet. The dashes show the places from which they are omitted:
Ancient, Danish, Druid, Enriched, Fatal, Genuine, Giants, Hallowed, Huge, Human, Many, Massy, Mighty, Mystic, Noblest, Renowned, Rude, Savage, Slain, Solemn, Sprinkled, Studious, Unlewn, Vast, Wondrous.
monument of Albion's isle,
fraine of hands the -- - pile
We muse on an-tale"-Warton. EXERCISE XXI.—Construct forty sentences, either logically or grammatically, each containing one of the following adjectives, viz.:
Tender, bright, gentle, dark, changiug, faithful, grand, virtuous, strong, grievous, downy, glossy, courteous, serviceable, angry, delighted, proud, barbed, broad, glad, adorable, fierce, disdainful, gay, erroneous, logical, scriptural, argumentative, puinpous, verbose, puzzling, foolish, innocent, sincere, insolent, dangerous, vicious, potent, sacred, brilliant.
Adjectives are either Proper or Common.
Proper Adjectives are either proper names used as adjectives, or adjectives derived from proper names_e.g., Portugal wines, Portuguese ste lidity.
Common Nouns are either real, idea', verbal, numeral, or pronominal.
Real Adjectives are the names of qualities observable only by the sensesme.go, a long passage.
Ideal Adjectives are the names of qualities existent in, or only perceptible by, the mind -e.g., a logical deduction, a clever article, a detestable scheme.
Verbal Adjectives are the perfect or imperfect participles of verbs used as adjectives e.g., a broken reed, an avenging hand.
Numeral Adjectives are the names of numbers; they are either cardinal or ordinal: cardinal numbers are one, two, three, &c.; ordinal, first, second, third, &c.
Pronominal Adjectives combine the chief qualities of pronouns and adjectives, i. e., they not only represent a name, but, along with that, indicate a quality-.g., James said, “ These are my books,” but I contend that they are mine.
EXERCISE XXII.—In the following extracts underline proper adjectives twice, common adjectives once, or place the figure 2 above those which are proper, and 1 over those which
“Sir Andrew Freeport's notions of trade are noble and generous ; and, as every rich man has usually some sly way of jesting, wbich would make no great figure were he not a great man, he calls the sea a British common."
“To the charms of beauty, and the utmost elegance of external form, Mary, the Scottish Queen, added the most irresistible accomplishments of speech and manners."
“ He staid not for brake, and he stopped not for stone,
He swam the Esk river, where ford there was none;
“Return, Sicilian Muse,
EXERCISE XXIII.- Construct a form like that given below, and arrange the adjectives in the previous exercises into their respective columns.
Adjectives are in general compared, to indicate the possession of a greater or less degree of any quality, &c., in two ways, viz.:
1. Inflectionally: by the addition of r or er to the positive to form the comparative, and st or est to form the superlative-e.g., wide, wider, widest.
2. Adverbially: by placing the word more before the positive, to form the comparative, and most to form the superlativeme.g., noble, more noble, most noble.
The positive indicates the lowest, the comparative a medium, and the superlative the highest degree of any quality, &c.
Adjectives of one syllable or of two syllables, ending with the vowels e or y, are compared inflectionally: all others adverbially.
Adjectives ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant before adding the inflectional syllables—e.g., big, bigger, biggest; hot, hotter, hottest, &c.
Adjectives ending in y, preceded by a consonant or the letter u, change y into i before adding the inflectional syllables-e.g., merry, merrier, merriest, &c.
No adjective requires both the inflectional and adverbial forms of comparison--e.G., "most straitest” is improper.
EXERCISE XXIV.-Proper adjectives do not admit of comparison. Compare inflectionally or adverbially, as may be requisite, the adjectives in the preceding sonnet on 'Stonehenge," Exercise XX.
EXERCISE XXV.- Construct a table like the following, and insert in each of the columns thirty adjectives, properly arranged and compared, as in the examples given.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
By r or er, and st or est, without By adding er and est, doubling change.
the final consonant Pos. Comp. Superl. Pos. Comp. Superl. Gay. Gayer. Gayest. Hot. Hotter. Hottest.
By changing y into i, and
adding er and est. Pos. Comp. Superl.
By placing more and most before them.
IS REASON CONFINED TO MAN?
If a dif
AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-I. IF we have advanced in the direction of the whole fabric of theology and religion the wisdom-enjoined adage,“ know thyself,” | would be affected as subsequent questions, we shall be prepared to explain and illus- should the immortality of the soul of man trate the difference between ourselves and be invalidated. the brute creation-if there be a difference, We purpose offering arguments both on and“ that is the question.” It is a subject à posteriori and à priori grounds in support of momentous interest, for it is connected of the affirmative of the present question. collaterally and subsecutively with the most we are curious to learn what facts our important questions in man's regard. It is opponents will rely upon to establish their undoubtedly to reason that man owes his vast arguments. Will they treat us to choice practical superiority; without it and its ad- extracts from the "thousand and one " coljuncts, the knowledge and experience-stored lections of “amusing and instructive anecmemory and education, he would be viler and dotes of animals," recording wonderful inmore helpless than any of the lower animals. stances of their sagacity, &c.? We will
ence, a discriminated degree exists venture so far to anticipate their case, as to between man and the brute creation—then challenge the production of one authentic the faculty of reason is the most remarkable instance, which may not be accounted for on feature of that difference, and we propose the score either of instinct and its connate showing anon that man's capacity for im- science, a physical appreciation of causes mortality is due to its action. It may be well and effects, or an education proceeding upon in this place to particularize the important these faculties, and developing them in bearings of the present question. If man certain directions, the result either of cir. is only a superior kind of animal, differing cumstances or of the direct agency of man; merely in continuous degrees-degrees of but none of these will argue reason, by which more and less from the lower animals (which term we understand broadly the intellectual opinion is implied in the negation of the faculty as exemplified in man, and in man present question)—then the notion of his alone. Perhaps our opponents will found immortality is much prejudiced. An almost their case upon the fact that man exhibits universal intuition prompts mankind to several instincts and feelings in common reject the idea that creatures whom he with the lower animals! but, granting the slays without compunction for his food, his fact, that will not prejudice the argument convenience, or his pleasure, are beings of a we mean to adduce, that man possesses life like destiny with himself; or, rather, the in a superior and discriminated degree, and intuitional conviction of their lower and that reason is one of the legitimate issues of more contracted destiny disabuses him of that life. any compunction in the matter. But if It belongs to one branch of our argument there is no discriminated degree between to show that the above indicated capabilities men and brutes, then the rule which pro- in brutes are not of an intellectual quality. nounces immortality for the one and not for This may be best done by comparing the the other must be felt to be arbitrary, and respective attributes, and their legitimate thus the matter of man's immortality is results in men and brutes. In men we prejudiced; for though some would maintain observe three distinguishing characteristics, the immortality of brutes, rather than pre- namely, conscience, character, and progresjudice that of man, still this must be seen siveness. Now, reason is a primary cause to be “
a crutch," of which, however, we of each. Conscience may be defined as an should be sorry to deprive any one who could interior feeling of pleasure and pain, occanot walk in the belief of his immortality sioned by the acting out or acting against without it. It is needless to point out how the knowledge of goodness and truth as
appreciated by reason. Character, as the and the unprogressiveness of brutes conresult of free will, modified and acted out by stitutes a very marked distinction between reason. Progressiveness, as the result of them. We can compare notes with natuaspiration, conducted to its end by know- ralists who made their observations centuries ledge, experience, and judgment—the pre- ago in regard to the most sagacious of their rogative of reason. But who will show us kind—the ant, the bee, and the beaver; the either conscience, character, or progression result of the comparison is, that we find in brutes? The pervading presence of such that they exhibit precisely the same degree faculties as instinct and its connate science of ingenuity and perfection then as now, nor obviates the notion of anything like con- can we detect any progress whatever. But science or character attaching to them. how different is the case with man! We “ Instinct is a natural impulse to certain can trace him in the pages of history, or actions, which animals perform without deli- behold him as exemplified in existing comberation, and without having any end in munities, in all states and stages of progress view, and without knowing why they do it. -in states of barbarism, where the distincThat the spontaneity of instinct operates tion between him and the brute creation is unconsciously is fully established by obser- scarcely appreciable, and in states of civilvation. A calf butts with its head before ization, where he exhibits numerous phases its horns are grown; and the hen broods of physical, social, and moral excellency. over the eggs of another species, or even It is to be noted that this progression is simulated eggs, as patiently as over its not uniformly of a positive kind, but often own. A faculty of free determination is of a negative or retrograde character; thas, essential to, and is implied in, a correct pre- / while our own and other countries of Europe dication of conscience and character; but afford instances of positive progression from instinct has a fixed determination, so that barbarism to the higher degrees of civilizagood and evil, as moralities, and the guages tion, many of the countries of Asia furnish alike of conscience and character, cannot be examples of a negative character, having properly ascribed to its results; nor can we sunk from states of comparatively high appropriately refer the arts displayed by civilization to semi-barbarism. beasts to an intellectual standard. The
It may be safely assumed that these connate science adjoined to their instinct diverse kinds of progression among men are “differs from intellect by the unerring cer- due to the relations they sustain to the tainty of the means it employs, the uni- standard of right reason: in adhering pracformity of its results, and the perfection of tically to this they have progression, and in its works prior to, and independent of, all diverging from it they engender retrogression. instruction and experience; and lastly, by the It is equally safe to assume that the unpropursuit of nothing beyond what directly gressive nature of the lower orders of creaconduces either to the continuation of the tion is due, firstly, to the absence of aspiraindividual, or to the propagation of the kind. tion as an end, which can only exist as an But the arts of rational creatures proceed attribute of free will, the exclusive faculty slowly, while the means they employ are of man; and, secondly, to the absence of always various, and seldom the best.” + reason as the means thereto. Beasts have Thus, while we admire the skill, ingenuity, been called "perfections in their degree," and and perfection displayed by the lower order perhaps it is conclusive against the notion of existences, it is with very different feel of their possessing reason that they do not ing that we view the attainments of man- require it, whereas it is all in all to man. kind: to the latter we ascribe a character without its qualifying, conforming, and infor mental acquirement, energy, and supe- forming powers, his other faculties would be riority, and their legitimate praise, but the non-effective of good results, and, indeed, praise of the former is appropriately ascribed promotive of his degradation and destructo nature and to " nature's God."
tion. Thus, his faculty of free determination, The fact of the progressiveness of man which contrasts so strongly with the instinct
implanted in brutes, would, without reason *“National Cyclopædia," art. “Instinct.".
as an ally, inevitably lead to these results. The faculty of reason, then, being so