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smallness begin? The surface of Mars is from the effects of taking a very instructive, only one-fourth that of the earth. More- but not very agreeable, journey. over, if you allow all the planetoids to be Moreover, besides this want of sufficient uninhabited, those planets which you acknow- atmosphere, and this inequality of temperaledge to be probably uninhabited far outnum- ture, we have to consider the gravity of the ber those with regard to which even the most planets. One instance must suffice: Jupiter, resolute pluralist holds to be inhabited. The whose bulk is 1331 times greater than the majority swells every year; the planetoids earth's, is in density only a quarter that of are now thirty. The fact of a planet being the latter. Being also five times the disinhabited, then, is, at any rate, rather the tance that we are from the sun, the idea of exception than the rule, and therefore must persons living there of the same race as ourbe proved, in each case, by special evidence. selves is most preposterous. With these Of such evidence, I know not a trace!” differences between ourselves and Jupiter,

From the planetoids, therefore, we go to the what force can be attributed to their resemmoon. Now, what says Dr. Lardner about her? blances? This is a direct question, and we After telling us that it is “as exempt from expect a direct answer; and till that is given, an atmosphere (which, be it remembered, is and till the principle which it contains is an imperative condition of life) as the utterly satisfactorily disposed of, our opponents may exhausted receiver of a good air-pump,” he argue for ever in vain. adds, “In fine, the entire geographical char- Sir D. Brewster gives his reply to this acter of the moon, thus ascertained by long- objection in a way remarkably characteristic continued and exact telescopic surveys, leads of the cause for which he pleads. He evades to the conclusion, that no analogy exists be- it by telling us that the immense size of tween it and the earth which could confer Jupiter “is alone a proof that it must have any probability on the conjecture that it been made for some grand and useful pur. fulfils the same purposes in the economy of pose.” Who ever denied this? Surely God the universe; and we must infer, that what has that object in view in every action which ever be its uses in the solar system, or in the he performs. What this object is in the general purposes of creation, it is not a world present case, we cannot, with certainty, coninhabited by organized races such as those jecture. A thousand things may be supto which the earth is appropriated.”* posed, and not one of them true. We be

Thus, finding that the moon is not pos- lieve, as we have before said, that they will sessed of air sufficiently abundant to permit be employed for man's future benefit, a of our gasping, much less of our breathing, supposition which Dr. Brewster himself parwe think it high time to decamp, and hurry tially approves. away to the sun. But unfortunately, long From Jupiter we proceed to the fixed before we get there, we are singed and stars. On these Sir D. Brewster remarks, scorched by its heat, f and obliged to with that if they are suns they must be inhabited, draw to the cooler regions of Neptune, who for “wherever there is a sun there must be is thirty times further off from the sun than a planetary system, and wherever there the earth. Nevertheless, here again we meet is a planetary system there must be with insurmountable obstacles; for our steeds life and intelligence." The question, then, soon begin to stiffen with cold, and our hands which we have to consider is, whether the become so numbed that we can scarcely hold fixed stars are suns. So little evidence is the reins. We are, therefore, obliged to there for either the affirmative or negative hasten back to the only world suited to our of this point, that it is almost foolish to atnature, viz., our earth, and there recover tempt an answer. Many things have to

be proved before we can say that they are. • “ Museum," &c., iii. 48.

Suppositions must be made without any Any + It is regarded by Dr. Lardner, “as a vast foundation in fact, and even if we granted globular furnace, the heat emitted from each square foot of which is seven times greater than the heat their right to be called suns, we should, on

their right to be called suns, we should, on issuing from a square foot of the fiercest blast fur account of the absence of any evidence in pace" "Museum," &c. p. 112]. We hope our favour of such a right, attach no practical opponents will pass a pleasant winter there! "I Neptune is 900 times colder than our temper. Importan

importance to the deductions which might ature!

be made from them. Our opponents have

to prove that they are of the same density, 1 out the vast circles of the heavens, touching composed of the same materials, have the at all the principal stations, in a vain search same continued brightness as our sun, that after some of our fellow-creatures. Not one planets actually do revolve round them, and was to be seen throughout the mighty cirother such improbabilities.

cumference, and all those globes that appear Thus, then, the fixed stars supply no to us so beautiful and bright, are but one argument against us, but the nebulæ may. dreary solitude-one mighty desert! Oh! Not only, however, must the same things be what a great and majestic being must he be proved of these as were required to be shown for whom all this was created? With an in the case of the stars, but also the fact intellect capable of examining the most disthat they are stars. Modern discoveries all tant point in the sky, and of bringing to tend to show that they are not, but that they light the very bowels of the earth; with are “ vast masses of incoherent or gaseous physical propensities to enjoy all the beauties matter, of immense tensity, diffused in forms of nature, and the loveliness of her ornamore or less irregular, but all of them desti- ments; and, above all, with moral feelings tute of any regular system of solid moving capable of sympathizing with his Maker and bodies; and therefore the improbability of God: man is permitted to possess all these their being inhabited appears to amount to enjoyments, and alone is blessed with the the highest point that can be imagined.* benefits which they produce. May we realize In this manner we have ranged through this fact more and more, and thus advance in

- the knowledge and love of our Creator! + “Plurality of Worlds," pp. 235, 236.

H. D. L.

History.
HAS MONACHISM BEEN BENEFICIAL TO EUROPEAN SOCIETY ?

NEGATIVE ARTICLE.-I. The original principles of Monachism dif- of general demoralisation, and public and fered in every essential particular from the private misery, when abject ignorance and practice which, in after ages, so disfigured credulity reigned supreme. But to show the institution, and we should certainly the ills with which mankind has been burdeeply err, were we to attribute to the dened by Monachism, it may be well to give founders of the system those sad evils which a slight sketch of the rise and progress of existed and were the natural results of its the institution. The origin of the monastic action wherever it extended its baneful orders appears pretty clearly ascertained to influence. The changes, which by degrees have been the necessity which existed, in the brought the establishment to its fearfully first ages of the Gospel, for professed Chrismischievous ascendency, were almost imper- tians to live apart in deserts and unfrequented ceptible. The change from being mere places, being driven there by persecution: secluded laymen to becoming members of the and this being the lot of some very extraorclergy, and the throwing off the dominion of dinary persons, the example of these was the bishops, to acknowledge subjection only followed, even after the primary cause for to the despotism of the Pope, were early steps retirement had ceased. These scattered to the universal dominion, which the monks hermits, St. Anthony, towards the end of the sought afterwards to obtain over the deluded fourth century, gathered into a body, and people; and having, through the medium formed of them a society living together; he of religious superstition, obtained a complete also gave them laws for the regulation of sway over the minds of men, who appear to their conduct. These institutions soon have been destitute of moral principles to spread throughout the East and Europe, and restrain the course of their passions, we find were filled with men, who abandoned all their culminating point to be in a period human advantages to live in a state of suffering and want, and to obtain a more close power, and had succeeded, in union with the communion with God. Their fame for sanc- Romish Church, in their efforts to plunge tity was so great, that in the fifth century mankind to the lowest depth of superstition the members of the order were admitted into and degeneracy; and from the writings of the ranks of the clergy, and the passion Protestants of the fifteenth and sixteenth amongst private individuals for erecting and centuries we gather, that as a body, they were endowing monasteries exceeded all bounds. indolent, illiterate, profligate, and vicioas But soon this primitive state of affairs altered. epicures, whose only views in life were conThe first who lived in these retreats secluded fined to opulence, idleness, and pleasure. themselves for the sole object of unrestrained | The Reformation, which was caused in a devotion to religion : but now they find great measure by their vices, at this time themselves endowed with considerable influ- checked in some degree their excesses, and ence in the Christian community, the love of rendered them, externally at least, more cauworldly good enters their hearts, and rapidly tious and circumspect. Having seen the they fall back from their high reputation. origin, and glanced at the progress of the Their discipline now became lax, and the monastic orders, let us now inquire monks were to be found tainted with all the I. What benefits bave accrued to mankind vices of the day. The monastic orders, when from the system? and admitted into the clerical body, were of I II. What disadvantages have ensued ? course under the jurisdiction of the bishops; I. At their establishment, these orders of but in the seventh century they were ex- men were wholly and sincerely devoted to empted, and in return they used all their religion, and were most rigorous in the disefforts to advance the power and dignity of cipline of their conduct. Living thus, althe Church of Rome. Avarice and ambition though secluded from the world, their austere took the place of those higher motives, which piety, and total disinterestedness in quitting had in former days enlisted the sympathies all the pleasures of society could not fail to of the votaries, and the monks became the impress on their contemporaries a high sense tools of the most extensive schemes of pon- of the beauty and holiness of religion; and tifical policy. The holiest contemplations we cannot hesitate to believe, that they were were interrupted by the voice of ambition the means of alleviating much human misery: inviting the recluse to dignity and power, their gates also were thrown open to those and the seeils of avarice nourished by the who, in days of universal desolation, posprospect of rich preferments. From time to sessed no other refuge. As time wore on, time different orders of monks had been es- the essential characteristics of their order tablished, each claiming to possess greater changed: learning in great measure usurped sanctity than any preceding, and each in the place of religion, and the monasteries their turn becoming as corrupt as their pre- became the great receptacles for literature decessors. Between these orders the greatest and science: in fact, the monastic institutions jealousies and hatreds existed: the various seemed as if framed for the special purpose of orders being combined only in the one ohjeet transmitting the remains of ancient literature, of fostering superstition, and keeping man sacred and profane, through a period in which, kind in subjection. To carry out their pur- were it not for this provision, they must have pose, they did not scruple to affirm, that it perished. The diversity of rules and pracwas not only lawful, but praise worthy, to tice ainongst the different orders was great; deceive, and to use the expedient of a lie in yet, in nearly all cases, wherever there was order to advance the cause of piety and truth; a monastery, there also was a manufacture of and hence the pious frauds with which the books. The only method by which works Church of Rome has been so often reproached. could be multiplied and preserved, was (anteIn the eighth century the discipline was still rior to the invention of printing) by manufurther relaxed, and could not again be re- script, and the transcribing of such was & stored. Notwithstanding this, the monastic favourite occupation of the monks; to them life was held in the highest esteem, and the solely are we indebted for the remains of monks were continually called to the courts classic literature handed down to our times. of the monarchs of Europe to fill civil offices. In nearly all monasteries there was preThey proceeded, accumulating riches and served a chronicle of current events, and

most scrupulously exact were some of these that such were too often the favourite conold writers. But in the majority of cases, templations of the monks? the events chronicled were those most likely To proceed. The immediate cause of reto strike the vulgar mind, and to add to the tirement of those living under the monastic then prevailing and fast increasing super- system (in its early days) was religious stition. It is also fair to give them credit for devotion; but that religion, in which they the hospitality which they afforded to way- sought to be partakers, teaches charity in its farers; and for the fertilization and im- most extended sense. Now, in what manner, provement of the land surrounding their I ask, do they exhibit charity, who abandon monasteries; in selecting sites for which their fellow-creatures, and neglect the duties they never failed to have regard to the qua- owing from man to man, for a life of selfish lity of the soil.-Thus short is the catalogue idleness, and fanaticism? In what way do of benefits: would that the list of evils which they turn to profitable use the talents enhave ensued was of no greater length! trusted to their care, to be exerted for the

II. The disadvantages which have been mutual benefit of theinselves and their neighcaused by Monachism may be classed under bours? If they feel they are endowed with two heads, viz.—the disadvantages arising virtue in a high degree, why hide it as a and inseparable from the monastic system, candle under a bushel? Do they retire for even as first established; and the disad- | the purpose of instructing mankind? Then, vantages arising from the abuses which crept I say, their judgment has misled them in into that system.

the choice of the means to be adopted. To Assuming then, for argument's sake, that know mankind, which is necessary before the practice of the system had been in ac attempting to teach, they must live with cordance with its proposed principles, let us them-to learn that humanity is weak--to inquire, Have those principles a right founda- understand how to convey their lessons withtion? Total retirement from the world, unless out exasperating those whom they attempt to in a very few cases where the spirit has instruct—and to gain in the daily exercise of been completely broken by misfortune, is not unselfishness those charitable feelings without productive of good to the individual retiring: which all they can do is as naught. Again, to for, in solitude, he is left entirely to the comprehend any matter rightly, and to form workings of his own imagination, not having a proper judgment of its merits, it is necesthe varied objects, presenting themselves in sary to regard it in more than one light. I the every day life in the world, to occupy ask, How can they, who hold no communicahis attention. So well were the original tion with the world, be acquainted with founders of the monastic orders aware of more than their own particular views on the this, that they strictly enjoined manual | subject? In retirement, they become bigoted labour on their followers, seeing well, that in their opinions; and having no opportunity if the tendency of the man be to vice and of encountering the notions of others, are wickedness, in unemployed solitude would without the means of forwarding the dishis passions be developed in their most hide- covery of truth, or of exposing the fallacies ous form, the mind having time to brood of error. over the suggestions of an idle imagination. This part of the subject, I grant, is open " During the quietude of a sequestered life,” to much discussion and doubt, like all theory. says Zimmerman, "imagination usurps the Let us, therefore, proceed to the consideráthrone of reason, and all the feeble faculties tion of the actual ills which have resulted to of the mind obey her dictates, until her voice mankind from Monachism. True religion becomes despotic.” Again he says, “ If the and avarice are two extremes of an imagimind, as in the solitude of monastic seclusion, nary scale of virtue and vice; but learning fixes its attention on ascetic subjects, and is not so utterly at variance with either as fires the fancy with unnatural legends, the the two former are with each other. This soul, instead of sinking to divine repose, has been strikingly exemplified in the hisfeels a morbid melancholy and discontented tory of monasticism. Learning paved the torpor, which extinguishes all rational re- way to worldly ambition, and ambition is flection, and engenders the most fantastic only one remove from avarice. Avarice has visions.” And have we not reason to believe, been at once the mainspring and the destroyer of the institution. To this hideous power of this institution, the kingdom of sin it chiefly owed its fall. Out of the very Spain, and the republic of Venice, sank to bosom of that order which had been most rise no more. It is to St. Dominic the whole instrumental in corrupting the very corrup- credit of the invention of this vile tribunal tions of religion, the immortal Saxon Re- | is due. I may be spared the enumeration former Luther, guided by the view of this of the crimes, but too well attested, which vile sin in its full enormity, rose, and with were committed under its authority, and proone blow demolished the growth of centuries. ceed to enquire to whom is mankind indebted The history of the Reformation is too well for the incalculable misfortunes incurred in known, I hope, to every Englishman to need the Crusades. To the Papacy, perhaps it detail; neither is it necessary, after even the will be replied. But what was the agency slight sketch I have given of the history of which kindled the flame? Is Peter the the monastic institution, to give a minute Hermit forgotten? And when, in the first and particular account of the enormities crusade, nearly 1,300,000 lives had been perpetrated by its members. Suffice to name sacrificed, was it not the monk Bernard, who two or three of them; and first that horrible rose, declaring himself inspired by heaven, invention, that embodiment of all possible and by his eloquence sent forth the whole conceptions of persecution—the bare recol flower and vigour of Christendom on that lection of which suffices to raise in our hearts fatal expedition? a perhaps too great detestation for its officers Other inventions, to feed the avarice and --the willing and zealous Dominicans; need | rapacity of the monks, were the doctrines of I say, that it is the Inquisition to which I purgatory, penance, and indulgences. The refer. Was it in accordance with the prin mode in which these were used as instruciples of the monks that these men, avowedly ments of extortion is too well known to need pious, be it remembered, should not scruple comment. to use every possible torture, mental and In conclusion, then, after the hasty glance corporal, to extract from unfortunate man- I have taken at the notorious impiety, vicious kind, who had unsuspiciously fostered the morals, the open jealousy and hatred existing viper in its bosom, the vast treasures so between the different orders, than which in quickly amassed by the Inquisition? No office itself hardly anything could be more misin the highest realm was too lofty to escape chievous in its moral effects on the minds of its ambition, no creature so humble as to be inankind, the perversion of truth and fostering beneath the influence of its grasping avarice. of error, the spreading of superstition, and Did the Inquisition favour learning? We depressing their fellow-creatures to the most find learned men-Sanchez, who had the abject subserviency to their avaricious designs, reputation of being the first scholar of his —my only astonishment is that two opinions age; Luis de Leon, an eloquent preacher; can exist on the question under discussion; Mariana, the great historian, summoned to and do not hesitate to declare my firm conits bar, and forced to submit to its authority. viction, that of all institutions, of which we Sismondi, in his “Histoire des François," have any knowledge, Monachism has been in says, in speaking of the Inquisition,—"By its effects the most pernicious to the eternal its influence, the exercise of intellect was as well as temporal welfare of mankind. forbidden to every one who would have de

VINCAT VERITAS. voted it to religion.” Under the blighting |

Jolitics.
IS THE BALLOT MORE DESIRABLE THAN OPEN VOTING ?

AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.—I. The question of ballot or no ballot is one derives all its importance from the results simply of convenience and of detail, which that are bound up with it. These results

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